A Brief Biography of Uthman ibn Affan

 

AMEER-UL-MU’MINEEN SAYYIDUNA UTHMAN RADHIYALLAHU ANHU IBN AFFAN

Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu Ibn Affan

Many prophets blessed this world with their magnificent presence and whilst
residing in this world with the mission of spreading the light of guidance, they were
also blessed with the gift of children.

The fortunate people who were placed in the wedlock of these children were undoubtedly esteemed and revered personalities as they had become the husbands or wives of a prophet’s child.

In this regard, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu Al-Ghani has a unique individuality and specialty due to the fact that he is the only human being to have ever been fortunate enough to have
married two daughters of a prophet.

Furthermore, the Prophet of whom Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu became the son-in-law of two times, was the leader of all prophets and the master of them all, the final Messenger of Allah, Muhammad Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam.

It is narrated by Sayyiduna Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu) he heard the Messenger of Allah stating
to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu that if he had 40 daughters, he would have given them all in
the hand of Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu after the other until eventually, no daughter would remain
unmarried. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 104)

Imam Al-Bayhaqi ( رحمة الله عليه ) has narrated in his Sunan that Abdullah Ju’fi ( رحمة الله عليه ) states that he
was questioned by his maternal uncle, Hussain Ju’fi about whether he was aware of
the reason for Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu being given the appellation, ‘Dhun-Noorain‘ (the possessor of two lights). Abdullah replied that he was not aware. Hussain Ju’fi (Rahiullah)
explained to his nephew that no person since the time of Sayyiduna Adam had
been blessed with the fortune of marrying two daughters of a prophet apart from
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and obviously was not possible for anyone else to be blessed
with this fortune in the future.

The first marriage of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu took place with Sayyidah Ruqayyah Dengan who fell ill at the time when the battle of Al-Badr occurred.

With the permission of Allah’s Messenger, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
remained in Al-Madinah in order to nurse his wife. Although Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
was unable to participate in the battle, the Prophet Muhen gave him a share from the
war booty thus he is counted to be amongst those who were part of the Badr victors.
When Sayyiduna Zaid Ibn Al-Harithah arrived in the city of Madinah with the good
news of victory in Al-Badr, Sayyidah Ruqayyah’s burial was taking place.

Upon the death of Sayyidah Ruqayyah, the Holy Prophet content placed his other
daughter, Sayyidah Umm Kulthum deals, in the wedlock of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu.
Sadly, Sayyidah Umm Kulthum also passed away in the ninth year after the
migration of the Holy Prophet Muhtes to Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah.
Sayyiduna Othm thus became “Dhun-Noorain.’ With Sayyidah Ruqayyah,
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu had one child named Abdullah who passed away after his
mother at the age of 6. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu had no children with Sayyidah Umm
Kulthum here.

His Name and Lineage

His name was ‘Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu,’ his Kunniyyah was ‘Abu Amr’ and his Laqab (appellation)
was ‘Dhun-Noorain.’ He was Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu son of Affan who was the son of Abul-Aas
who was the son of Ommayyah who was the son of Abd Shams who was the son of
Abd Manaaf. His lineage meets with the blessed lineage of the Messenger of Allah
after five generations. The maternal grandmother of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was Umm
Hakeem who was the daughter of Sayyiduna Abdul Muttalib and the twin sister of
Sayyiduna Abdullah – the father of the beloved Messenger of Allah Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s mother was the first cousin of the Prophet Hotels Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was
born 6 years after the ‘Aam-ul-Feel’ (The Year of the Elephant)

His Acceptance of Islam and the Woes that Ensued

Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu is from those people who were invited to the religion of Islam
by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq. He is described as “Qadeem-ul-Islam?
meaning that he had accepted Islam during the early years of Islamic propagation.
Ibn Ishaaq states that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu accepted Islam after Sayyiduna Abu Bakr,
Sayyiduna Ali and Sayyiduna Zaid Ibn Al-Harithah.

Ibn Sa’d narrate from Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim that when Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
accepted Islam it infuriated his entire family. His paternal uncle Hakam Ibn Abil-
“Aas entangled Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu with a rope and said to him; “You have forsaken
the religion of your forefathers and embraced another religion. Until you do not
abandon this new religion I will not free you.” Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu replied,

«والله لا أدعه ابدا ولا أفارقه»

“By Allah, I can never abandon this religion ever and nor can I be separated from
it.”

Furthermore, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu informed his uncle that it was possible for him
to separate the body of Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu into small chunks but it would never be possible
for Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu to forsake the religion of Islam. When Hakam Ibn Abil-“Aas
saw the fortitude of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu, he immediately freed him.

Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s physical features

Ibn Asaakir states that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was a beautiful man whose height
was average. The color of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s skin was white with some redness
present. He had spots on his face resulting from an illness that was similar to chickenpox. The bones of his body were broad and his shoulders were wide. His
shins were strong and his hands were big and there was a lot of hair on his hands.
His beard was very thick and his teeth were beautiful as they were coated with
golden thread. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu used to die his hair yellowish.

Ibn Asaakir narrates from Abdullah Ibn Hazm Al-Maazani that Abdullah Ibn Hazm
stated that he had never seen anyone from amongst the men or the women more
beautiful than Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu –

(ما رأيت قط ذكرا ولا انثى أحسن وجها منه)

(Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)

 

Ibn Asaakir narrates from Osama Ibn Zaid that the Messenger of Allah
once sent him with a bowl in which there was meat to give to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu.
Sayyiduna Osama states that when he entered the house, he saw Sayyidah Ruqayyah
seated whilst Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was present. Sayyiduna Osama was looking
towards Sayyidah Ruqayyah for one minute whilst he looked towards Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu for another (out of amazement.) Sayyiduna Osama then returned to the
blessed gathering of the beloved of Allah where the Messenger asked him, “Did
you enter the house?” Sayyiduna Osama replied that he had indeed entered the
house. The master of all creation asked Sayyiduna Osama, “Have you seen
beautiful couple than this couple?” Sayyiduna Osama states that he replied, “No, I
have never seen a more beautiful couple than them.” (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)

This event occurred before the Ayah of hijab was revealed in which women are ordered
to conceal their beauty from men who are not close relatives.

Sayyidah A’ishah states that upon the marriage of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum
with Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu, the Messenger of Allah said to Sayyidah Umm
Kulthum, “Your husband, Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu Al-Ghani is similar in complexion to your
forefather, Sayyiduna Ibrahim, and your father, Muhammad (peace and blessings
of Allah be upon him).” (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)

Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and the Qur’anic verses

Qur’anic verses. (Ayaat) were revealed in regards to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. The battle
of Tabuk took place at a time when there was a famine in Madinah and there was
widespread poverty. The people were eating the branches of the trees in order
to survive. The warriors of this battle are known as Jaysh Usrah’ – the army of
distress.

In At-Tirmidhi it is narrated by Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Khabbaab who
states that he was present when the Messenger of Allah was encouraging the people
to assist the Jaysh Usrah. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu bin, upon hearing the influential and
powerful words of the Prophet, arose and announced that he would give one
hundred camels along with goods and materials in the way of Allah. The Messenger
of Allah continued to encourage the companions to help the army and brought
their attention towards the need for goods and materials etc. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
once again arose and announced that
would give two hundred camels along with
goods and materials in the way of the Lord. The Prophet and thereafter continued to
stress the need for effective equipment and the need for availability of the equipment.
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu arose and announced that he would give three hundred camels
in the way of the Lord along with materials and goods. The narrator (Sayyiduna
Abdul Rahman Bin Khabbaab) states that he saw that the Messenger of Allah, when
descending from the pulpit was saying twice,

“ما على عثمان ما عمل بعد هذه ما على عثمان ما عمل بعد هذه”

i.e. Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu will not be affected by the deeds he shall commit after this deed.

The meaning here was that even if Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu did not perform voluntary prayers
in the future, this deed was enough to raise his exalted status. Also, the acceptance of
this deed freed Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu from the fear of anguish in terms of the future. (Mishkaah-
tul-Masaabeeh Page 561)

It is stated in At-Tafseer al-Khaazin and At-Tafseer Ma’alim-ut-Tanzeel that
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu had given one thousand camels along with goods and materials
at the time of his announcement.

Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Samrah states that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu had placed
one thousand Dinars in his sleeve in order to give it to the Jaysh Usrah. Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu placed these Dinars on the blessed lap of the Messenger who, whilst
rotating these Dinars around, stated twice,

«ما ضر عثمان ما عمل بعد اليوم مرتين»

– “Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu will not be caused anguish after what he has done today.”

 

The meaning here was that if Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu committed a mistake in the future, his action of
that day would nullify that mistake. (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 561)

It is stated in Tafseer Al-Khaazin and Ma’alim-ut-Tanzeel that Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu gave one thousand camels and one thousand Dinars to the Jaysh Usrah
whilst Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Awf gave four thousand Dirham to the
Messenger of Allah for the Jaysh Usrah. The following Ayah was then revealed
about both of these companions;

“الذين ينفقون أموالهم في سبيل الله ثم لا يتبعون ما انفقوا منا ولا أذى لهم أجرهم عند ربهم ولا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون”

‘Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah then after spending neither
boast of favor conferred nor injure, their reward is with their Lord, and they
shall have no fear nor any grief.’ (Al-Qur’an Surah 2:262)

Sadr-ul-Afaadhil, Maulana Muhammad Na’eem-ud-Deen Al-Moradabadi
states in his exegesis, Tafseer Khazaa’in-ul-Irfaan that the aforementioned Ayah
was revealed in regards to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu Al-Ghani and Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Awf.

It is narrated by Sahl Ibn Sa’d like that the Messenger of Allah was one day
accompanied by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, Sayyiduna Omar, and Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu on
the mountain of Uhud. The mountain suddenly began to shake. The Messenger of
Allah said to the mountain,

«اثبت احد ما عليك الا نبي او صديق او شهیدان»
-“Stabilise o Uhud, there is only upon you one prophet, one Siddeeq (most truthful)
and two martyrs.” (Tafseer Ma’alim-ut-Tanzeel Volume 6 Page 216)

It is established from this Hadeeth that the Messenger of Allah had the ability to command the
mountains and he had been bestowed knowledge of the unseen by his Lord as he

was aware of Sayyiduna Omar and Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu being martyrs many years
prior to their assassinations. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was aware that the entire structure
of the universe could alter but the promise of Allah’s Messenger would definitely
be accomplished. This is why Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was waiting in anticipation of
his martyrdom. An Ayah was revealed about Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and the other
companions who were impatiently awaiting their martyrdom like brides and grooms
who impatiently await the arrival of their wedding day.

This ayah is,
Then there are some of them who have fulfilled their vow and some who are
still waiting’ (Al-Qur’an Surah 33:23)

In this Ayah, Allah the Almighty expresses the fact that amongst the Muslims
there were those who had accomplished their ultimate desire (for martyrdom) such
as Sayyiduna Hamzah and Sayyiduna Mus’ab whilst there were also those
amongst them who were still in anticipation of martyrdom such as Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu tand Sayyiduna Talhah.

Sayyiduna Ismail Al-Haqqi states that a hypocrite resided in Al-Madinah Al
Munawwarah whose tree was stooping over his neighbor’s house who was an
Ansaari. The fruits from the hypocrite’s trees would fall into the garden of the
Ansaari. The Ansaari related this situation to the Messenger of Allah Until
this moment in time, the hypocrisy of the hypocrite was not manifest. The Prophet
said to the hypocrite that he should sell the tree to the Ansaari and he would be given
a tree in paradise as result. The hypocrite refused to give the tree to the Ansaari.

When Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was informed of the events, he bought the tree from
the hypocrite in return for an entire garden and gave the tree to the Ansaari. In
condemnation of the hypocrite and praise of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu, an Ayah was
revealed in which Allah stated,

Soon he who fears will be admonished and the evil fated will be away from it
– he who will enter the greatest fire.’ (Al-Qur’an Surah 87:10-12)

The one who has been described as fearful in the Ayah is Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu whilst
the misfortunate one described in this Ayah is the hypocrite who owned the tree
(Tafseer Rooh-ul-Bayaan Volume 10 Page 408)

Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and the Ahaadeeth

Many Ahaadeeth have been narrated in which Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu is praised. It is
narrated in At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah by Sayyiduna Murrah Ibn Ka’b that the
Messenger of Allah was once discussing the strife (fitnah) that would occur
in the future whilst a man covering his head with a cloth was passing by. The
Messenger of Allah pointed towards him and said that this man would be on the
correct path during those days.

Sayyiduna Murrah states that upon hearing the words of Allah’s beloved, he arose
and went towards the man regarding whom the best of creation had said those
beautiful words. Sayyiduna Murrah saw that the man was Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. He
asked the Prophet”1s this man going to be on the correct path during the times
of tribulation?” The Messenger replied,” Yes, this is that man.”

It is also narrated in At-Tirmidhi by Sayyiduna Ibn Omar that the Messenger
of Allah, whilst pointing towards Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu, said, “During the time of
tribulation this man will be wrongfully killed.”

It is narrated by Sayyiduna Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari in a Hadeeth mentioned by both
Al-Bukhari and Muslim that he was once with the Messenger of Allah in one of
the gardens of Madinah when a man arrived asking for the gate to be opened. The
master of creation said, “———” i.e. open the gate for him and give
him the glad-tidings of paradise. Sayyiduna Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari states that he
opened the gate and saw Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq and as commanded by
Allah’s Messenger, Sayyiduna Abu Musa gave Sayyiduna Abu Bakr glad-tidings o
Al-Jannah. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr thanked Allah and praised Him upon hearing this.

Thereafter a second man arrived. The Prophet said, ———” i.e.
open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings of paradise. Upon opening the
0ate, Sayyiduna Abu Musa saw that the person at the door was Sayyiduna Omar.
Sayyiduna Omar was also given the glad-tidings of Jannah upon which he thanked
his Lord and praised Him. A third person arrived and the Messenger said,
——— i.e. open the gate for him and give him glad-tidings of paradise  as a result of the calamities that he shall be afflicted with.” The narrator, Sayyiduna Abu Musa opened the gate and saw Sayyiduna Othmun
to whom Sayyiduna Abu Musa mentioned the words of Allah’s beloved
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu praised Almighty Allah, thanked Him, and said, “——-” –
“Allah is sought help from” which he said in regards to the calamities that would
be afflicted upon him.

It is narrated in Muslim by Sayyidah A’ishah that the Messenger of Allah was
once lying down in his blessed household when the cloth over his blessed thigh
or shin (the narrator is not sure which) was slightly pushed aside. Sayyiduna Abu
Bakr arrived and sought permission to enter. The Messenger of Allah
granted permission but remained to lie down with the cloth still pushed aside a little
amount. Sayyiduna Omar then arrived and was also granted permission to enter.
With Sayyiduna Omar also, the Messenger of Allah remained in the same
position with the cloth over his thigh or shin slightly removed. When Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu arrived, Allah’s beloved arose and sat down straightening his
clothes, and thereafter, he granted permission to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu to enter.
Sayyidah A’ishah states that after everyone departed, she asked the Messenger
of Allah, “O Messenger of Allah, what is the reason that when my father (As-
Iddeeq-ul-Akbar) arrived, you remained lying down just as you previously had
done. Thereafter, Sayyiduna Omar arrived but you did not move. When Sayyiduna
man arrived, you immediately sat up and straightened your blessed clothes.”

The Prophet replied,

Should I not be shy in front of a man in front of whom the angels are shy?”

It is narrated in At-Tirmidhi by Sayyiduna Anas e that when the Messenger of
Allah ordered everyone to pledge the allegiance of Ar-Ridwaan in Hudaibiyyah
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was in Makkah as a representative of Allah’s Messenger
The companions all pledged allegiance (Bay’ah) and when everyone had pledged
allegiance, the Prophet said that Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu had gone to fulfill the duties ordained by
Allah and His Messenger. The Prophet placed one of his blessed hands above the
other. The Prophet pledged allegiance on behalf of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. Thus in
spite of being absent, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s allegiance was the most virtuous due to
the fact that the blessed hand of Allah’s Messenger pledged allegiance on his behalf.
Shaykh Abdul Hagq Al-Muhadh Ad-Dahlawi Al-Bukhari states in ‘Ash’at-ul-
Lam’aat’ in regards to this Hah that the Messenger of Allah described his
hand as being the hand of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu which is a privilege that is specific
to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. In other words, no-one else has been blessed with such a
privilege.

It is narrated by Sayyidah A’ishalh e that the Messenger of Allah one day said
to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu, “O Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu! Allah shall adorn you in a shirt (i.e. The robe
of Khilafah.) If people demand that you take this shirt off (i.c. forsake leadership as
Khalifah) do not take this shirt off due to their desires (i.c. do not forsake Khilafah.)
On the day that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was assassinated, he said to Sayyiduna Abu
Sahlah that the Messenger of Allah had advised him about Khilafah and
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was acting upon that advice and he was forbearing the hardships
that he was facing.

Al-Hakim narrates from Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
bought paradise twice. He bought paradise when he bought the well of Rumah and
also when he generously aided the Jaysh ‘Usrah.

As for Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s generosity during the battle of Tabuk, he helped the Jaysh
Usrah that has already been explained previously. The well of Roumah was the only
well in which one could find drinkable water when Allah’s Messenger arrived
in the city of Madinah. This well was situated in the valley of Aqeeq is a pleasant
garden approximately four kilometers away from Madinah. The owner of the well
was a Jew who would sell the water and the Muslims found difficulty in accessing
water.

Upon the encouragement of the Messenger, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu bought half of
the well for twelve thousand Dirham and made it available for the Muslims. The
agreement was made that one day the Muslims would use the well whilst the other
day the Jews would. The Jewish owner began to gain minimal profit from the well
as the Muslims would gather two days supply in one day meaning that they would
not need to buy water when the well was not accessible to them. The Jewish owner
decided to sell his share of the well and thus he sold the other half of the well to
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu for eight thousand Dirham. That well is now known as Beer-o
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu.

Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu Ibn Abdillah Ibn Mawhib narrates that a pilgrim arrived from
Egypt for the Hajj. He saw some people gathered and asked who they were. He was
informed that they were the people of Quraish. He then asked who was their Shaykh
i.e. who was the leader amongst them. The answer was given that Sayyiduna Abdullah
Ibn Omar was the Shaykh of these people. The pilgrim addressed Sayyiduna Ibn
Omar e and said, “I wish to ask a few questions to you. Are you aware that
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu fled the battlefield during the Uhud?” Sayyiduna Ibn Omar answered
that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu had indeed fled from the battlefield of Uhud. The man then
asked, “Are you aware that Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was absent from Badr and he did not participate
in the battle of Badr?” Sayyiduna Ibn Omar confirmed that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
was not present during the battle of Badr and he did not participate in the
war. The pilgrim further asked, “Are you aware that Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was not present
during the Bay’ah (allegiance) of Ar-Ridwaan and therefore didn’t participate in
that also?” Sayyiduna Ibn Omar attested to the fact that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was
absent during the allegiance of Ar-Ridwaan. Upon witnessing Sayyiduna Ibn Omar
confirm all three of his statements, the Egyptian pilgrim exclaimed, “SI Áil (God
is great)!” Although the Egyptian had been posing questions, in essence, he was
attempting to criticize the personality of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu Sayyiduna Ibn
Omar called the man closer to him and said to him that it was now Ibn Omarr’s
desire to clarify the circumstances surrounding the aforementioned absences. As
for fleeing the battlefield during the battle of Uhud, Allah had forgiven this error as
Allah proclaimed in the Holy Qur’an,

No doubt, those of you who turned back on the day when two armies met,
it was Satan who made them slip because of their certain actions and surely
Allah forgave them. Verily, Allah is forgiving, Gentle.
(A1-Qur’an Surah 3:155)

The absence of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu from the battle of Badr was due to the
illness of his wife Sayyidah Ruqayyah (the daughter of the Holy Prophet).
The Messenger of Allah had allowed Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu to remain in Madinah
in order to nurse Sayyidah Ruqayyah and the Messenger had announced that
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu would be given the reward of those who participated in the battle and
would therefore receive war booty.

Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was absent from the Bay’ah-tur-Ridwaan because he was
the most suitable person to go to Makkah as the Messenger of Allah’s representative.
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was seen as a respected and beloved personality in Makkah.
Sayyiduna Ibn Omar explained how another person would have been sent had there
been anyone more revered in Makkah than Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. Upon the command
of Allah’s beloved, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu departed towards Makkah and during
his absence, the allegiance of Ar-Ridwaan was taken. At the time of the allegiance,
the Messenger of Allah raised his right hand and stated, “This is the hand of
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and after placing that blessed hand upon the other, the Messenger of
Allah said, “This is the Bay’ah of Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu.” Sayyiduna Ibn Omar hereafter
said to the Egyptian pilgrim that he should comprehend whatever had just been said
because this was the complete answer to his questions. (Al-Bukhari)

The Khilafah of Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu

It is written by Imam Jalaluddeen As-Suyuti in his famous work Taareekh-ul-
Khulafaa’ that when Sayyiduna Omar’s ailment began to increase after he was
attacked; the people requested that he advise them and appoint his Khalifah.
Sayyiduna Omar replied that he didn’t view anyone to be more worthy of
Khilafah than six companions with whom the Messenger of Allah was extremely
pleased. These six companions towards whom he was alluding were Sayyiduna

Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu, Sayyiduna Ali, Sayyiduna Talhah, Sayyiduna Zubair, Sayyiduna Abdul
Rahman Ibn Awf and Sayyiduna Sa’d Ibn Waqaas . Sayyiduna Omar mentioned
these names and clarified the role that his son Abdullah would have by explaining
that Abdullah would remain in the Majlis-Ush-Shura (a conference of scholars)
but he insisted that his son Abdullah had no connection to the position of Khalifah.
Sayyiduna Omar stated that if they appointed Sa’d Ibn Waqaas then he had the right
to lead the nation otherwise whomsoever the nation desired from amongst these
six companions would be appointed as Khalifah. Sayyiduna Omar specified Sa’d
ibn Waqaas from the group but he ensured that the people were aware that this was
not due to some sort of dishonesty or embezzlement. Sayyiduna Omar thereafter
advised the person who would be the Khalifah after him (whoever that may have
been) to fear Allah and to treat all the Muslims- the Ansaar and the Muhajireen as
well entire public which would be under his control with righteousness.

Three days after the burial of Sayyiduna Omar, the companions gathered in
order to appoint the Khalifah. Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman ibn Awf announced that it
was his opinion that three of the companions pass on their right to the other three
and thereafter step aside. The people agreed to this view. Sayyiduna Zubair
passed his right on to Sayyiduna Ali Sayyiduna Sa’d Ibn Waqaas passed
on his right to Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman lbn Awf and Sayyiduna Talhah
passed on his right to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu Sayyiduna Ali, Sayyiduna Abdul
Rahman and Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu deliberated over the issue. Sayyiduna Abdul
Rahman Ibn Awf informed them that he did not prefer the position of Khalifah for
himself and therefore whosoever amongst the other two companions desired to step
aside should announce at this time so that the person remaining would be granted
Khilafah. Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman reminded them that the Khalifah had to be the
most virtuous person of the Ummah (nation) and he had to possess the desire to
rectify any discrepancies that existed. Both Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and Sayyiduna Ali
remained silent upon hearing these words.

Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman requested that they pass on the responsibility of
appointing Khalifah to him and he swore by Almighty Allah that he would appoint
the one who was most worthy of being Khalifah. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and Sayyiduna
Ali agreed to pass on the responsibility of appointing Khalifah to Sayyiduna Abdul
Rahman E, Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman had a private discussion with Sayyiduna

Ali ee in which he said, “O Ali, you were the foremost in acceptance of Islam
and you are a close relative of the Messenger of Allah. If I appoint you as
Khalifah, accept the role and if I appoint someone else, follow him and obey
him.” Sayyiduna Ali announced that he had accepted this offer. Sayyiduna Abdul
Rahman had a similar conversation with Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu who also agreed
to act accordingly. Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman then pledged allegiance to Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and Sayyiduna Ali also pledged allegiance to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu.

It is stated in Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa’ with reference to Ibn Asaakir that the
reason for Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman appointing Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu instead of
Sayyiduna Ali was the fact that the majority of people who met him secretly were
describing Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu as being more worthy of Khilafah.

It is stated in one narration that Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Awf stated to
Sayyiduna Ali after praising Allah and His Messenger that he had received the
opinion of the people. All the people were favoring Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu for the
position of Khalifah. After saying these words, Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman held
the hand of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and said, “I pledge allegiance to you according to
the way of Allah, His Messenger, and the two Khalifahs.” Thus Sayyiduna Abdul
Rahman Ibn Awf became the first person to give Bay’ah to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and
the Ansaar and Muhajiroon followed him.

It is narrated in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad by Sayyiduna Abu Waa’il
who states that he questioned Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman in regards to the reason
for him appointing Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu as Khalifah instead of Sayyiduna Ali
SayyidunaAbdul Rahman insisted that he was not at fault because he firstly addressed
Sayyiduna Ali with the words in which he stated that he (i.e. Sayyiduna Abdul
Rahman) was pledging allegiance to Sayyiduna Ali according to the book of Allah,
the Sunnah of the Messenger and the Sunnah of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Sayyiduna
Omar Sayyiduna Ali replied that he didn’t possess the ability to accept such a
responsibility. Therefore Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman addressed Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
with similar words and Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu accepted the allegiance. (Taareekh-ul-
Khulafaa Page 42) A similar narration is mentioned in ‘Ghunyah-tut-Taalibeen’by
Shaykh Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani.

 

From this narration, it can be assumed that Sayyiduna Ali rejected the Khilafah
at this point because he had become aware of the fact that the majority of the
companions were in favor of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and therefore he did not wish to
forcefully become the leader of the Muslims and oppose their opinions.

It is stated in one narration that Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Awf states that
he asked Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu in secrecy regarding who he would advise being given
Bay’ah apart from himself. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu replied that if he was not to be
given Bay’ah then the allegiance should be given to Sayyiduna Ali In the
same manner, Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman asked Sayyiduna Ali who he would advise
be given Bay’ah aside from himself. Sayyiduna Ali replied that he would advise
that the Bay’ah be given to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu if it was not to be given to him.
Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman then approached Sayyiduna Zubair e and asked
him in secrecy, “I was not to give Bay’ah to you, who would you advise I should
give Bay’ah to?” Sayyiduna Zubair answered that he would advise that the Bay’ah
be given to either Sayyiduna Ali or Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu Sayyiduna Abdul
Rahman states that he then proceeded towards Sayyiduna Sa’d and said to him,
“You and I do not desire to become the Khalifah of the Muslims. Therefore who
would you advise me to give Bay’ah to?”

Sayyiduna Sa’d replied that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was the companion who he would
advise become Khalifah. Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Awf then sought advice
from all the Ansaar and Muhajiroon most of whom were in favor of Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Awf, therefore, pledged allegiance to
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu.

An Obiection And Its Refutation

Itisthebeliefofthe Rawaafidhthat SayyidunaAliwasdeservedofbeingthefirstKhalifah
but his right was continuously usurped by the people who firstly appointed Sayyiduna
Abu Bakr and then Sayyiduna Omar and thereafter, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. Thus
the Rawaafidh criticize the three Khulafaa as well as the companions who appointed
them.

The first manner in which one is able to refute such criticisms is through the many
verses of the Holy Qur’an that were revealed in praise of the companions especially
the three Khulafaa. Allah states in Surah Al-Hadeed,

Those of you who spent and fought before the victory of Makkah are not
equal. They are greater in rank than those who spent and fought after
victory. And to all Allah has already promised the reward of paradise and
Allah is aware of your deeds. (A1-Qur’an Surah 57:10)

In Surah At-Tawbah Allah says,

And the first and foremost emigrants and helpers and those who followed
them with good, Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Allah
and for them, He has prepared gardens under which rivers flow. They will
dwell therein forever. This is a great success.’ (AI-Qur’an Surah 9:100)

In Surah AL-Hashr Allah states in regards to the Muhajiroon,

For those poor refugees who were driven out from their homes and their
possessions seeking the grace of Allah and His Messenger, they are from
truthful.

Furthermore in the same Surah (i.e. Al-Hashr) Allah states,

And those who had established their home in this city and in faith from
before, love those who emigrated to them and find not in their breath any
need for what they have been given and prefer them above their souls even
though they be badly in need. Whosoever is guarded against the avarice of his
own soul, those they are successful.’ (Al-Qur’an Surah 59:9)

In Surah Aal Imraan Allah states,

Undoubtedly, Allah did a great favor to the Muslims that he sent a
Messenger in them from amongst themselves who recites unto them His signs
and purifies them and teaches them the Book and wisdom and necessarily
before that, they were certainly in apparent error:’ (AL-Qur’an Surah 3:164)

 

In Surah Al-Hadeed, Allah promised good to all the companions regardless of
whether they were companions prior to the conquest of Makkah or whether they
became companions after the conquest of Makkah. Thus every single companion
is beloved to Allah and they shall all be rewarded. In Surah At-Tawbah, Allah has
expressed His pleasure with the companions and confirmed their pleasure with
Him. In Surah Al-Hashr, Allah has described the companions as “Mufihoon’ ie.
successful people.

In the Ayah that has been mentioned from Surah Aal Imraan, Allah states that the
Messenger of Allah purified the believers from negative attributes. Thus when
the Messenger of Allah has become a ‘Muzakki’ (a purifier), it is essential to believe

that the Messenger of Allah purified the hearts of the companions 2 otherwise
this title of ‘Muzakki’ could not be attributed to him. When one has accepted that
the hearts of the companions 2 had been purified then it is essential to believe
that the companions were pious individuals whose hearts were void of all diseases
and thus their intentions were pure and their actions were exemplary. Thus if one
was to assume that they would deprive Sayyiduna Ali of his right then such a
thought is clearly misfortunate and it is a thought which contradicts the teachings of
the Qur’an in regards to the companions. (May Allah preserve us)

If a king is pleased with a certain group then he would be angered if any individual
criticized his beloved group. In the same manner, Allah has expressed His pleasure
with the companions, and surely anyone who criticizes the companions (who are
beloved to Allah) has gained the displeasure of the Almighty. Allamah Abu Zur’ah
Ar-Raazi (who was from the Tab’-ut-Taabi’ been) said in regards to those who
criticize the com anions,

I.e. if you witness a man criticizing any of the companions of Allah’s Messenger
you should be aware that this man is rebellious and is irreligious. The main
reason why criticism of the companions is condemned harshly is that the Holy
Qur’an and the sayings of Allah’s beloved reached us through the companions.
If we are to find faults in the characters of the companions then we shall cast doubt
over the authenticity of their narrations in regards to the statements of the final
Messenger. (Al-Isaabah Volume Page 11)

Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s First Sermon

It is narrated in Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa’ with narration to Ibn Sa’d that when
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was appointed as the Khalifah, he arose to deliver a sermon
but was not able to say many things. He informed the person that just as riding a
horse for the first time is difficult, in the same manner delivering a sermon for the

first time is not easy. He was optimistic that there would be many occasions in the
future when he would deliver lectures with the will of Allah. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
explained how the members of his family were not lecturers but he was hopeful that
Allah would grant him the ability to deliver lectures.

A’laa Hadhrat Imam Ahmad Ridha Khan Al-Brelawi writes in his famous
Fataawa that there were three steps on the minbar (pulpit) besides the highest board
which is designed as a seat. The master of all creation et delivered his sermons on
the highest position whilst Sayyiduna Abu Bakr den delivered his sermons in the
second place and Sayyiduna Omar Lela delivered his lectures on the lowest position.
When Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was appointed as the Khalifah, he would deliver
his sermons in the first position. People inquired for the reason that Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu is lectured on the highest position. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu replied that
he did not lecture on the second position because people would assume that he was
equal to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr if he was to do so and he did not deliver his sermons
on the lowest position because people would assume that he was equal to Sayyiduna
Omar if he lectured on the lowest position. Therefore Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu decided
to be seated on that position upon which such an assumption could never be made
which was the highest position. (Al-Fataawa Ar-Ridhwiyyah Volume 3 Page 700)

From the aforementioned narration, it is apparent that not only could Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu does not bear to claim that he was in any way equal to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr
and Sayyiduna Omar but moreover he could not even bear allowing such an
assumption to develop. This is why he lectured on the highest position of the pulpit.
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu said in regards to this position that he had chosen, that this was
a position upon which the assumption of him being equal to his predecessors could
never be made. From this, it is established that even the assumption of being equal to
the Messenger of Allah was not possible for the companions (as the highest position
was the place upon which the Messenger of Allah would deliver his sermons.) As
for those who claim to have equality with the Messenger of Allah they should
be aware that they have totally contradicted the path of the companions.

Regarding the path leading to paradise, Allah’s beloved stated,

“——-” – “The (path) upon which I and my companions are upon.’
Anyone who goes against this path has clearly deviated from the path leading to
paradise.

When the companions could not even assume that they were in any way equal to
Allah’s Messenger the then those who claim to be equal to him are arrogant and
extremely disrespectful.

The Conquests that occurred during his Khilafah

During the time of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s reign, there was a continuation of Islamic
conquests. In the first year of his Khilafah, 24 AH, ‘Rai,’ a city of Khurasan
presently known as Tehran (the capital of Iran) was conquered. In the year 26 AH,
the city of Saaboor was conquered. Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah, who was the governor
of Ash-Shaam at the time of Sayyiduna Omar’s Khilafah, requested that Sayyiduna
Omar et order a fleet to attack Cyprus via the sea. Sayyiduna Omar was reluctant
but due to the continual insistence of Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah, Sayyiduna Omar
wrote a letter to Sayyiduna ‘Amr Ibn Al-Aas ea commanding him to assess
the situation of the sailing boats and reply with detailed information about them.
Sayyiduna ‘Amr Ibn Al-^Aas replied that he had noticed that the sailing boats
were a large creation upon which that creation rode which was smaller than the boat
itself. When this boat would halt, the hearts of the people would begin to shatter, and
when it would move even the intelligent people would become terrified.

Furthermore, Sayyiduna ‘Amr wrote that in his view the sailing boat possessed
more negative qualities than positive ones as those who traveled in it were like
insects. When the boat would topple, the travelers would drown, and when it would
remain safe, the people would remain nervous and tense until they reached the
seashores. Upon reading this analysis, Sayyiduna Omar wrote to Sayyiduna
Mu’awiyah stating,

«والله لا أحمل فيه مسلما أبدا»
-“By Allah, I shall never place Muslims in it (i.e. in the sailing boat)”
(Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 106)

Due to these factors, Cyprus was not conquered during the reign of Sayyiduna Omar.
During the Khilafah of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu in the year 26 AH, Cyprus was attacked
under the command of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu by the army of Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah.
Cyprus was conquered and it was agreed that the non-Muslim inhabitants would
pay the Jizyah (tax.)

The famous companion, Sayyiduna Obadah Ibn Saamit was amongst the
conquering the army along with his wife Umm Haraam Bint Milhaan. Sayyidah
Umm Haraam died due to falling off an animal and was buried in Cyprus, Allah’s
Messenger had prophesized that the wife of Sayyiduna Obadiah would be
amongst the army which would conquer Cyprus and the grave of Obadiah’s wife
would be in Cyprus. Just as the Prophet Shad mentioned, the wife of Sayyiduna
Obadiah passed away in Cyprus and her grave is in Cyprus. This is hardly surprising
when it is a confirmed fact (in the eyes of the believers) that a mountain can move
from its position and the entire system of the universe can alter but the event
prophesized by Allah’s beloved shall definitely occur.

In 27 AH, Jurjaan and Dar Ibjird were also conquered. In the same year (27 AH),
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu appointed Abdullah Ibn Sa’d Ibn Abi Sarh as the governor of
Egypt and thereafter commanded him to attack Africa, Africa was conquered and
all of its small kingdoms came under the governance of the Muslims. The bounty
gained from this conquest was so much that each participant was given 1000
Dirham whilst in some narrations, it is stated that each participant was given 3000
Dirham. In the year 27 AH, Spain was also conquered, and thereafter, in the year 29
AH, Ustukhur, and Qasaa as well as a few other nations were conquered.

In the year 30 AH, Jawr, Khurasan, and Neshapur were conquered. During this
period, the Iranian cities of Taws, Sarkhas, and Bayhaq were conquered through
treaties. The treasury was overloaded with so many bounties from these conquests
and therefore, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu had to design secure safes in which this wealth
could be placed. The wealth was generously distributed amongst the population.
Every person received 100 000 Badrah. (One Badrah consisted of 1000 Dirham).
(Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 106)

176—177

Sarh (who was accused of murder) dismissed but Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu had ignored
their pleas. Sayyidah A’ishah advised that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu punish Abdullah.
Sayyiduna Ali also advised Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu to act with justice and dismiss
Abdullah and thereafter appoint another governor as the people wanted Abdullah
removed due to his unfair murder of innocent people. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu said to
the people,

اختاروا رجلا اوليه عليكم مكانه

– “Appoint a man who I shall hand over the role in place of him (i.e. Abdullah).”

The people specified the son of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr 2, Muhammad Ibn Abi
Bakr. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu appointed Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr and announced
the appointment of Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr and the dismissal of Abdullah Ibn
Abi Sarh in writing. Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr left Madinah with seven hundred
Egyptians (who had come to Madinah in order to complain about Abdullah) and
some Ansaar and Muhajiroon also accompanied him.

The group had reached a small distance outside of Madinah when they noticed an
African slave riding on a she-camel at a very fast speed towards Egypt. From the
physical nature and the fast pace, it was obvious that this was either a slave fleeing
from his master or he was a messenger rushing to pass on a message. The group
managed to halt the man and ask him who he was. Firstly the man said that he
was the slave of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu and then he said that he was the servant of
Marwaan. A person from amongst the group recognized him and said that the man
was actually the slave of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. Sayyiduna Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr
asked the man where he was sent towards. The slave replied that he had been sent
to the governor of Egypt, Abdullah Ibn Abi Sarh. The servant was then searched
and a letter was found with him which was from Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu to the governor
of Egypt, Abdullah Ibn Abi Sarh. Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr gathered all the people
and opened the letter in front of them. In the letter, it was written,

اذا أتاك محمد وفلان وفلان فاحتل في قتلهم وابطل كتابه وقر على عملك حتى يأتيك رائی

“When Muhammad and so and so come to you, find an excuse to kill them. Thereafter,
reject his letter as invalid and remain in your post until my opinion reaches you.”

 

Those who were traveling with Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr were astonished to read
these words. Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr requested a few influential members of his
group to sign the letter and then he placed the letter in the trust of one of the groups.
Everyone returned to Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah. When they reached the blessed
city of Madinah, they invited Sayyiduna Ali, Sayyiduna Talhah, Sayyiduna Zubair,
Sayyiduna Sa’d and many other companions and the letter was read out to them and
the events that had ensued with the African slave had been explained.

Upon reading the letter, everyone was outraged and all the companions returned to
their homes angrily. Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr surrounded the house of Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu with his tribe, Banu Tameem, and the Egyptians. Upon witnessing these dire
circumstances, Sayyiduna Ali went to the house of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu e along
with Sayyiduna Talhah, Sayyiduna Zubair, Sayyiduna Sa’d, Sayyiduna Ammaar, and a few other influential companions. They took with them the letter, the servant, and the she-camel.

Sayyiduna Ali asked Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu whether the servant was his or not.
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu replied that the servant belonged to him. Then Sayyiduna
Ali questioned Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu in regards to the she-camel belonging to
him. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu confirmed that the she-camel belonged to him. Finally,
Sayyiduna Ali showed Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu the letter and asked him whether the
letter had been written by him. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu replied that he had not written
that letter. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu swore by Almighty Allah that neither had he written
the letter nor had he ordered anyone to write it and previously, he was not aware that
this letter had been written. Sayyiduna Ali expressed the peculiarity of the situation
as the slave of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was caught riding the she-camel of Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu with a letter on which the signature seemed to be Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s
but yet Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was unaware of the entire situation. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
once again swore by Allah that he had not known anything about this letter.

Everyone was convinced by Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s testimony and everyone believed
in his innocence. They now turned their attention to the letter and they seemed to
find a resemblance in it with the handwriting of Marwaan and it was now their

handwritings are similar so therefore it could not be said with – “الخط يشبه الخط،،
an opinion that this was the plan of Marwaan. Marwaan was present in the house of
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu at the time and the people requested that Marwaan be handed
over to them. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu refused to hand over Marwaan as he knew that
the people would punish Marwaan and most probably kill him but the evidence
upon which they had formed their opinion was not completely satisfactory as
” –
the certainty that the handwriting on the letter was that of Marwaan. Simply on the
basis of suspicion, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu could not allow Marwaan to be punished and
therefore he did not hand Marwaan over to the companions. Another reason
for the reluctance of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu to give Marwaan to the people was that
such an action could have led to strife.

When Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu refused to hand over Marwaan, the companions left his
house and some people were saying to each other that although Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
could never give false testimony, he could not be acquitted from suspicion as long as
he did not hand over Marwaan so that an investigation could take place establishing
why there had been an order to kill the companions of Rasoolullah Hotels and who had
made this order. If the investigation would lead to the realization that Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu had written the letter, then Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu would be relieved of his
duties and if it was found that Marwaan had written the letter then Marwaan would
be punished accordingly.

Extremity in the blockade

When the companions returned home, rioters emerged who became extreme in
their siege as they halted water from reaching the house of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu looked towards the crowd from above and asked if Sayyiduna
Ali tebe was amongst them. The people replied that Sayyiduna Ali was not amongst
them. Then Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu inquired if Sayyiduna Sa’d was amongst them and
he received the reply that Sayyiduna Sa’d was not amongst them either. Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu thereafter ordered that someone go to Sayyiduna Ali and inform him that
he should make some water available for Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu be. Upon being
informed of the situation, Sayyiduna Alive sent three pots of water to the house
of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu but hardly all of the water reached Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu as

the servants of Banu Hashim and Banu Ommayyah who were taking the water had
been injured on the way. Sayyiduna Ali dhe realized from this that the people were
plotting to assassinate Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. Sayyiduna Ali ordered his two sons, Imam
Hasan Lebat and Imam Hussain tea to stand at the doorstep of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
with swords and guard Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu bin against danger. It was important that
they stopped any rioter from entering the premises of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu alles. In the
same way, Sayyiduna Talhah, Sayyiduna Zubair, and other leading companions sent
their children to guard Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu, and all of the children of the companions
steadfastly protected Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)

Shah Abdul Azeez Al-Muhadh Ad-Dahlawi ila writes that when the rioters’
the attitude became extreme, Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn Omar visited the house
of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu along with a few of the Muhajirun. Sayyiduna Ibn
Omar e explained to Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu that the rioters had accepted Islam due
to the might of Islam and due to their fear of the Muslim leadership. At the present
time, they were causing such chaos due to the fact that they knew that Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu could not cause rifts between the Muslims and as they were claiming to be
Muslim, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu would overlook the actions of these rioters. Sayyiduna
Ibn Omar sought permission to find out the truth about these mutineers and make
manifest to them their essence.

Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu refused to allow this as he didn’t wish to witness dissension
for the sake of his personality. All of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s servants, who were
equivalent to an army, arrived before Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu armed with weaponry.
With passion, they asserted that they were those people who had managed to conquer
lands ranging from Africa to Khurasan therefore they were more than capable of
challenging these mutineers. They sought permission from Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu to
raise arms against the rioters as diplomatic negotiations were useless due to the fact
that the rioters thought that it was impossible for Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu to challenge
fellow Muslims militarily and that it is why they continuously rejected the attempts
made by the companions to reach a truce. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu told them that if they
wished to please him then they should put down their weapons and he announced
that he would free every servant who put down his weapons.

«والله لأن أقتل قبل الدماء أحب إلي من أن أقتل بعد الدماء»

“By Allah, to be killed before bloodshed is more beloved to me than to be killed
after bloodshed.”

 

Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was aware that he would be martyred by these
mutineers as the Prophet has had already mentioned that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu would
be martyred.

Therefore, Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu informed his servants that whether they fought the
mutineers or not, they could not avoid his assassination. Thus he did not wish to see
bloodshed. (Tuhfah Ithnaa ‘Ashariyyah)

The Mutineer’s assassination of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu

When Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr noticed that the house of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
was so securely protected that it was impossible to enter the house through the doors,
Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr began to shoot arrows towards Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s
house. Imam Hasan lain was injured by these attacks along with Marwaan,
Muhammad Ibn Talhah and Qunbur who was a servant of Sayyiduna Ali b.
When Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr saw that these men had been injured, he began
to fear the retaliation of Banu Hashim. He grabbed two of his companions and
forged a way in which he could manage to kill Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. He proposed
that they jump into the house of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu from one of the neighbor’s
houses and thereafter assassinate Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr
jumped into the house of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu with his two companions from the
house of an Ansaari. Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was in the house and the only other person
with him inside was his wife, Sayyidah Nailah Dengan whilst everyone else was on
the roof of the house. Thus those on the roof were not aware of the circumstances
downstairs. Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr grabbed the beard of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu.
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu said to him, “What would your father, Abu Bakr say if he
saw you disrespecting me in this manner?” Upon hearing this, Muhammad Ibn Abi
Bakr released Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu but his two companions suddenly arrived and
heartlessly killed Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu

“انا بالله وانا اليه راجعون”
“Surely, we belong to Allah, and to Him is our return”

During the attack upon Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu, his wife Sayyidah Nailah was
continuously screeching for assistance but her screams were muted by the shouting
of the protesters. After Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was martyred, she ran to the roof and
told the people that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu had been martyred. When the people
came down, they were shocked to see Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s body covered in blood
and at that time his soul had already departed from this world.
It is stated in some narrations that Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was reciting the Holy
Qur’an at the time of his martyrdom and his blood spilled on the Mushaf (copy of the
Qur’an) upon verse 137 of Surah Al-Baqarah – Surah 2 Verse 137.

It is also narrated that Sayyidah Nailah had attempted to defend Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu from the attacks with her hands and she sadly lost her fingers during the attack.

The Anger Of Sayyiduna Ali

When the news of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s martyrdom reached Sayyiduna Ali,
Sayyiduna Talhah, Sayyiduna Zubair, Sayyiduna Sa’d and the other companions,
they were all overcome with sorrow. Upon reaching the house of Sayyiduna Ali,
they all recited the verse, 0322 4 Lig U LI. Sayyiduna Ali was so furious that he
smacked Imam Hasan and Husain and he said to them,

كيف قتل امير المؤمنين وانتما على الباب
“How was the leader of the believers killed, when you were stood at the door?”

Sayyiduna Ali also reprimanded Muhammad Ibn Talhah and Abdullah Ibn Zubair
who was also guarding the house of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu
When Sayyiduna Ali se realized that the assassinators had entered the house by
jumping from a neighbor’s house, Sayyiduna Ali asked the wife of Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu who the killers were. Sayyidah Nailah replied that she was not aware of
their identities but Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr was with them who had grabbed the
beard of Ameer-ul-Mu’mineen. Sayyiduna Ali summoned Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr
who accepted that he had entered the house with the intention of killing Sayyiduna
Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu but his intention changed when Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu reminded him of his father, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, and how shameful it would be for his son to commit

such a horrific act. Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr expressed remorse for his actions and
he said that he sought the forgiveness of Allah. He went on to swear by Almighty
Allah that he had not killed Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu. Ibn Asaakir el narrates from
Kinaanah that the killer of Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was a blue-eyed man who resided
in Egypt. His name was ‘Himaar.’ Some historians have stated that the killer of
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu was a man named “Aswad.’ It is possible that of the two men
who entered Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu’s house, one was called ‘Himaar’ whilst the other
was called ‘Aswad.’ And Allah knows best.
Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiyallahu Anhu die was martyred during the Ayyaam-ut-Tashreeq in the month
of Dhul-Hijjah in the year 35 AH. He was aged 82 and his Janaazah prayer was led
by Sayyiduna Zubair and he was buried in Jannah-tul-Baqee‘ in the blessed
city of Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah.
May Allah’s mercy descend upon our master, Muhammad, and all of his family
members and companions.

 

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