A Brief Biography Imam Hasan ibn Ali
Imam Hasan was born in 3 AH. The Messenger of Allah requested that Sayyiduna Ali رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ suggests a name for the child but Sayyiduna Ali رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ insisted that the Messenger names his child.
The beloved of Allah said to him, “I shall name this child according to the command of my Lord.” Sayyiduna Jibril descended and informed the Message that Allah gave him glad tidings of being blessed with this child and that Allah had stated that it was best if the child was named as the son of Sayyiduna Haroon whose name was ‘Shabbar’ which is translated into Arabic as “Hasan.’
The beloved of Allah named the child ‘Hasan’ and gave him the appellation, ‘Abu Muhammad.’ The ritual ceremony of ‘Aqeeqah took place on the seventh day after the birth of Imam Hasan. His hair was shaved off and the Messenger صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ commanded that the hair be weighed and an equivalent amount of silver be given towards charity. (Nuzhat-ul-Majaalis)
When the Messenger صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ passed away, Imam Hasan was only seven and a half years old but in spite of that many Ahaadeeth are narrated by him. The author of “Talqeeh’ has mentioned Imam Hasan as being one of those companions from whom thirteen Ahaadeeth are narrated. At the tender age of seven and a half, Imam Hasan recorded this amount of Ahaadeeth in his memory and narrated them which are signs of his strong intellectual capability.
In terms of image and facial features, Sayyiduna Imam Hasan was similar to the Holy Messenger صَلَّی اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیْہِ وَاٰلِہٖ وَسَلَّمَ.
Sayyiduna Ali رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ stated,
– الحسن اشبه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما بين الصدر الى الرأس
“Hasan resembles the Messenger of Allah from the chest to the head.”
– والحسين اشبه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ما كان اسفل من ذلك
“And Hussain resembles the Prophet ont below the chest.”
– ابني هذا سيد ولعل الله أن يصلح به بين فئتين من المسلمين
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ narrates that he once saw that the Messenger of Allah was
seated upon the pulpit with Imam Hasan on his side. The beloved would sometimes concentrate on the companions whilst at other times he would concentrate towards Imam Hasan it.
The best of all creation said,
“This son of mine is a master. Hopefully, Allah shall reconcile two troops of Muslims because of him.” (Al-Bukhari Volume 1 Page 530)
Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn Zubair رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ narrates that he would see that the Messenger
of Allah is would be prostrating whilst Imam Hasan would sit on the blessed neck
or back of Allah’s Messenger, The Messenger would not push Imam Hasan off but would moreover wait until Imam Hasan would descend.
In the same way,
when the Messenger would be bowing in Ruku’, even then he would not push Imam Hasan off but would moreover allow Imam Hasan to descend when Imam Hasan wished. Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn Zubair says that he also noticed that the Messenger’s blessed legs would be spread out in such a manner whilst in Ruku’ that Imam Hasan would pass through his blessed legs. (Ash-Sharf-ul-Mu’abbad
Sayyiduna Baraa Ibn Aazib رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ narrates that he saw the Messenger of Allah is lifting
Sayyiduna Imam Hasan on his shoulders and he was praying to Allah, saying,
اللهم اني احبه فاحبه
“O Allah, I love him, therefore, love him.” (Al-Bukhari Volume 1Page 530)
Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas narrates that the Messenger of Allah o had seated Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ on his shoulders when a companion said,
– نعم المركب ركبت یا غلام
“How great is the ride pon which you are mounted, O boy!
”Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم answered,
– ونعم الراكب هو
“How great is the rider of this ride!” (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 571)
Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم was expressing to the Companion the fact that the companion had managed to notice how great the ride was but he should have also been aware that the rider possessed many virtues as well.
One day, the leaders of Quraysh were gathered before Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah. Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ asked the leaders to name a man who was the most honorable due to being part of a family in which his parents, maternal and paternal aunties and uncles, and maternal grandparents were all virtuous.
Sayyiduna Malik Ibn ‘Ajlaan arose and pointing towards Imam Hasan, he said, “He is the most virtuous amongst us. His father is Ameer-ul-Mu’mineen Sayyiduna Ali Ibn Abi Taalib رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ is, his mother is the leader of all women, Sayyidah Fatimah, his maternal grandmother is Sayyidah Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid en and his maternal grandfather is the last and final Messenger His paternal uncle is Sayyiduna Ja’far رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ who is resting in paradise and his paternal aunt is Umm Haani Bint Abi Taalib. His maternal aunts and uncles were the blessed offspring of Allah’s Messenger.”
Malik Ibn ‘Ajlaan inquired from Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah whether his analysis was correct or not and he
received the reply that it was correct. (Barakaate-Aale Rasool Page 142)
In a narration of Al-Haakim, it is stated that Imam Hasan is traveled to perform the Hajj 25 times on foot. This was in spite of the fact that many camels were available for use. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
Imam Hasan was unequivocal in terms of generosity as he would give a person 100000 Dirham at once. Ibn Sa’d narrate from Ali Ibn Zaid that Imam Hasan has half of his wealth in the way of Allah three times in his life and twice he gave his entire wealth in the path of the Almighty. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
Sayyiduna Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ was an extremely tolerant and soft-natured human
being. Ibn Sa’d narrate that Marwaan began to criticize Sayyiduna Ali رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ whilst seated on the Minbar. At this time, Marwaan was the ruler of Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah.
Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ ignored the derogatory terms of Marwaan which were about Imam Hasan’s father with utmost patience.
Once, a discussion was taking place between Imam Hasan and Marwaan when Marwaan began to criticize Sayyiduna Ali رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ. Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ remained silent and did not retaliate with any comment. As the discussion continued, Marwaan blew his nose using his right hand. Sayyiduna Imam Hasan said to him that it was a shame that Marwaan had not yet apprehended the fact that the right hand should not be used in order to clean one’s nose but moreover the left hand should be used. Upon hearing this, Marwaan remained silent. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
When Sayyiduna Imam Hasan was offended, he did not answer but when he saw an action that contradicted the Sunnah of Rasoolullah he immediately objected which was a sign of his sincerity as he realized that it was essential to inform Marwaan what was the correct manner of blowing one’s nose according to the Prophetic Sunnah.
It should not be assumed that Imam Hasan was attempting to criticize Marwaan or expose faults
in his character but moreover, Imam Hasan Lehe was simply fulfilling his duty of
informing Marwaan about his mistake.
His Withdrawal from Khilafah
After the demise of Sayyiduna Ali رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ, Imam Hasan ibn replaced him in the position of Khalifah. Forty thousand residents of Kufah pledged allegiance to Imam Hasan. For a period of six months, Imam Hasan remained as the Khalifah but after that when Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ arrived in Kufah, Sayyiduna Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ agreed to pass on the reigns of Khilafah to him under three conditions;
- For the time being Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah would remain as Khalifah but after his
demise, his successor would be Imam Hasanرَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ.
- Any outstanding requisitions or penalizations remaining since the time of Sayyiduna Ali would not be sought from the people of Hijaz and Iraq.
- Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ would pay off Imam Hasan’s debts.
Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ accepted all these conditions and therefore the truce took
place. This was the manifestation of the Prophet’s statement when he said that this son of his would reconcile two troops of Muslims. After this agreement, Imam Hasan renounced Khilafah and passed on the reigns to Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah. This withdrawal took place in the month of Rabi’-ul-Awwal (41AH) (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
The withdrawal of Imam Hasan from the position of Khalifah displeased most of his companions amongst whom some would address him as ‘Aar-ul-Muslimeen’ (disgrace of the Muslims). Imam Hasan replied to them,
– العار خير من النار
“Disgrace is better than fire.”
Upon resigning from the post of Khalifah, Imam Hasan returned to the city of Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah from the city of Kufah and he now began to reside in Madinah.
Jubair Ibn Nofair says that one day he informed Sayyiduna Imam Hasan about the statement of some people that Imam Hasan still desired to be the Khalifah.
Imam Hasan replied that when the heads of the Arabs were in his hands (i.e. They were prepared to sacrifice their lives for him after pledging allegiance to him), at that time Imam Hasan could have caused a war with anyone but in order to gain the pleasure of his Lord, Imam Hasan withdrew and did not allow bloodshed to occur.
In the same manner, in order to gain the pleasure of the Almighty, Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ could not attempt to gain leadership again. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
One of his miracles became apparent when he was traveling by foot to perform the Hajj and his feet began to swell. One of his servants said that it would be better than Imam Hasan listen should ride one of the animals in order to allow the swelling to decrease. Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ refused this request and told the servant that when they would reach their destination, they would meet a Habshi (Abyssinian) who would have some oil with him.
They would buy some oil from him in order to heal the swelling. When they reached the destination, Imam Hasan pointed out the Habshi and ordered his servant to buy the oil. When the servant was buying the oil, the Habshi asked for whom this oil was being bought.
The servant replied that he was buying the oil for Sayyiduna Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ. The Habshi requested that he desired to accompany the servant to Sayyiduna Hasan because he was also a servant of Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ. The Habshi arrived before Sayyiduna Imam Hasan Alize and said that he did not wish to receive any payment for the oil but he simply wished that Imam Hasan would pray for his wife who was suffering from the pangs of birth.
Imam Hasan said to the Habshi that he should return home and by the grace of Allah, he would be blessed with a fit and healthy child who would be one of Imam Hasan’s followers. When the Habshi returned home, Allah blessed him with a healthy child just as Imam Hasan had informed him. (Shawaahid-un-Nubuwwah Page 302)
A famous miracle of Sayyiduna Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ was witnessed when Imam Hasan was traveling with one of Sayyiduna Zubair Ibn Al-‘Awaam’s sons.
The travelers passed a garden in which all the date palm trees had withered. Imam Hasan
decided to stop for a while in this garden. Sayyiduna Imam Hasan rested beneath one tree whilst Sayyiduna Ibn Zubair de rested under another tree. Ibn Zubair remarked how great it would be if there were to be fresh dates in that oasis.
Imam Hasan inquired if Sayyiduna Ibn Zubair desired to eat fresh dates and upon Ibn Zubair answering that he desired dates, Imam Hasan raised his hands in prayer to supplicate in the court of the Lord for fresh dates. Imam Hasan softly uttered some words which were not comprehended by any of his companions. Immediately, a date palm tree bore fruit. The camel rider, who had accompanied them on this journey, exclaimed that this was magic. Imam Hasan replied that what he had just witnessed was not magic but moreover it was the outcome of the accepted prayer of the Prophet’s son. The dates were then eaten by all the travelers who all ate them until they felt satiated. (Shawaahid-un-Nubuwwah Page 303)
The Martyrdom of Imam Hasan
Ibn Sa’d narrate from Sayyiduna Imran Ibn Abdillah رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ that Imam Hasan saw
a dream in which he saw that the verse,
– قل هو الله احد
“Say (O Beloved) that Allah is One” was written between his eyes. When Imam Hasan related this dream, the Ahl-ul-Bait was overjoyed but when this dream was mentioned before Sayyiduna Sa’eed Ibn Al-Musayyab رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ, Sayyiduna Sa’eed said that if this dream was true then Imam Hasan no would only remain alive for a few more days. This analysis of the dream was correct as Sayyiduna Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ was martyred by poison a few days after he saw the dream. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
Firstly, Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ was given poisoned honey which severely damaged his stomach. Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ spent the entire night in a restless state and when he awoke in the morning, he went to the blessed grave of his grandfather, the Messenger of Allah. Imam Hasan supplicated to Allah whilst he was there and as a result, Allah cured him.
The second time Imam Hasan was poisoned, was at the time when he was given poisonous dates. Upon eating six or seven dates, Imam Hasan was agitated and he went to the house of his brother, Imam Hussain, and spent another restless night. In the morning, he entered the blessed Rawdhah of
Allah’s beloved ones and prayed. Once again, through the grace of the Almighty and the blessings of the Messenger, the effect of the poison was eliminated.
It is narrated that Imam Hasan was given deadly poison five times but every time the effect of the poison would disappear. The sixth time, poison was carefully ground into a diamond’s spark and placed into Imam Hasan’s flask.
When Imam Hasan drank water from the flask, it felt as though his stomach had torn apart and his heart
had been broken into pieces. Sayyiduna Imam Hasan I was extremely weakened by the effects of the poison, he was vomiting and experienced water motion which damaged his liver and intestines.
As Imam Hasan’s departure from this world drew closer, Sayyiduna Imam Hussain approached his beloved brother and asked him who the people were who had poisoned him.
Sayyiduna Imam Hasan inquired whether Imam Hussain intended to kill his murderers. Imam Hussain replied that it was of course his desire that he should kill those who had committed this heinous crime.
Imam Hasan ibn replied that the person who he thought was responsible for this poisoning would be punished by Allah if it was actually him who had committed this act.
If Imam Hasan revealed his suspicions to the people and his suspicions were mistaken then an innocent man would be killed. Therefore, Imam Hasan explained that he left revenge in the power of the Almighty whose grasp is indeed harsh.
This was the immense steadfastness upon justice within the character of Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ that he maintained the course of justice even at a time when his liver was not functioning, his intestines were severely damaged and the agony of death (Naza’) was irritating him.
This was a sign of the greatness of this historic personality who just like his grandfather, the Prophet Muhammad tolerate injustice and misjudgment. could not As the time of Imam Hasan’s demise was about to arrive, Sayyiduna Imam Hussain noticed that the anxiety and restlessness of Imam Hasan were increasing and therefore Imam Hussain consoled his brother by asking him, “Brother, what is the reason for this anxiety when you are about to meet our grandfather, the best of creation? You shall meet our father, Sayyiduna Ali رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ , our grandmother, Sayyidah Khadijah Al-Kubraa and our mother, Sayyidah Fatimah Az-Zahra Our uncles, Sayyiduna Hamzah, Sayyiduna Ja’far, (maternal uncles) Sayyiduna Qasim and Sayyiduna Tahir with a shall also meet you.
Sayyiduna Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ replied that he was about to enter such a state that he had never experienced before and he was seeing people who he had not seen before. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
At the age of 45 years, 6 months, and a few days, Imam Hasan Ibn Ali den passed away from this world. It was 5th Rabi’-ul-Awwal 49 AH when he passed away in the blessed city of Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah and this great Imam was buried at the side of his mother, Sayyidah Fatimah Az-Zahra in Jannah-tul-Baqee’.
Who poisoned Imam Hasan?
Some people have claimed that Sayyiduna Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ was poisoned by his wife. Maulana Muhammad Na’eemuddeen Al-Moradabadi Shas critically analyzed this assumption.
Shaykh Na’eemuddeen has stated that some historians have linked the murder of Imam Hasan to Ja’dah Bint Ash’ath Ibn Qais who they claim was a wife of Imam Hasan. Astonishingly, these historians have suggested that the motive behind the murder was due to a relationship that Ja’dah is alleged
to have had with Yazeed.
Yazeed supposedly promised to marry Ja’dah and due to temptation for Yazeed, Ja’dah (it is claimed) poisoned Imam Hasan.
This version of events is not supported by any authentic source or chain of narrations and without any proof, it is forbidden for a Muslim to accuse a fellow brother or sister of committing a murder, especially such a terrible murder.
Aside from the fact that the historians wrote their controversial claims without the support of any authentic sources, the interpretation that these historians provide does not coincide with the actual events that led to the martyrdom of Imam Hasan.
Any incident can only be effectively investigated at the time when all the witnesses are alive. As time passes, it becomes more difficult for one to investigate the sequence of events without the presence of primary sources.
The amazing factor is that the identities of Imam Hasan’s murderers were not known to even those who were close to him such as Imam Hussain. This is proven by the fact that Imam Hussain
asked his brother to name the people who poisoned him. If Imam Hussain was to become aware of these people’s identities, he would have avenged the murder of his brother but he didn’t know who these people were who had poisoned his brother, and therefore, he left the revenge in the power of the Almighty.
Furthermore, Imam Hasan, who was the victim, was not certain about the identities of his murderers
as he did not reveal any names due to his reluctance to simply act according to suspicion. Imam Hussain and the family of Imam Hasan are not proven to have ever expressed suspicion in regards to Judah.
So upon what basis did these historians accuse Ja’dah of murder? Quite clearly, their interpretation is unauthentic.
A rather disturbing aspect of these historians’ unverified claim is the evil slander of Imam Hasan’s wife as they accuse her of conspiring with the enemies of Imam Hussain. This is a great offense to the character of Imam Hasan and his wives.bIt would not be surprising to learn that these claims are a result of the Kharijite’s malice.
It is proven from reliable sources that Imam Hasan married many times in his life as he got married almost 100 times in his lifetime and thereafter, divorced most of the women.
Imam Hasan would often get divorced after one or two days. Sayyiduna Ali Al-Murtadha رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ announced that no parent was to give his daughter in marriage to Imam Haşan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ as it was Imam Hasan’s habit to give divorce frequently.
The women and their parents ignored the advice of Sayyiduna Ali رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ partly due to the fact that the women desired to provide some service to the household of Allah’s beloved.
This was why those women, who Imam Hasan divorced, devoted the rest of their lives to the love of Imam Hasan tentang and remembered the Imam throughout their lives with affection and devotion. In such a situation, it is extremely difficult to believe that a wife of Imam Hasan would fall into the traps of Yazeed and commit the horrific murder of Imam Hasan. And Allah is best aware of the true sequence of events. (Swaanih Karbala)
Continuously Divorcing His Wives – A Good Quality Or A Defect?
Imam Hasan’s divorcing of women after only one or two days was not a defect as if that was the case then no woman would have accepted his marriage proposal and the family of the women would have voiced their objections.
This was a virtue of Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ as he blessed many women with the honor of being related to the Messenger of Allah.
Furthermore, these women were elevated as being the daughters-in-law of Sayyidah Fatimah Az-Zahra dhe as this relation shall surely benefit them in the hereafter and may become a means for their forgiveness.
Shah Abdul Azeez Al-Muhaddith Ad-Dahlawi ila writes that Imam Hasan رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ was asked about the reason for his frequent marriages. Imam Hasan replied that it was his desire that as many people as possible could establish a relationship with the Messenger of Allah is so that it may benefit them on the day of judgment.
(Fataawa Azeeziyah Volume 1 Page 97)
Ibn Sa’d narrate that when Sayyiduna Ali رَضِیَ اللہُ تَعَالٰی عَنْہ announced that the people of Kufah
should not marry their daughters to Sayyiduna Hasan because Imam Hasan seemed would marry
to be addicted to divorcing his wives, a Hamdani swore by Almighty Allah that he his daughters to Sayyiduna Imam Hasan and he left the decision to remain in marriage at the discretion of Imam Hasan. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 129)
The reason why the Muslims were prepared to marry their daughters to Imam Hasan en even though the marriages were most likely to result in divorce was because of the fact that they desired to form a bond with the Messenger of Allah