Urdu Poets And Poetry

Urdu Poets And Poetry




In July, 1906, After Two Years At The Colonelganj

Middle School, I Sought Admission To The Government

High School. It Was Made A Condition That I Would

Not Be Promoted To The Seventh Class Unless I Acquired

A Knowledge Of Urdu. Thanks To The Interest Taken M

My Studies By The Late Maulvi Ibrahim And The Late

Maulvi Usman, I Learned Enough To Satisfy The

Examiners. But It Was Not Until Several Years Later

That My Interest Was Aroused In Urdu Literature. At

The Muir College, There Was A Great Scholar, The Late

Maulvi Mahdi Husain Nasiri, Who Soon Became The Life

And Soul Of All The Gatherings Of Urdu Poets. It Is To

Him That I Am Indebted For What Acquaintance I Have

With Urdu Poetry. During The Last Forty Years It Has

Been My Privilege To Meet Many Eminent Writers Of

Urdu —  Akbar, Iqbal, Maharaja Krishna Prasad, Jaleel,

Fam, Sayal, Taban, Shaheer, Safi, Saqib, Shauq, Azeez,

Hasrat. Nasiri, Asar, Josh, Jigar, Asghar, Rawan, Hafeez

Jalandhari, Seemab, Kaifi, Zareef, Mahshar, Chakbast,

Nooh, Bismil, Majid, Firaq, Ravish, Saghar. I Owe To

Them And To Their Writings Many Hours Of Delight. It

Is My Hope That In These Essays Some Readers Will Share

That Delight.


Patna. Amaranatha Jha


April 30, 1955.


For The Convenience Of Readers The Urdu Verses Have Been Printed

In Devnagri Script At The End.






*Urdu Literature



Urdu Is One Of The Major Languages Of India. For

About Three Hundred Years It Has Grown And Spread

And Developed So That All Indians Feel Legitimately

Proud Of It. Its Hterature Is Rich; In Poetry Specially

It Has Achieved Much. It Owes Its Origin To The Fact That

The Mughal Emperors Felt The Need Of A Language Which,

While Being Based On Indigenous Foundations, Could

Have A Superstructure That Approximated As Far As

Possible To The Language With Which They Had Them-

Selve Been Familiar. They Evolved, Therefore, Urdu,

Which For Centuries Served Their Special Need. Gradual-

Ly A Large Number Of Persons, Connected In One Way Or

Another With The Court And Associated With The Admi-

Nistrative Or Legal Machinery, Began To Use It. It Was

Modified As Time Went On, It Took On Local Colouring;

It Absorbed Provincial Idioms; It Was Enriched By Bor-

Rowings From Many Sources. As It Received Patronage

From The Court And Was Used Largely By The Courtiers

■And Court Poets, It Became Polished And Refined.

Urbanity And Grace Were Added To It. In His Dedication

Of The Aeneid, Dryden Said : “We Must Beat The Iron

While It Is Hot, But We May Polish It At Leisure”. That

Is What The Early Writers Of Urdu Did. They Spoke

And Wrote First, And They Found That It Was Capable Of



  • Sir Abdul Qadit Has Desired Me To Write A For© Ward To These

Lectures And Has Suggested That The Remarhs Made When I Presi|Ied

Over His Inaugural Lecture Might B© Reproduced Those Remarks Are,

Ifear,Huned In Oblivion And I Have No Notes Of What I Then Said.

But I Gladly Write These Few Lines By Way Of Introduction.








Attaining The Excellence Of The Classics. They Dis*

Covered That It Was A Fit Vehicle Not Only For Ballads,

Songs, And Snatches, And Dreamy Lullaby, But Also For

‘The Grand Style’, Which, As Arnold Says, ‘Arises In

Poetry, When A Noble Nature, Poetically Gifted, Treats

With Simplicity Or With Seventy A Serious Subject’. We

Have Thus In Urdu Literature, The Legends Of An Epic

Hour, Written With Vigour And Energy And Spark By

Anees And Dabeer; Lyrics In Which Excelled Mir Taqi

Mir, With The Melancholy Vibrations Of His Witching

Song; Ghalib, Master Of The Remote Charm By Thought

Supplied And Shedding Dim But Steady Light On The

Obscure Regions Of Philosophy; Nazeer Who Performs

The Hard Task Of Treating What Is Common In A Way Of

His Own And Enshrines Scenes And Legends With Which

He Is Familiar In Life And Which Are Not Derived Merely

From Tradition; Dagh, With His Nimble Wit; Dard Whose

High Moral Sense Is Commingled With Pathos, And

Other Luminaries Like Zauq, Sauda, Atish, Nasikh;

Satire In Which Beholders Generally Discover Every-

Body’s Face But Their Own; Novelists And Even Some

Playwrights It Is Sometimes Said That Urdu Litera-

Ture, And Poetry In Particular, Is Far Removed From

Life, That Its Songsters Dwell In


“A Pleasing Land Of Drowsy-Head.


Of Dreams That Wave Before The Half-Shut Eye.

And Of Gay Castles In The Clouds That Pass.


For Ever Flushing Round A Summer Sky;


There Eke The Soft Delight, That Witchingly

Instil A Wanton Sweetness Through The Breast.

And The Cahn Pleasures Always Hovered Nigh”.


It May Be Argued That The Love-Lyrics Are Usually





Maudlin, That The Beloved Is Always Wayward And

Cruel, That The Lover Is Frequently At The Point Of Death,

That Lamentation And Not Jubilation Is The Normal

Characteristic, That One Sees Tears Rather Than Smiles,

That Separation Rather Than Union Is Destined, That The

Ancient Heavens Rain Wrath Rather Than Mercy, That

There Is A Host Of Favoured Rivals. All This Is To Say

That Traditionalism And Symbolism Have Dominated

Urdu Poetry In Disproportionate Measure. But In Some

Of The More Recent Writers There May Be Noticed A

Sturdier Independence, A Tendency To Experiment, A

Determination To Make Their Works Come Home To Men’s

Busmess And Bosoms.


In The Perfectly Natural Wish To Elevate Their New

Language To Heights Attained By The Classics, The Early

Writers Of Urdu Made An Attempt To Load It With

Persian And Arabic Words And Employ Metrical Forms

Borrowed From Iran. That Was Not Done By The Earlier

Writers, Many Of Whom Employed A Large Number Of

Indigenous Words And Metres That Were Already In Use

In India. Some Of The Later Writers Went Farther Still In

Rigidly Exorcismg Words Of Indian Origin And Abandon-

Ing Indian Metres. A Kind Of Index Expurgatorius Was

Produced, Containmg Lists Of Words That Were Matrook,

Forbidden. All The Symbols Were Borrowed From

Foreign Lands. So Absurdly Tyrannical Had This Foreign

Symbolism Become That Even A Hindu Poet Of Urdu

Referred To Himself As A Kafir, Indulged In Flmgs

Against Idols, Spoke M Terms Of Disdain Of The Sacred

Thread, Thought Longingly Of The Tavern And The Cup

Bearer, Raved In Praise Of The Bulbul’s Song Which He

Had Never Heard, Described The Spring Showers Which








Might Be Common In Persia But Certainly Not In India,

Celebrated The Glories Of Nausherwan And Ghaznavi,

Lost His Heart To The Cypress And The Narcissus. He

Forgot Or Chose To Forget The Lotus And The Mango-

Blossom, He Was Deaf To The Song Of The Koil And The

Papeeha; He Mentioned In A Nostalgic Vein Yusuf And

Zulekha And Shirin And Farhad And Laila And Majnun,

And Not Even Hinted Once At The Legends On Which His

Childhood And Youth And The Childhood And Youth Of Au

His Coimtrymen And Countrywomen Had Been Fed, Nala

And Damayanti, Savitri And Satyavan, Sita And Kama

The Result Was That Urdu Became An Offshoot Of Persian

And Ceased To Be, What At The Start It Had Been, An In-

Dian Literature With An Indian Atmosphere. It Became

A Faint Echo, A Pale Imitation Of Persian. That Has Been

The Tragedy Of Much Of Hmdi Literature, Too, Where

Many Beautiful Words Of Humble, Non-Classical Origin

Have Been Thrown Into Disuse, And The Persisin Words

Which Had Been Absorbed Into Hindi By Poets Like

Tulsidas And Bihari Are In Grave Danger Of Being Dis-

Carded A More Catholic Outlook Is Needed In Both

These Great Literatures.


A Common Charge Against Indian Universities Is

That They Have Not Helped In The Growth Of The Langu-

Ages And Literatures Of India. We Are All Conscious

Of The Many Defects Of The Modern Educational System,

None More So Than Those Who Have Been Brought Up

Under It. It Is Obviously Necessary To Reform And Im-

Prove It And Remould It So As To Bridge The Wide Gulf

Between The Educated And The Vast Mass Of The Un-

Educated. It Must Become More National In Content

And Out-Look, Without Ignormg The International








Character Of Knowledge. Learning Knows No Geogra-

Phical Boundaries But M Regard To The Literatures Of

India, It Is Not Correct To Say That The Universities And

University Men Have Ignored Them, Or Have Been In-

Different To Them, Or Have Not Taken Steps To Enrich

Them If One Surveys Urdu And Hmdi Literatures During

The Last Fifty Years, One Is Struck By The Very Substan-

Tial Contribution Made To Them By University Men.

In Urdu, For Instance, Let Us Remember With Gratitude

The Work Done By Allahabad University Men —  Maulvi

Zakaullah, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Hasrat Mohani.

Dr. Abdul Haq, Brijnarain Chakbast, Tam’, Jafar Ali

Khan ‘Asar’, Dr. Ram Babu Saksena, Jagat Mohan

‘Rawan’, Dayanarain Nigam, Maulana Abdul Majid;

And In Hindi Shyam Sundar Das, Shyambihari Mishra,

Sukhdev Bihari Mishra. Purushottam Das Tandan.

Ramchandra Shukla, Sumitranandan Pant, Mahadevi

Varma, Bhagwaticharan Verma, Narendra, Bachchan,

Ram Kumar. Surely, These Are Names That Will Figure

Prominently In Any History Of Literature.


Sir Abdul Qadir Has A Long Association With Urdu

Journalism And Criticism. For Over Forty Years He Has

Served Literature With Devotion. He Has Not Allowed

Law Or Nolitics To Abate His Ardour For It. He Has

Personally Known Many Leading Men Of Letters. He

Is Familiar With All That Is Best In Urdu Literature. In

These Lectures He Has Attempted A Rapid Survey Of

Urdu. It Is A Task That Could Have Been Performed

Only By One Who Has Wide Knowledge, Sound Judg-

Ment. Acute Powers Of Critical Analysis. Taste Has

Been Compared To That Exquisite Sense Of The Bee,

Which Instantly Discovers And Extracts The Quintas-








Sence Of Every Flower, And Disregards All The Rest Of

It. Sir Abdul Qadir’s Book Is Distinguished By Taste

In This Sense


Sir Abdul Qadir Made His Mark As A Critic Of Urdu Literature

Long Ago In 1895, When His First Paper On Urdu Literature Was Published

In The * ‘Punjab Magazine”. In Course Of This, He Wrote, “Indian

Gentlemen With High Education Ought To Rise And Try To Purify And

Improve Their Language, To Edit Journals And Magazines In It, To

Give New Life To Its Fiction, To Improve Its Essays, To Write Biographies

Of Their Great Men In Their Mother Tongue, To Translate Or Adapt Useful

Books From Other Languages, In Short To Enrich Urdu In Everyway

They Can”. Most Of The Papers In The Slender Volume Published M

1898 Under The Title, “The New School Of Urdu Literature”, Are

Marked By Independent Judgment And Sound Common Sense. Thus

In Speaking Of Sarshar’s “Fisanai-Azad”, He Says • “This Book

Would Have Been Simply Matchless Had It Been Just Half Irs Present

Bulk”. Here Is A Sentence From The Essay On Sharar; “Masters Of

The Language As The Lucknow People Can Claim To Be, They Must

Remember That They Devote Too Much Attention To Mere Discussion

About Words, And Their Pride As To Their Being The Sole Possessors Of

The Language Is A Serious Bar To Their Making Any Real Progress”.

For Over Half A Century, Sir Abdul Has Devoted Himself To The Service

Of Urdu And Has Done Much To Influence Sane Criticism.








In The Firmament Of Urdu Poetry, Meer Is A Star

Of The First Magnitude. He Wrote While The Urdu

Language Was Yet In A Process Of Formation; Experi-

Ments Were Yet Bemg Made; No Strict And Rigid Code

Had Yet Been Prescribed Either In Respect Of Words Or

Of Metrical Forms. That Explams Both The Rugged-

Ness Of Many Of His Expressions And The Freshness And

Naturalness And Spontaneity Of His Verses. His Posi-

Tion As One Of The Major Literary Figures Of The Country

Has Never Been Disputed. During His Own Hfetime And

Ever Since He Has Been Recognised To Be A Master.

Zauq Said ;


Na Hua, Par Na Hua Meer Ha Andaz Nasib,


‘Zauq’, Yaron Ne Bahut Zor Ghazal Men Mara.


And There Is The Well Known Tribute Of Ghalib :


Rekhte Ke Tumhin Ustad Nahin Ho, ‘Ghalib’,


Kahte Hain Agle Zamane Men Km ‘Meer’ Bhi Tha.

As Well As This Combined Praise From Ghalib And Nasikh

‘Ghalib’, Apna Yih Aqida Hai, Baqaule ‘Nasikh’,


Ap Bebahra Hai Jo Motqide ‘Meer’ Nahin.


Akbar Auahabadi Says :


Mam Hoon Kya Cheez ]O Us Tarz Pai Jaoon, ‘Akbar’,

‘Nasikh’ O ‘Zauq’ Bhi Jab Chal Na Sake ‘Meer’ Ke Sath.

Meer Was Probably Born M 1718 A.D. And Died

In 1808|1810 A.D. As A Boy He Received Training

Under Syed Amanullah. His Father Died When He Was

About 11 Years Old; According To Other Estimates, He

Was Then About 14. He Left Agra For Delhi When He








Poets And Poetry



Was About 17. He Obtained There The Support And

Patronage Of Khwaja Mohd. Basit, Who Introduced

Him To Amir Alamara. His Patron Was Killed During

The Troublous Mvasion Of Nadir Shah And Meer Had To

Return To Agra. After A Short Stay There He Went

Back To Delhi Where He Lived With Sira]Uddin All



But His Life There Was Far From Agreeable; His

Step-Brother Seems To Have Harboured Such Violent Ill-

Will Towards Him As To Have Influenced Sis Host Against

Him This Saddened His Life And Was To A Large Extent

Responsible For His Deep-Seated Melancholy. But He

Was Nevertheless Able To Read A Good Deal Either Under

The Guidance Of Khano Arzoo (As Stated In Nikatus-

Shoara) Or Under That Of Meer Jafar Of Patna (As Re-

Lated M Zikr-E-Meer) , And Before Long Became A Good

Scholar Of Persian And Also Attained Proficiency In

Arabic. It Is Surmised That He Began By Writing In

Persian, But As Urdu Was Becoming The Current Langu-

Age, He Soon Started Composing In Urdu.


During The Hard Days Through Which Delhi Had To

Pass Owing To The Depredations Caused By The Afghan

Invasions And The Marhatta Rising, He Had To Move

About A Good Deal From Place To Place, Twice Visiting,

Agra, Attached To The Entourage Of Raja Suraj Mai,

And Subsequently Returning To A Much-Changed Delhi.

He Says :


Delhi Men Aj Bhik Bhi Milti Nahiii Unhen,


Tha Kal Talak Dima H Pnhen Takht-O-Taj La.


But He Soon Resumed His Literary Pursuits, And

Attended Poets’ Gatherings At The Houses Of Dard,

Sajjad, Meer Ali Kafir, And Possibly Also Of Masahfi.











He Had Attained Among Them A Position Of Eminence

From All Quarters He Received His Meed Of Praise. His

Verses Were Widely Quoted. But He Attached Little

Significance To These Tributes. His Vanity Or His Sense

Of Conscious Superiority Remained Unsatisfied He Fre-

Quently Complained Of Want Of Intelligent Appreciation.

He Attacked His Contemporaries And Made Fun Of Their

Art. The Tension Grew To Such An Extent That One Of

Them, Addressing Him Said :


Pagree Apni Sambhcdiyega, Meerl


Aur Basti Nahin, Yth Dilli Hai.


The Altered Conditions In Delhi, The Break With His

Fellow-Poets, Financial Embarrassment, All Combined To

Make His Stay In Delhi Difficult. In One Of His Verses

He Says :


‘Meer’ Saheb Ko Dekhiye Jo Bane,


Ab Bahut Ghar Se Kam Nikalte Hain.


Fortunately For Him, Nawab Asafuddaulah Of

Oudh Expressed A Wish That Meer Should Visit Lucknow,

And Nothing Loth, He Reached There And Was Received

With Great Consideration, The Nawab Giving Him A

Pension Of Either Rs. 200 Or Rs. 300 A Month. He Was

Now Free To Exercise His Poetic Talents.


Sauda And Soz Were The Prominent Stars In The

Poetic Firmament Of Lucknow. The Nawab Himself

Was A Disciple Of Soz, But He Bestowed High Honours

On Meer. After Nawab Saadat Ali Khan Came Into

Power, Meer’s Visits To The Court Became Less Frequent

And Indeed His Sensitiveness Made Him Imagine Affronts

Where None Were Intended. He Continued, However,

To Attend Literary Gathermgs, And Was Recognised As

The Leading Poet Of His Generation.








Poets And Poetry



But He Never Forgot Delhi. In Numerous Verses

There Are Nostalgic References To The City Where He Had

Spent His Youth. Indeed He Occasionally Ran Down

Lucknow, Though It Was There That He Found Freedom

From Care, Warmth Of Friendship, And Wide Recognition.

The Uncomplimentary Terms In Which He Speaks Of

Lucknow May Be A Tribute To Delhi, But They Undoubt-

Edly Savour Of Ingratitude.


Abad Ujra Lucknow Chughdon Se Ab Kua,


Mushkil Hai Is Kharahe Me Adam Ki Bood-O-Bash.


Kis Kis Ada Se Rekhte Mam Ne Kahe, Wale

Samjha Na Icox Men Zahan Is Dayar Men.


He Was Frank And Outspoken To A Fault He Could Not

Suffer Fools Gladly.


Kakna Jis Se Jo Kuchh Hoga Samne, Mee.R, Kaka Hoga,


Bat Na Dil Men Phir Gayi Hogi Munh Par Mere Ayi Bat.

During His Stay In Lucknow, Within A Period Of

Three Years, He Suffered Three Cruel Losses By Death;

These Cast A Shadow Over His Life; And He Became More

  • Or Less A Recluse It Was In This Mood Of Depression

That He Wrote :


Bos, Bahut Waqt Kiya Sher He Fan Men Zaya,


Meer, Ab Peer Huye, Tarke Khyalat Karo.


Physical Ailments Now Overwhelmed Him. Noted

Physicians Treated Him. But In Vain. In A. H. 1225

(1808 A.D.) He Died At The Age Of 90. (Fuller Parti-

Culars Of His Life Are Obtainable In The Elaborate Intro-

Duction Contributed By Maulana Abdul Bari ‘Asi’ To His

Edition Of Kulliyate-E-Meer, Published In 1941 By The

Newal Kishore Press Of Lucknow)


Meer Started Writing At A Time When The Urdu

Language Was Still In A State Of Evolution New Phrases











Iv(5ie Being Coined. New Experiments Were Being Tried.

New Metrical Patterns Were Being Attempted. Persian

Words And Metres Were Being Superimposed On The In-

Digenous Language. Images And Ideas Borrowed From

Persian Were Being Employed. Indian Literature Was

Being Enriched With The Choicest Legends, Similes, And

Symbols Of The Poetry Of Persia. A Time Was Soon To

Arrive When Urdu, Born On Indian Soil, Began To Pros-

Per With The Aid Entirely Of Borrowed And Imported

Impulse And Rigidly Excluded The Legends, Symbols,

Similes, Metres With Which Indians Had For Centuries

Been Familiar


But Meer Remained True In The Main To The Origi-

Nal Genius Of Urdu And Did Not Forget That It Was An

Indian Language Born In India, Used By Indians There

Abound, M His Poems, Hindi Words Which Of Course

Everyone In His Age, Hindu And Muslim, Was Familiar

With. The Tragedy Is That In A Modern Edition Of These

Poems, An Elaborate Glossary Has To Be Appended Of

Such Words, For They Have For About A Century Been

Scrupulously Excluded From Urdu Below Is A Selection

Of Lines In Which Hindi Words Have Been Used With

Great Effect :


1 . Naumedi Bhi Had Rakhti Hai,


Jeeta Kab Tak Rahega Koi Udas.


2 . Chalta Phirta Hai Par Udas Udas.


3 . Nahin Rahta Chiragk Aisi Pawan Men.


4 . Nahin Biswas ]I Gawane Ke.


5 . Daise Kisoo Ka Koi Nagar Ho Luta Hua,


  1. Is Gham Men Meer Turn Ko ]I Se Nidan Mara.


7 . Bare Apna Paon Is Rah Men Bichal Kar Rah Gaya.


8 . Mukhre Se Ids Ke Tu Ne Ai ‘Meer, Dil Lagaya.


9 . ]O Kam Meerji Ne Kiya So Kudhab Kiya.








Poets And Poetry



  1. Soda Mctm To Rahta Hun Bimar

J 1. Yih Nagar Kahe Tar Ah Sc Wee Ran Liota,


  1. Kuchh Bhi Jo Sun Pawen Yih To Rnajlis Men Bistar Karen.


  1. Khuda Jane Milap Is Se Kalian Ho.


It. Na Dll Se Ja, Khuda Hi Tnjh Ho Saugand,


  1. Lane Hi Ke Ham Lachhan Save Is Asman Ke


16 Chitivan Ke Kab Dhab The Ai$E,


17 Ek Samay Turn Ham,


  1. Yihan Sanjh Ke-Tayeeii Bhi Sahar Ka Saman Sa Hat,


  1. Sudh Ctpni Nahm Ham Ko Kuchh Turn Ko Khahar Bhi Hai*


  1. Kya Zulm Kiya Beja Mara Cjutivan Se Unne

Kuchh Thaur Bhi Tin Ish Kuchh Iska Thikana Tha,


  1. Doon Kisho Dosh Dushmane Jani Thi Dosti


  1. A Jab Nahm Hni Na Jane Jo Meer Chah Ki Reeu


  1. Is Se Koi Nahin Nuas Kahin


24 Sanmukh Ho Ke Maidan Men,


25 Dm Aj Ka Bhi Sanjh Hua Intizar Men


  1. Is Samay Men Dekhne Hamko Bahut Ay A Karo.


  1. Rahta Hai Peshi-Deeday Tar Ah Ka Subhap,


  1. Kya Dheer Handhe Uski Jo Ishq Ka Ruswa Ho


  1. Meer Kyon Rahte Hain Aksar Anmane,


  1. Sudh Apni Hisar Jaye,


31 Biswas Na Karta Tha Mar Jane Se Hi J Ran Men.


  1. Turn Kis Samay Ki Kahte Ho


Yeh Hai Hah An Hi Bat?


  1. Rah Takte Takte Apni Ankhen Hhi Pathra Chaleen,


  1. Alim Ilm Men Ek The Ham Wale Half Hai Unko Gyan




  1. Jaise Mad Mate Ho


  1. Achraj Hai Is Nagar Se Jata Nahin Daba Kuchh,


  1. Moondkar Akhen Meer Agar Tu Dil Ki Taraf Tuk Dhyan













38 . Tuike Se Ham Parbat Hue,


39 . Meer Sitam Kushta Hi Sarnajat Hni Mashhoor Zamane Ku


40 . Rat Hui Jis Jagah Ham Ko Ham Ne Wcthin Bisram Kiya,


41 . Charon Or Nahin Kai Koi Yan Wan Yonhi Dhyan Gaya,


42 . Dll Gay A Mu Ft Aur Dukh Paya


43 Anchhar Ham To Ishq He Do Hi Lekin Hai Bistar Bahut,


44 . Ai Boo-E-Gul Samajh Ke Mahkiye Pawari Ke Beech,


45 . Maza Ras Men Hai Logo Kya Turn Kuras Men,


46 . Basant  Qaba Par Tere Mar Gaya Hau


47 . Ik Bat Us Se Ho Gayi Dodo Bach An Ke Sath,


48 . Bedsa Kyon Na Sookh Jaoon Main


49 . Muddat Men Ho Milap To Pahchan Kya Rahe,


50 Rah In Bat Khoye Deti Hai


Among Other Hindi Words Used By Him Are Achapal,

Basan, Ban, Bhasm, Pareeka, Tajna, Joga, Chit Charhna,

Dheer Bandhna, Rom Rom, Sumran, Soor, Kal, Kapi, Gun,

Nibal, Nipat, Hunkar, Sansar.


In The Writings Of Meer And Indeed Of All His Con-

Temporaries We Find Many Idioms And Grammatical

Formations Which Are No Longer In Use But Some Of

Them Impart A Curiously Agreeable Flavour To His Lines

And One May Regret Their Havmg Fallen Into Disuse


One Of The Points That Need To Be Investigated Is

The Entry Of ‘Ne’ Into Urdu And Hindi. In Meer’s Time

The Use Of It Seems To Have Been Optional. In Some

Ways It Is A Pity That This Small Participle Is So Strongly

Entrenched Now Both In Urdu And Hindi It Is One Of

The Major Impediments For Those Not Born In Delhi And

The United Provinces, Though It Is The Unceasing Source

Of Delight To Those Belonging To The Punjab! Here Are

Some Lines In Which Meer Has Not Used ‘Ne’.


1 . Naqiqash! Dekli To Mam Kya Naqsh Yar Khincha.





Poets And Poetry


  1. Ik Mg Mam Besaha ]I Ko Kalian Lagaya


3* Meer Ko Turn Abas Udas Kiya


  1. Woh To Mita Ga Ya Tha Turbat Bin Meerp Ki.


Do Char Eenten Rahh Har Phir Mam Nishan Banaya


  1. Turbat Se Hamari Na Uthi Gard Bhi, Ai Meer,


Ji Se Gaya, Lekin Na Kiya Tark Adab Ham,


  1. Khiida Se Shab Ko Do A Mangle,


Na Uska Liya Nam Ghairat Se Ham.


  1. Main Dair Pahunch Ke Na Kiya Qasde Haram Phxr,


  1. Kya Kiya Hai Falak Ka Mean, Ki Mujhe

Khak Hi Men Milaya Jata Hai,


  1. Shab Chand Toz Se Mam Dekha Nahin Woh Chehra.


10 Main Gulistan Men Ake Abas Ashiyan Kiya*


  1. Meer Se Puchha Jo Mam, Ashiq Ho Tumi?


Ho Ke Kuchk Chupke Se Sharmaya Bahut.


  1. Ham Apne Yar Ko Dekha Hai,


  1. Achhe Kuchh Asar Na The, Mam Us Beemar Ko Dekha Hai


  1. Main Na Gardan Katayi Jab Tak, Meer,


Ishq Ke Mujh Se Haq Ada Na Hue,


  1. Bahut Liye Tasbeeh Phire Ham, Pahna Hai Zunnar Bahut


  1. Ki Dosti Ki Yaro, Ik Rog Main Bisaha,


  1. Been Galiyan Unhin Ne Wohi Bedimagh Hain.


Main, Meer, Kuchh Kaha Nahin, Apni Zaban Se


Next Follow Some Examples Of Archaic Usage :


  1. Kabhoo Jawegi Jo Udhar Saba.


  1. Un Ne Rah Ah Aur Nikali Eedhar Iske Guzar Nahin,


  1. Unhon Ke Bhi Khun Tak Main Ham Rah Hoon,


  1. Yih Ashiqi Hai Kaisi, Aise Jiyoge Kab Tak,


Tarke Wafa Karo Ho Marne Ke Meer Dar Se.


  1. Door Bahut Bhago Ho Hamse.


  1. Koi Na Hamko Jane Tha Ham Aise The Gumnam Age,


  1. Ham Ko Kahne Ke Tayeen Bazm Men Ja Dete Hain.











8 . Abad Hiya Jcioon Hoon Cibki Akhir Mujhko, Ghaiiat Hai


9 . Nazar Kinhoon Ne Na Ki Hal-E-Meer Afsos,


10 Kahoon Hoon Meer Se Dil De Kahin Na Ji La A Tera


] 1 . Sabhon Se Mcer Begane Se Ralite


12 . Nayi Sooraten Kaistka Si Bigareen,


Samajhte Nakin Ham Falak Kya Hare Hai,


13 . Mam Rotvoon, Turn Iianso Ho, Kya Jano Meer Sahib,


Dil Apka Kisoo Se Shay Ad Laga Nahm Hal


14 . Phirte Ho, Meer Sahib, Sab Se Jude Jude Turn


15 . Tujh Gall Men Rahe Hai Meer, Magar


Dekhen Hain Jab Na Tab Nahin, Pyare,


16 . Yih Bat Men Zid Se Tumhen Kin Ne Batak


17 . Tujh Kane Baithe Ghuta Jata Hai Jl


18 . Yih Jo Muhlat Jise Hahen Hai Umr.


Dekko To Intazar $A Hai Kuchh,


19 . In Ne To Ankhen Inoond Liyan Hain Udhar Se Tvahan,


20 . Agar Woh Hut Na Jane To Na Jane


Hamen Sab Jane Ham Hindustan Men.


21 . Na Suna Rat Ham Ne Ik Nala»


Ghaliban Meer Mar Raha Howe.


22 . Dll Do Ho, Meer Sahib, Us Badmdsh Ko Turn.


23 . Dekhoon Him Ankh Utha Kar Jis Ko To Yih Kahe Hal


24 . S Hayed Kisoo Ke Dil Ko Lagi Us Gah Men Chou


25 . Yarane Dairo Knaba Donon Hula Rahe Hain


Ab Dekhen Meer Apna Jana Kidhar Bane Hai.


A Few Lines In Which Meer Refers To Delhi And

Others In Which There Is A Distinctive Indian Atmos-

Phere May Now Be Quoted :


1 , Ataslue-Ishq Ne Ravan Ko Jala Kar Mara,


Garche Lanka Sa Tka Is Deo Ha Ghar Pan: Men


2 , Ajab Nahin Hai Na Jane Jo Mcer Chali Hi Reel,


Suna Nahin Hai Magar Yih Id Jogi His Ke Meet








U: Poets And Poetry


  1. Dil O Dhh Donon Agar Ham Kharab,


Fai Kuchh Lutf Is Ujre Ghar Men Bhi Hain,


  1. Lakhnaoo Dilli Se Aya Yan Bhi Rahta Hai Udas


Meer Ho Sargashtgi Ne Bedil-O-Hairan Kiya*


  1. Kharaba Dilli Ka Dah Chand Hehtar Lakhnaoo Se Tha

Wohin Mam Hash Mar Jata Sare Samay Na Ata Yahau*


  1. Dilli Men Ab Ke Akar Im Yaron Ka Na Dekha,


Kuchh Wo Gaye Shitabi Kuchh Ham Bader Aye.


  1. Pagri Apni Sambhaliyega Meer


Aur Basti Nahim Yih Dilli Hau


  1. Dilh Ke Na The Kuche, Auraq-E Musawwir The


Jo Shakl Nazar Ayi  Tasweer Nazar Ayu


  1. Har Roz Naya Ek Tamasha Dekha


Har Kuche Men Sau Jawan E-Raana Dekha,


Dilli Thi Tilasmat Ki Har Jagah, Meer.


In Ankhon Se Ah! Ham Ne Kya Icy A Dekha

There Are, Next, A Number Of Verses In Which He

Has Used His Takhallus, Pen-Name, With Great Effect.

In Some Of Them A Quaint Flavour Has Been Introduced

By The Addition Of ‘Ji’ Or ‘Sahib’ To The Name Plere Are

A Few Of Them :


]. Lete Hi Nam Uska, Sole Se Chaunk Uthe Ho,


Hai Khair Meer Sahib, Kuchh Turn Ne Khivab Dekha


  1. Nachar Ho Rukhsai Jo Manga Bheji To, Bola


Mam Kya Karoon. Jo Meerji Jate Ham, Sidharen.


  1. H Qadar Be Mang Khabton Ko Naseehat Sheiljiji,

Bazaao, Warna Apne Nam Ko Mam Meer Hoon.


  1. Hoke Qaidiye Kuye Mukabbal Zor Sada Yiji Nikali Hai,

Ab To Meerji Raton Ko Turn Har Dar Par Chillate Ho


5 Rat To Sari Gayi Sunte Parishan Goyi,


Meerji Koi Ghari Turn Bhi To Aram Karo.











  1. Awwal Ishq Hi Men Meerji Turn Rone Lage,


Khak Bhi Munh Ko Malo, Nala-O-Faryad Haro.


  1. Meerji! Zard Hue Jute Ho.


Kya Kahin Turn Ne Bhi Kiya Hai Ishq


  1. Ki Zyarat Meer Ki Ham Ne Bhi Kal.


La Ubali Sa Hai Par Kamil Hai Miyan.


  1. L)Il Aur Arsh Donon Pai Goya Hai Unki Sair,


Karte Ham Baten Meerji Kis Kis Muqam Se.


  1. Taseer Hai Dua Ko Jaqeeron Ku Meerji,


Tuk Ap Bhi Hamare Liye Hath Utkaiye.


“Which Is Your Particular Vanity? Which Vanity Do

You Like The Flavour On Best, Sir?” Asked Sam Weller.

Well, The Brand Of “Vanity” In Which Poets, All Through

The Ages Have Specialised Is The Self And Vain Conceit.


‘As If This Flesh Which Walls About Our Life

Were Brass Impregnable’.


Did Not The Youthful Shakespeare Claim :


‘Not Marble, Nor The Gilded Monuments

Of Princes Shall Outlive This Powerful Rhyme?’


And Did Not The Even More Youthful Keats Say;

‘Poets’ Food Is Love And Fame?’ In Poetry Egotism Has

An Engaging Quality That We Miss In Real Life. The

Poets Are A Vain Tribe : The Lord Has Given Them A Good

Conceit Of Themselves. Urdu Poets In Particular Are

Fed On Adulation; In Mushairas Even Indifferent Verse

Is Praised Above Heaven And Earth; They Do Not Realise

That ‘Praising All Alike Is Praising None’: They Are Assur-

Ed That A Ghazal Is Worth A Whole Diwan, That No One

Before Them Had Thought On Their Level, That The Simile

Is Unapproachable, That They Are Above Comparison In

Regard To Beauty Of Language And Originality Of Idea.

Meer Had Passed Through Many Woities. He Had








Poets And Poetry



No Fixed Abode. His Financial Condition Was Not Stable.

But He Was Fully Conscious Of His Poetic Gifts. He Knev/

That He Composed Verses That Posterity Would Not

Willingly Let Die. His Pride In Himself Was Natural And

The Egotism Displayed In The Following Lines May Well

Be Forgiven :


  1. Jcine Ka Nakiji Shor Suljian Ha Mere Hargiz


Ta Hashr Jahan Men Mera Diwan Rahega.


  1. Bulbup Ghazal Sarayi Age Hamare Mat Kar.


Sab Hamse Seekkte Hain Andaze Gujtgoo


  1. Rekhta Ruthe Ho Pahunchaya Hua Is Ka Haj


Mutaqid Haun Nahin Meer Ki U Tadi Ka?


  1. Kisoo Id Bat Ne Age Mere Na Paya Rang,


Dilon Men Naqsh Hat Men Sakhun Tarazi Ka>


  1. Rekhta Khuh Hi Kahta Hai Jo Insaf Karen

Chahiye Aide Sukhan Meer Ho Iistad Karen.


  1. Khol Kar Duvan Mera Dekh Qudrat, Muddai


Gar Eke Hun Main Naujaivan Par Shairpn Ka Peer Hoom


  1. Gar Dekhoge Turn Tarze Kalam Uski Nazar Kar


Ai Aide Sukhan, Meer Ko Xistad Karoge*


8* Samjhe Andaze Sher Ko Mere


Meer Ka Sa Agar Kamal Rakhe,


  1. Rekhta Kahe Ko Tha Is Rutbae Ala Mem Meer


Jo Zamin Nikli Use Ta Asman Mam Le Gay A*


  1. Kis Ms Ada Se Rekhte Main Ne Kahe Walek»


Samjha Na Koi Meri Zaban Is Dayar Mem

H, Sher Hamare Alam Ke Har Char Taraf Hya Daure Hain»


Kis Wadiye Abadi Men Yih Harf-O-Suhhan Mashhoor




Meer Had The Gift Of Speech, Sensitiveness, Vision,

Bumour; He Expressed Himsejf Simply, Straight From The

Heart And So Finds A Way Into The Hearts Of His Readers.











He Rarely Strains After Effect. His Verses Have The Ease

Of The Spoken Word. In Many Instances They Seem To

Differ From Prose Only In I Reater Intensity Ot Emotion

His Style Is That Of The Supreme Poets Who Achieved

The Grand Style Without Attempting It He Is In His

Simplicity Sublime We Foiget The Archaic Expressions,

We Ignore The Quaint Idioms, And Concentrate On The

Idea Or The Image Which Is Not Hampered Or Obscured

By Verbiage.


Behoshi Si Ati Hai Tu]He Iiski Gah Men


Gar Ho Sake, Ai Meer, To Us Rah Na Ja Too.


One Cannot Help Admiring The Simple Style Of The Lines :


Gar Che Hab Dekhte Ho, Par Dekho,


Arzoo Hai Ki Turn Idhar Dekjwm


Or Of This In The Characteristic Meer Vein ”


Jab Li Pakloo Se Yar Uthta Hai,


Dard Be Ahhtyar Uthta Hai.




Tu]H Bm Aye Ham Tang Jeene Se

Marne Ka Intizar Rahta Hai.


Mere Qisse Se Sab Gayin Neenden,


Kuchh Ajab Taur Hi Kahani Thi


Eam  Meer, Ter A Mama Kya Chahtc The, Lekin,


Rahta Hai Hue Bin Kab, ]0 Kuchh Ki Hua Chahe.


Na Woh Awe, Na Jawe Beqarari,


Kisoo Din  Meei, Joonhi Mar Rahoonga*


Ahsar Popchhe Hai Jeete Hain, Meer?


Ab To Kuchh Meharban Bahut Hai.


Or The Very Plain Language In Which He Expresses Mm-

$!Elf In This Verse


Us Se Ghahra He Jo Kuchh Kahnc Ho Chahta Hoofij,


Du H Phir Dil Men Liye Chupke Chala Jata Hoon.








Poets And Poetey





Wdade Har Roz Rahe Aur Turn Ate Hi Rahe,


Hamko Dekho Ki Lage Chained To Jate Hi Rahe.


The Ghazal, Where Each Couplet Is A Complete Inde-

Penaent Unit, Lends Itself Admirably To The Expression

Of Pithy Statements And Maxims. They Are Eminently

Quotable And Memorable. Polite Conversation In Urdu

Is Frequently Embellished With Snatches From Them.

There Are Many Sententious Lines In Meer. These Ex-

Press Some Universal Truth Or Generalisation. It Is Not

Fair To Build On Them Any Consistent And Conscious Philo-

Sophy Of Life They Reflect The Mood Of The Moment:

They Emerge From The Sentiment Expressed In The Poem

They Have This In Common That They Are Tinged With

Melancholy. Meer Might Well Say With Shakespeare,

In Love’s Labour’s Lost, ‘ By Heaven, I Do Love And It

Hath Taught Me To Rhyme, And To Be Melancholy”. Bui

There Is Worldly Wisdom Too In These Sayings, Some Of

Which Are :


1 . Nahaq Ham Majbooron Par Yih Tuhmat Hai Mukhtari Ki

Chahte Ham So Ap Hare Ham Ham Ho Abas Badnam Hiya*


2 . Khuda Hai  Shaikhji, Ham Se Gunahgaron Ka.


3 . Ham Aphi Ko Apna Maqsopd Jante Hain

Apne Siwai Kis Ko Maujood Jante Hain?


4 . Teri Ah! Kis Se Khabcir Paiye?


Wohi Bekhabar Hai Jo Agah Hai.


5 . Ab Jo Ik Hasrate Jawam Hai,


Umre Rafta Ki Yih Niskani Hai.


6 . Kahen Kya Jo Poochhe Koi Hamse. Meer


Jahan Men Turn Aye The  Kya Kar Chale?


7 . Jo Kuchh Nazar Pare Hau Haqeeqat Men Kuchh Nahin

Alam Men Khoob Dekho To Alam Hai Khwab Ka»











  1. Kabhoo To Dair Men Hoon Main Kablioo Horn Ka’abe




Kahaii Kalian Liyc Phirta Hai Shauq Us Dar Ha,


  1. Rahe Marg Se Kyon Darate Ham Log


Bahut Us Taraf Ko To Jate Ham Log,


  1. Yahi Jana Ki Kuchh Na Jana Hai


So Bhi Ik  Umr Men Hua Ma’ Alum,


  1. Ghanbana Koi Shab Roz Kar Yaan,


Hamesha Kaun Rahta Hai Sara Men?


  1. Har Koi Is Muqam Men Das Roz,


Apni Naubat Bajaye Jata Hai,


  1. Bam Sooraten Kaisi Kaisi B{Garee»


Samajhte Nahin Ham Falak Kya Hare Hai


  1. Kis Ko Kahte Hain Nahin Main Janta Islom O-Kufr,

Dair Ho Ya Kdaba  Mailab Mujh Ko Tere Dar Se Hai,


  1. Ba Re Duniya Men Raho, Ghamzada Ya Shad Raho

Aua Kuchh Kar Ke Chalo Yan, Ki Bahut Yad Lalw,


  1. Hleer, Jangal Pare Ham Aj Jahan.


Log Kya Kya Nahin The Kal Baste,


  1. Rak-I Door Adam Se Aye, Basti Jan Ke Duniya Men


So Ran Ghar Ujar Ham Sare, Ik Manzil Mdamaur Nakiji.


  1. Khyal Chhor De Wai’az Tu Begunahi Kn

Rakhe Hai Shank Agar Rahmate Ilahi Ka,


  1. Duniya Men Der Rajma Hota Nahin Kisoo Ka

Yih To Sarai Jam Ik Karavan Sera Hai,


  1. Zindgi Karte Ham Marne Ke Liye Able Jahan,


Waqaya, Meer  Hai Darpesh Ajab Yaron Ko.


  1. Rahne Ki Koi Jagah Skayad Na Thi Unkon Ki:,


Id Yan Se Vlli Gaye Hain  We Phir Kabhoo Na Aye.


Life On Earth Is Transient; This World Is No Better

Than A Caravan-Serai Where We Sojourn For A While On

Our Journey Onwards; The Petty Differences That Divide








Poets And Poetry



Creeds Melt Into Insignificance In The Presence Of The

One And Universal Truth; The Test Of A Successful Life Is

Memorable Action; Momentary Lapse From The Path Of

Virtue Provides God An Opportunity For Showing Mercy;

The Deepest Knowledge Of Our Ownself, Ail The Sights

And Sounds Of This World Are No More Than A Breath* A

Wind* A Sigh, A House Where None But Phantoms Dwell;

Tavern And Mosque Are Alike The Abode Of God; Death

Can Have No Terrors For Us, Because So Many Have Pre-

Ceded Us There; The Sum Of Our Knowledge Is That We

Know Nothing; The World Destroys Before Their Due

Time Many Young Lives, Such Are The Views That We

Find M These Lines, Such The Philosophy Of Life, If We

Regard Them As Expressing Any Systematic Outlook.


It Is A Commonplace Of Urdu Criticism That Melan-

Choly Is The Mam Note In The Poetry Of Meer. The

Urdu Ghazal Is Generally Speaking Pitched In A Raild

Key Lamentation Rather Than Exaltation, Despair

Rather Than Hope, Failure Than Success, Frustration, Sepa-

Ration And Not Union, Long And Lonely Nights And End-

Less Days, The Crueltj?’ Of The Beloved, Callousness, Un-

Availing Messages, Dejection And Depression Leading To


Premature Death — Such Is The Picture Of Love Painted

By A Large Number Of Urdu Ghazal-Writers. In Several

Of Them It Borders On Maudlin Sentimentalism. But In

Meer There Is Genuine Pathos, There Is Delicacy Of

Touch And Tenderness; Even His Darkest Moods Are Re-

Deemed By Sincerity. And Sincerity Elevates His Poetry.

The Sense Of Tears Is Present Throughout


  1. Hamate Age Ter A Jah Hsoo Tie Nam Hya


Dilre-Siiamzada Ho Ham Ne Tham Tkam Liya,


(The Mere Mention Of Your Name M My Presence











Caused My Hearl: To Flutter And Ache, And I Clutched It

With My Hand) .


  1. Lc Ga}A Subh He Nazdeek Taujhe Hhivah, Ai Wai


Ankh Us Waqt Khuli Qafila Jab Door Gay A.


(How Prolonged My Dream Was, I Remained Rapt

In It Until Morning. When I Opened My Eyes, I Found

The Caravan Had Gone Far Ahead).


  1. Dukh Ab Firaq Ha Ham Se Saha Nahln Jata,


Phit Is Pai Zalni Yih Hai Luclih Laka Nahin Jata,


(I Can No Longer Endure The Pain Of Separation, And

Yet I Can Utter No Word Of Complaint) .


  1. Cham Raha Jab Tah Hi Dam Men, Dam Raha.


Dam He Jane Ka Nihayat Gham Raha


(Sorrow Was My Porhon Whilst I Lived, But Now

I Feel Sorry That Life Is Departed) .


  1. Dekhi Jo Os Parte Gulskaa Men Ham, To Alirr


Gul Ka Woh Looje Ijiandan Chashme Jmr Ah Nihla.


(I Saw The Dewdrops Fall In The Garden; Then I

Discovered That The Smiling Faces Of The Flowers Were

Drenched In Lears).


  1. Ya Qafila Da? Qafila :Ti Raston Men The Log,


Ya Aise Gaye Jihan Se Ki Phir Khpj Na Paya.


(These Same Roads Were Once Crowded With Long

Processions Of Men, Now They Are Gone No One Knows

Where) .


  1. Poochha Jo Main Ne Dard-E-Muhabhat Se, Meer Ho,

Rakh Hath Unne Dil Pm Tuk Ik Apne, Ro Diym


(When In Pity And Asection I Asked How He Vras,

Meer Put His Hand On His Heart And Started Shedding

Tears) .


  1. Fo Is Shor Se, Meer Roia Rahega

To Hamsaya Hake Ho Sola Rahega.








Poets And Poetey



(O Meer, Should You Keep Crying So Much And So

Loudly, How Can Your Companions Get Any Sleep?)


9 . Mujhe Lam Rone Be Ahsar Hai  Nasihy

Tu Kah Tail Mere Munh Ho Dlwta Rahega?


(I Have Frequently To Weep. How Long Can You Go

On Wiping My Tears?)


10 . Yahi Gulon Ho Tanik Dekhoon  Itni Muhlat Ho


Chaman Men Aur To Kya Mujhko Ham Hai, Sayyad


(Before You Take Me Away To Captivity, May I Cast

A Last Look On The Flowers?)


11 . Ai Abretar  Tu Aur Kisi Simt Ko Haras.


Is Mulk Men Hamari Hi Yih Chashmetar Hi Has.


(Your Rain Drops Are Not Needed Here, Oh Clouds.

My Tear-Drops Are Quite Adequate For This Region )


12 . Ai Giriya, Unke Dil Men Asar Khub Hi Kiya»


Rota Hoon Jab Mam Samne Uskc, To De Hai Hans,


(How Admirably Efltective Have My Tears Proved!

When I Cry In His Presence, He Breaks Into Laughter )


13 . Tab Garm Sukhan Kahne Laga Hoon Main, Ki Ik Umr

Jun Shama’o Sar-E-Sham Se Ta Subah Jala Hurt.


(There Is Fire In My Verse Because For A Whole Life-

Time I Have Burnt Like A Lamp From Sunset Till Morn )


14 . Jis Ja Ki Khas-O-Khar Le Ah Dher Hgc Ham,


Yan Ham Ne Inhn Ankhon Se Dehhin Hm Hakaren.


(I Have Myself Seen The Freshness And Abundance

Of Spring Here Where One Sees Nothing But A Heap Of

Ashes )


15 . Ah Aur Ashk Hi Sada Hai Jahan,


Roz Bar Sat Ki Haiva Hai Yahan.


(Here There Are Only Sighs And Tears; Here There

Is Always The Breeze Of The Season Of Rain.)











  1. Hansta Hi Mam Phiroon Jo Mera Akhtyar Ho,


Par Kya Karooji Mam Deedye Heakhtiyar Ho?


(If I Could I Would Keep Smiling All The Time, But

What Can I Do To My Eyes Over Which I Have No Con-



  1. Dll Kis Qadar Shikasta Him Tha Ki Rat, Meer,


Ayi ]O Bat Lab Pai So Faryad Ho §,Ayi.


(My Heart Is So Completely Broken That Every Word

That Came To My Lips Became A Prayer.)


  1. Chaman Ka Nam Suna Tha Wale Na Dekha Hai


Jahan Men Ham Ne Qafas Hi Men Zindgani Ki,


(I Had Heard The Name Of The Garden, It Is True

But My Whole Life Has Been Spent In Captivity In The

Prison-House )


  1. Manama Gzriya Na Kar Tu, Ai Nasihf

Is Men Beakhu Ar Ham Ham Bhu


(Forbid Not My Lamentation, Oh Preacher; I Am

Powerless M This Regard )


  1. Ham Ne Bin Sair Ki Ihi Chaman Ki, Par, Ai Naseem,


Vthte Hi Ashiyan $E Giraftar Ho Gaye,


(I Also Had Wandered Through The Garden, But I

Was Made Captive As Soon As I Left My Nest )


  1. Koi Naummidana Karte Nazar.


So Turn Ham Se Miinh Bin Chhupa Kar Chale*


(I Would Have Cast A Hopeless Look At You, But You

Passed By So That I Could Not See Your Face.)


  1. Lon Barq Mu]H Ko Hanste Na Dekha Kisoo Ne, Ah,


Para To Abr Sa Kahm Rota Khara Hua,


(No One Ever Saw Me Smile Like A Flash Of Lightningj,

Whoever Noticed Me Saw Me Weep Hke A Cloud.)


  1. Rulaja Ham Ne Pdhron Rat Usko,


Kaha Yih Qissaye Gham ]Is Kisoo Pas.








Poets And Poetry



(Whoever Heard My Tale Of Woe Cried For Hours

Through The Livelong Night.)


  1. Mat Iurbate Meer Ko Mitaa

Rahne Do Ghanb Ka Nishan Uk


(Do Not Destroy The Grave Of Meer; Let Some Trace

Of Him Remain).


  1. Khush Karne Se Tuh Aise Nahhmh Hi Raljia Kanye

Hanste Ho Glian Bhar To Pahron, Hi Lulate Ho.


(It Is Far Better That You Should Not Try To Keep,

Me In Good Humour; If You Laugh Awhile, You Leave Me

Crying For Hours.)


  1. Haiute Rahte The Jo Is Gidzar Men Sham-O-Shahr

Deedayetar Sath Le We Log Jon Shahnam Gaye.


(The Persons Who Used To Keep Laughing All Day

And Night M This Garden Have Departed With Wet Eyes,

Departed Even As Dew-Drops.)


  1. Mujh Ko Shair Na Kaho, Meevy Hi Sahib Main Ne

Dard-O-Gham Mine Hye Jama To Dnvan Kiya.


(Do Not Call Me A Poet, I Have Assembled Together

A Mass Of Pain And Sorrow —  That Is My Diwan.)


  1. Marte Hi Siina Unko Jinhen Dil Latli Huchh Thi

Achcha Bill Hua Koi Is Azar Se Ah Tak?


(Whoever Gave His Heart Came To An Early Death;

Has Anyone Ever Recovered From This Malady?)


  1. Chekra Zard Baja Hai Sara Ishg Men Gham Ka Mara Hoon

Rang Yih Dekha Hota, To Dil, Meer, Kahin Na La Gate Turn.


(Your Face Is Pale, You Are In Suffering, If You Had

Known The Consequences, You Would Never Have Given

Your Heart Away )


  1. Zaban Se Hainari Hai Sayyad Mmsh


Ii Amen Ab Ummid-C-Nhai Nalnn.












(The Huntsman Is Pleased With The Sound Of Mj

Voice; I Have Therefore Lost All Hopes Of Release.)


  1. Chak Hua Dil Tukre Jigar Hue, Lohu Wye Ankhon Se,

Ishq Ne Kya Zulm Dikhaye, Das Din Ke Is Jeene Men.

(The Heart M Pieces, The Liver Broken, Blood Shed

By Eyes In Place Of Tears — Vv Hat Hardships Has Love

Brought In This All Too Brief Life?)


32 Jan-O-Jehan Se Guzra Me R, Jinki Hhatir,


Dachkar Nihalte Ham Wo Mere Mazar Se Bki.


(He For Whose Sake I Lost My Life And Departed

From The World, Walks Away Even From The Vicinity Of

Tny Grave.)


  1. Pahuncha Hoon Mam Doori Se Marne Ke Nazdeek To




Qaidediayat Se Bands Ko Azad Harp To Bektar Hai,


(I Have Come A Long Distance And Have Approached

The Gates Of Death; It Will Be A Mercy If You Release

Me From The Bonds Of Life )


  1. Yon, Meer To Gham Apna Bar Son Kaha Karega


Ab Rat Kam Hai, Sowo, Has Ho Chuki Kahani.


(Meer, You Have A Whole Life-Time For Telling The

Tale Of Your Woes; The Night Is Coming To A Close, Go To

Sleep, Let Your History Be )


  1. Mila Deti Hai Khah Men Admi Ko,


Mohabbat Hai Koi Bala Asmanl


(It Reduces Men To Ashes; Love Is A Bolt From The



  1. Rakhe Rahe Hain Dil Par Hatk (D Meer,


Yahin Shayed Ki Hai Sab Gham Hamara,


(I Keep My Hand On My Heart: It Is There Perhaps

That All My Sorrows Are Concentrated.)








Poets And Poetry



37 . Barson Tayeen Jalian Men Hyonhar Raha Imi Khizr?

Mam Char Din Men Jeene Se Bezar Ho Gay A,


(Why Has Khizr Gone On Living For Years: I Have

Got Tired Of Living In A Few Days )


38 . Meer Na Apne Dard-E-Dil Ko Mujh Se Kaha Kar Roz-O-Shab

Subah Jo Goshe Dil Se Suna Tlia Dil Men Mere Dard Hua,


(Meer, Do Not Repeat To Me, Day And Night, The Story

Of Your Heart-Ache, What I Had Heard This Morning

Caused Me Pain.)


39 . Chahat, Afat  Ulfat, Kulfat  Mehrowafa-O-Ranjo Bala,


Ishq Hi Ke Sab Nam Ham Yih Dil Hash Kahin Na Legate




40 . Kya Karen, Bekas Ham Ham, Be Bas Ham Ham, Beghar


Hain Ham,


Kyon Kar Ur Kar Pahunchen Us Tak, Tayar E-Be Par


Hain Ham,


41 . Na Kar Shor, Nasih, Bakut Natawan Hoon,


Kahan Bat Uthane Ki Taqat Hai Mujhko,


42 . Shikayat Karoon Hoon To Sone Lage Hai,


Meri Sarguzasht Ab Hui Hai Kahanl


43 . Sunkar Mere Shore-E-Shab Ko Jhunjhla Kar Woh Kahne




Nale Iske Falak Tak Pahunche Kin Ne Isko Sataya Hai?


44 . Ankhen To Pathra Gayin Takte Hue Uski Rah,

Sham-O Sahar Intazar  Dekhiye Kab Tak Rahe.


Many Of The Verses Already Quoted Will Indicate

Meer S Attitude Towards Love The Ghazal Is Essentially

A Love Poem And Some Mention Must Be Made Of The

Lines In Which This Sentiment Is Brought Out. Here,

Too, There Is A Persistent Note Of Melancholy.


1 . Poochko To Meer Se Kya Hoi Nazar Para Hai?


Chehra Utar Raha Hai Kuchh Aj Us Jawan Ka.











  1. K.I$ Tavah Sc Tiianiye Hi Yih Cishiq Nohin?


Rang Ura Jata Hat, Tuk Cliehra To Dekho Meer Ka.


  1. Ham Faqueeron Se Bedayi Kya


An Baithe Jo Turn Ne Pyar Kiya,


Sakht Kafir Tha Jin Ne Pahle Meer


Mazhabe  Shq Akhtiyar Kiya,


  1. Kuchh Na Dekha Phir, Bajuz Ik Sholaye Pur Pechotaby

Shamda Tak To Hamne Dekhu Tha Ki Parioana Gaya.


  1. Wasl-Odiijran Yeh Jo Do Manzil Ham Rahe Isq Hi

Dilgharih In Men Khuda Jane Kahan Mckra Gaya.


  1. Zulm O Jaur O Jafa Sitam Bedad,


Ishq Men Tere Ham Pai Kya Na Hua


  1. Hil Woh Nagar Nahin Ki Phir Abad Fw Sake,

Pachhtaoge Suno Ho Yih Basti Ujar Kar,


  1. Na Milen Goke Hijr Men Mar Jaen,


Ashiqon Ka Wisal Hai Kuchh Aur,


9 Ne Nigah Ne Pay Am Ne Wdada

Nam Ko Ham Hhi Yar Rakhte Hain.


  1. Hash O Sabr O Khird P Deen O Hawas O Dil O Tab


Uske Ek Ane Men Kya Kya Na Gaya, Mat Puchho,


  1. Ag The Ibtidaye Ishq Men Ham.


Ah Jo Hain Khak Intiha Hai Yih,


Shukr Uski Jafa Ka Ho Na Saka.


Dll Se Apne Hamen Gila Hai Yih


  1. Hasratewasbo Gham-Ihiijr O-Khyalerukhe Dost,


Mar Gaya Mam, Pai Mere Ji Men Raha Kya Kya Kuchlu


  1. Na Shikwa Shii Ayat Na Harjohiqayat,


Kahp Meerji  Aj Kyon Ho Khafa Se?


  1. Yarab Hoi Ho, Ishq Ka Beemar Na Howe,


Mar Jae, Wale, Us Ko Yih Azar Na Howe,


  1. Kate Hai Dekhiye Yon Umr Kab Talak Apni

Ki Suniye Nam Tera Aur Chashm Tar Kariye*





Poets And Poetry



  1. Ne Sabr Hai Na Hosh Hat, Ne Aql Hai, Na Dcca


Ata Hat Uske Pas Sa Ashiq Luta Iiua,


  1. Ab Ckher Yih Rauii Hat H Puchhe Hai, Bar Bar


Kuchh Tvajah Bhi Id Apka Munh Hai Atcir Laha


Lo. Nam Uska Sunle Ansoo  Ir Hi Pare Palak Se


Dll Ka Lagao, Yaro, Chhupta Nahm Chhupaye.


  1. Waseeyat Meer Ne Mujhkp Yah Ki

Ki Sab Kuchh Hona Par Aslug Na Hona


  1. Kya Suni Turn Ne Nahm Badkah-E-F Arhad-O-Qais?


Kon Sa Heemar Dil Ka A] Tah Behtar Hua


  1. Kya Kya Laqab Ham Shauq Ke Alam Men Yar Le

Kaba Likkoon Ki Qibla Use Ya Khuda Likhoon?


  1. Ilazar Bar Ghari Bhar Men Meer Marte Ham


Unhon Ne Zindgi Ka Dkab Naya N Kala Hai.


  1. Kariye Jo Ibtada To Ta Hashr Hai Kahiye


Ashiq Ki Guftgu Ko Kuchh Intiha Naun.


2%. Parsayi Dhari Rah Jciyegi Masjid Men, Sheikh,


Jo Woh Is Rah Kabhoo Masti Men A Nikle Hai.


  1. Yan Shahr-Edmsn Men To Kahin Zikr Hhi Nahin,


Kya Janiye Ki Mehr-O-Wafa Hai Kakan Ki Bat?


  1. Phool, Gul, Shams-O-Qumr, Sare Hi The.


Par Iiamen In Men Tumldn Bhaye Bahut.


  1. Mubarak Tumhen, Meer, Ho Ishq Karna„


Bahut Ham To Pachhtaye Dil Ko Laga Kar.


28 Hasrat Se Dekh Rahiyo, Ai Namabar, Munk Uska,


Bas Aur Kuchh Na Kahiyo, Hargiz, Men Zabanu


  1. Kya Hota Jp Pas Apne, Ai Meer, Kabhoo We A] Ate?


Ashiq The, Darwesh The, Akhir Bekas Bhi The, Tanha The


  1. Yar Ke Dar Par Zikr Hai Kya Hangama-E-Roz-E-Mahshar




Is Kuche Men Tp Mahshar Se, Meer, Bahut Oodham Dehhe











31 . Dard-E-Dil Tul Se Kahe O’shiq


Roobaroo Uske Jo Kaha Bhi Jctye


32 . Chhanta Hoon Kisi Gali Ki Khak


Dll Ho Apne Kabhoo To Paoonga.


33 . Dll Tarpae Hai, Jan Kliapae Hai  Hal Jigdr Ka Kyd Hoga”

Majnun! Majnun Log Kahe Ham, Majnun Kya Hamsa




34 . Qadr-O-Qeemat Is Se Ziyada, Meer Tumhari Kya Hog}


Jis Ke Khwahan Donon Jahan Hain Uske Hath Bikao Tunp*


35 . Ashiq Apna Jan Liya Hai Unne Shayed  Meer, Hamen,

Dekh Bhari Majlis Men Apni Ham Hi Se Sharmata Hal


36 Narmi Se Kooyeyar Men Jawe To Ja  Naseem,


Aisa Na Ho Ki Ukhren Kahin Dil Gave Hue.


37 . Na Deewane The Hamse Qais-O-Farhad,


Hamara Taut-E-Ishq Un Se Juda Tha,


38 . Sanamkhane Se Uth Ka Abe Gaye Ham,


Koi Akhir Hamara Bhi Khuda Tha.


39 . Saudayi O Ruswa Wa Shikasta Dil O Khasta,


Ab Log Hamen Ishq Men Kya Kya Na Kahenge?


In His Collected Works, We Find A Number Of Mar-

Sias, Mxikhammas, Rubaiyat, Masnawis, Hijo, And

Wasokht; For Them There Is No Room In This Already

Long Paper. But No Consideration Of Meer’s Ghazals

Can Be Complete Without Some Mention Of The Verses

About The Tavern And The Saqi, The Kharabat And The



In The Persian Noets Drunkenness Is Not Necessarily

Inebriation Caused By Liquor, But Rather Rapture And

Ecstacy, The Blessed Mood In Which The Essence Of

Things Is Revealed. Sobriety Implies Concern With The

Things Of This World. Whether Similarly The Love Cele-

Brated In Persian And Urdu Poetry Is To Be Interpreted









Poets And Poetry



In. Mystic Terms We Do Not Know Perhaps The Wise

Mufti Of Yore, Abou Soud Gave The Right Decision When,

He Said That Everyone Was At Liberty To Use His Own

Judgment M The Matter Of The Meaning To Be Assigned

To The Poems Of Hafiz


Urdu Poetry, With The Pieces Relating To Wine Taken

Out, Would Lose More Than Half Its Beauty. The Cup

And The Flagon, The Crowded Tavern And The Tipsy

Preacher, Glimpses Of Truth That The Daughter Of The

Vine Vouchsafes, Provide Us With Some Of The Most

Memorable Hnes In Urdu They Are No Mere Mecha-

Nical Symbols; Round Them Have Grown Up A Multitude

Of Literary Associations, And Saghar, Jam And Khum,

Suggest Zest And Youth And Mirth, The Thrill Of The

Fact Of Life. They Are Far Removed From Dull And

Crabbed Philosophy They Are Not And Like The Temple

And The Mosque. They Provide Pleasure And Joy In The

Present And Are Pleasurable In Retrospect. They Make

Today Agreeable, And If Tomorrow Be Harsh And Dark

And Bleak, We Shall At Least Be Cheered And Warmed

And Solaced By Our Recollection Of What Has Been All

The Riches Of Bokhara And Samarcand Have Been

Weighed And Given Away In Exchange For The Mole On

The Cheek Of The Beloved. Such Generosity And Such

True Sense Of Values Can Come Only Through Wine And

The Spirit Of Youthful Adventure Engendered By It. As

Hafiz Of Shiraz Says :


Come, Bearer Of The .S H Ini Ng Cup.


Bring The Red Grape Mto The Sun.


That We May Drink And Drink It Up.


Before Our Little Day Is Done.











For Ruknabad Shall Run And Run,


And Each Year, Punctual As Spring.


The New-Born Nightingale Shall Sing

Unto Musella’s New-Born Rose;


But We Shall Not Know Anything,


Nor Laugh, Nor Weep, Nor Any-Wise


Listen Or Speak, Fast Closed Our Eyes

And Shut Our Ears — In Paradise!


Let Meer Take Us With Him To The Wine-House :


1 . Masti Men Chhor Dair Ko Ka’cibe Chala Tha Main,

Laghzish Bari Hui Thi, Walekin Sambhal Gaya,


2 . Sharabd-Aish Muyassar Hui Jise Ik Shab,


Phir Usko Roz-E-Qayamat Talak Khumar Raha,


3 . Saqi! Tu Ek Mausam-I-Gul Ki Taraf Bhi Dekh,


Tapka Pare Hai Rang Chaman Men Hawa Se Aj.


% Saqi! Tu Ek Bar To Toba Men Tura


Tobu Karoon Jo Phir, To Hai Toba Hazar Bar.


5 . Saqi  Ghir Charon Or Ay A Hai


De Bhi May; Ahr Zor Ay A Hai.


  1. Phir Meer Aj Masjid-Eqama Ke The Imam,

Daghe-Sharab Dhote The Kal Janamaz Ka.


7 . Piye Daroo Pare Phirte The Kcil Tak, Meer  Koochon Men,

Inheenki Mas Jid-‘C- Jama Ki Dekhi Aj Imamat Hai.


8 . Talash Meer Ki Ah Maikadon Men Hash Karen,


Ki Masjidon Men To Woh Kkanuman Kharab Nahin.


  1. W Daze Nakis Ki Baton Par Koi Jata Hai, Meer!


Aof Maykhane Chalo, Turn Kiske Kahne Par Gaye


10 . Agar Mas]Id Se Aaon, Meer, To Bhi Log Kahte Hain.


Ki Tnaykhane Se Phir, Dekhoy Woh Shahid Haz Ata Hai.

For Many Years I Have Been Reading Kulliyat-E-

Meer, Reading It With Pleasure And Profit And Athnira-

Tion, I Feel I Have Made The Acquaintance Of A








Poets And Poetey



Singularly Attractive Character, A Master Of Pathos,

Who Yet Retained A Certain Zest In Life And Saw Its

Lighter Side. He Has Sounded The Depths, Where He Finds

Much To Cause Him Pensive Melancholy, But The Sur-

Face Still Appears Bright And Attractive To Him. He Is

One Of The Major Poets Of India Alike By Reason Of His

Breadth Of Outlook And Genuine Human Sympathies.


Meet Sahib Rule Gaye Sab Ko,


Kal Wo Tashreef Yan Bhi Laye The.





Khwaja Mir ‘Dard’



Four Poets Are Generally Regarded As Having Polish-

Ed And Refined The Urdu Language —  Jan Janan, Sauda,

Meer And Dard. This Is Not To Say That There Are No

Archaisms In Their W’ork; Many Expressions Used By

Them Are Now Obsolete; Several Grammatical Formations

Employed By Them Seem Strange Now; And Some Words

Have A Significance They Have Lost. But These

Four Poets Succeeded In Standardising The Literary Form

Of Urdu. It Had Not Departed Very Far From The Spirit

Of The Country; It Still Retained A Fair Admixture Of

Hindi Words, Indigenous Words Had Not Then Been

Rigidly Excluded This ‘Purge’ Was To Follow: Ghalib,

Atish, And Nasikh Were In The Mam Responsible For

Making Urdu Approximate Closely To Persian And Elimi-

Nating From It Almost All Indigenous Words Save Pro-

Nouns, Adverbs And Verb Formations. If Urdu Had

Developed As An Indian Language And An Indian Litera-

Ture. It Would Have Become More Generally Acceptable

To The Masses And Not Remained The Concern Of Only

Those Living In The Cities And Connected With The Courts.

But That Is Another Story.


Dard Was Born In 1133 A H. And Died In 1199 A.H.

He Was Thus One Of The Earlier Urdu Poets. Khwaja

Meer — To Call Him’ By His Real Name —  Was The Son Of

Khwaja Nasir, Whose Father Had Come To India From

Bokhara, But He Himself Was Born In India. Dard

Lived His Early Years As A Young Man Of Excellent Means

And Took His Fill Of Life. But While Only Twenty-Eight








Poi5ts And Poetry



He Gave Up His Way Of Ease And Took Up The Religious

Life. He Had Begun His Literary Career At A Very Early

Age And Kept It Up Till The End. Music Had A Great

Patron In Him And Twice A Month There Were Musical

Gatherings At His House. He Was The Author Of Several

Works, Including A Persian Diwan, And Some Dealing

With Theological Subjects. The Persian Diwan Is A

Collection Of Ghazals, Rubais, And Mukhammas It Is

With His Urdu Diwan That This Article Is Concerned.




In His Tazkirah, Meer Taqi “Meer” Pays A Very

Handsome Tribute To The Commanding Position Held By

Dard Among His Contemporaries, And It Is Well Known

That Meer Hasan Also Owed A Great Deal To His Influence.

He Says That Dard Was Responsible For Breathing Life

Into The Dead Bones Of Urdu And Establishing Sound

Canons Of Literary Taste There Were Several Disciples

Of His Who Have A Prominent Place Among Early Poets,

E.G., Asar, Qayam, Firaq, Nisar, Alam. It Is Remark-

Able What A High Ideal He Had For Poetry And How

Assiduously He Strove To Make It Pure In Some Prose

Passages He Claims That He Had Never Used Verse For

The Purpose Of Personal Attack Or Calumny, And That

Even In The Pieces Dealing With The Theme Of Love The

Meaning Of Convention Must Not Be Attached To Them.

It Must Be Admitted, However, That The Softer Emotions

And The Sentiment Of Love Inspire Some Of His Best Lines.

There Is Hardly Any Frivolity In His Work, But Wine And

The Tavern Figure Plentifully In It. Philosophy, Life

Beyond Death, The Eternal Verities, Occupy His Attention

For The Most Part And Critics Have, Generally, Classed





Khwaja Mik Dard






Him Among Those Who Write Of Divine Rather Than

Physical And Material Love


A Word May Be Said Of His Language. Urdu Was

Born In India And In The Initial Stages Of Its Growth It

Employed Numerous Words And Idioms Of Indian Origin.

The Earlier Poets Employed Many Indian Metres. But

Soon All That Was Altered And Urdu Became A Branch

Of Persian Indian Words Were Rigidly Excluded And

Indian Metres Completely Abandoned Dard Came At A

Period Of Transition And One Finds M His Poems Many

Words That Are Now “Forbidden”. One May Be Permit-

Ted To Speculate If The Present Gulf Between Urdu And

Hmdi Need Have Become So Wide If This Separatist Ten-

Dency Had Been Curbed At The Start If The Ongin Of

Urdu Is To Be Traced To The Desire To Evolve A Language

For Use In India One May Indeed Wonder Why It Should

Have Been Necessary To Fill It With Words Of Foreign

Origin And To Ban The Use Of Indigenous Ones. But

What One Cannot Help Noticing Is The Presence In The

Works Of Meer And Of Dard Of Many Hindi Words That

Urdu Poets Have Now No Use For. Here Are Some Lines

M Which They Appear ;


]. Garche Woh Khurshed-Roo Nit Hai Mere Samne.


  1. Jag Men Dkar Idhar Udhar Dekha.


3 . Jag Men Koi Na Tuk Hansa Hoga.


4 . Hogaye Ankhon Hi Men Do Do Bachan.


5 . Agar Ayina Dar Char Ayina Pahne Na Ho Sanmukh.


6 . Ham Hi Is Wahshat Sara Se Nahin Udas.


7 . Woh Hi Rona Hai Nit Wohi Gham Hai.


8 . Gul Agar Sanmukh Ho Baaze Bhed Kuchh Hahhir Gaye,


  1. Dil Pai Afat Nidan Hai Pyare.








Poets And Poetky



  1. Nipat Mast Hai Booye Nargis Chaman Men,


  1. Mera To Ji Wohm Rahta Hai Nit Jahan Tu Hai,


  1. Na Marte Ham Na Nind Ati Na Woh Soorat Bisarti Hai,


  1. Jalna Hi Sada Hai Mujhko Nit Hai Khapna.


  1. Moond Ankk Sada Kab Tayeen Tally Ega,


  1. Ap Kuchh ]I Men Na Bharmayiga,


  1. Shamde Haram Bhi De Hai Mathe Pai Apne Tila,


  1. Tal Ki Ginti Se Bahar Jis Tarah Roopak Men Sam,


18 . Pareekha, Dard, Kuchh Mat Rakh Taraqqi Aur Tanazzul




19 . Ai Dardy Samajh Sahaj Na In Ankhon Ka Bahna,


  1. Yih Sandesha Suna Diya Hs Ne,


  1. Gulgir, Munh Pasar Na Tu Shamaia Ki Taraf,


  1. Yih Bhi Ik Bankpan Ka Bana Hai,


  1. Woh Dukht-E-Raz Ki Ehhalti Phire Hai Jahan Ko,


  1. Koi Bhi Shakhs Is Ka Maia Hua Na Panapa.


  1. Din Rat Mujhe Ajab Tarah Beete Hain*


In A Number Of Verses Dard Has, Like Liis Other Con-

Temporaries, Employed Expression And Phrases That

Have Ceased To Be Current And Have Now An Archaic

Flavour A Few Of Them Seem Still To Be So Graphic

That It Is A Pity They Were Abandoned. One Of The

Most Noticeable Facts Is The Frequent Absence Of “Ne*

Which Is A Source Of Considerable Worry To Natives Of

Other Provinces; Eg., In The Following Couplet There Is

No ‘‘Ne” In The First Hne .


Kaha Jab Main Tera Bosa To Jinse Qand Hai, Pyare,

Laga Tab Kahne Par “’Qande Mukarrar Ho Nahin Saktaj*


Nor In The Second Line Of This Verse :


Hal Sun Sun Mera Laga Kahne


Main Suna Kuchh Na, Kya Kaha Tu Nc”?





Khwaja Mir Dard






The Following Expression Has A Unique Flavour :


Ki Baten Mujh Se Kya Puchho Ho Turn?


Muddaten Guzreen Ki Dekha Bhi Nahinf




‘Dil Bhi Tera Hi Dhan  Seekha Hai


An Men Kuchh Hai, An Men Kuchh Hai\




Kahte Ham Ashiqi Jis Ko.


Main Jo Dekha Ban, Rnuseebat Iiai’\


Some Other Older Forms Are To Be Found In The

Following Lines :


1   Parwarish Gham Ki Tere Wan Taycen To Ki  Dekha P

2 .  ‘Kabhoo Kabhoo Zikr Aya Bht‘\


3 ‘ Ki Jisko Kisop Jne Kabhoo Iva Na Dekhd\


4 .  ‘Ai Saqi Bhare Le Hai \


5 Kab Tayeen Mujh $Ath Meri Jan Milega?


Aisa Bhi Kabhoo Hoga Ki Phir An Milega?’


6,  ‘Ap To Thin Hi Par Is Ka Bhi Kiya Khana Kkarah,


Dard Apne Sath Ankhen Dil Kp Hhi Le Dubiyanp

7 ‘‘Gunahgaron Men Samjha Kariyo Apni Hegunahi Kop


8 .   Lag Chaliyo Sab Se Yun Top-Pai-Ji Mat Lagajiop


  1. Aon Soda Nikla Hi Jaye, Khanae Zanjeer Sep


  • I® S{J -{. Sjs


The Ghazal Is Primarily A Poetic Medium For The

Expression Of The Sentiment Of Love. When A Sufi Poet

Speaks Of Love The Presumption Is That The Love Of God

Is His Theme And All The Symbols And Images Familiar

To Students Of Persian And Urdu Are To Be Interpreted

In A Mystic And Not A Literal Sense. Whether Dard In-

Tended His Lines To Be So Understood It Is Impossible To

Say. But We Have All The Phases Depicted — The Way-

Wardness Of The Beloved, The Prayers Of The Lover, The








Poets And Poetry



Longmg, The Despair, The Trembling Hope, Fear Of Refusal,

Jealousy Of The Rival, The Long Nights Of Separation, The

Insufferable Loneliness, The Prospect Of Union On The

Day Of Judgment, The Fatal Glance From The Eye … *


1 . Jan Se Ho Gaye Badan Khali,


Jis Taraf Tu Ne Ankh Bhar Dekha,


2 . Ham Na Kahte The, Munh Na Charh Nske,


Dardy Kuchh Ishq Ka Maza Paya ?


3 . Kitne Bandon Ko Jan Se Khoya


Kuchh Khuda Ka Bhi Tu Ne Dar Na Kiya.


4 . Azeeyat, Museebat, Malamat, Balayerv


Tere Ishq Men Ham Ne Kya Kya Na Dekha,


5 . Dard, Ham Usko To Samjhaenge, Par,


Apne Tayeen Ap Bhi Samjkayiga,


6 Apni Ankhon Use Main Dekhoon,


Aisa Bhi Kabhoo Khuda Karega?


7 . Paigham-E-Yas Bhej Na Mujh Beqarar Taky

Hoon Neem Jauj Sp Bhi Tere Intazar Tak,


8 . Un Ne Kiya Tha Yad Mujhe Bhool Kar Kahin,


Pata Nahm Hun Tab Se Main Apni Khabar Kahium


9 . Zalim Jafa Jo Chahe So Kar Mujh Pai Tu Wale

Pachhtawe Phir Tu Ap Hi Aisa Na Kar Kahin,


10 . Phirte Ho Saj Banaye To Apni Jidhar Tidhar


Lag Jawe Dekhiyo Na Kisiki Nazar Kahin,


11 . Jjsko Sikhlayi Yih Jafa Tu Ne


Kya Kiya Ai Meri Waja Tu Ne ?


12 Ham Na Kahte The Hujo Mat Dashlq,


Paiy Dil, Apni Kuchh Saza Tu Ne?


13 . In Dinon Kuchh Ajab Hai Mera Hal


Dekhta Kuchh Huuj Dhyan Men Kuchh Hai*


Again, On Wine And Repentance, Preacher And

Tavern, There Are Several Verses Characterised By Fresh*





Khwaja Mir Dabd






Ness And Charm. Once More, Is It The Juice Of The

Grape Or Heavenly Nectar? Is The Exaltation Physical

Or Spiritual? Let The Verses Answer.


1 Saqi   Keedhar Hai Kahliti-E-May ?


Ab Ke Khewe Men Par Ham Ham*


2 . Atishemay Se Jo Saqi Ne Ise Bharkaya


Zahid’e-Hhushq Hua Kliub Hi Tar Pani Men.


X Donon Jahan Ki Na Rahi Phir Khabar Use.


Do Pyale Ten Ankhon Ne Jis Ko Pila Diye,


4 . Saqiya / Yan Lag Raha Hai Chal Chalao


Jab Talak Has Chal Sake Saghar Chale.


5 . La Gulabi De Mujhe Saqi Ki Yan Majlis Hi

Khali Ho Jaye Hai Paimane Ke Bharte Bharte.


Jfe :Ie


But Dard Is At His Best When He Turns Into Verse

Some Deep Thought, Some Profound Reflection On Life

And Death, Some Truth Which Is Revealed To Him In A

Flash And Which He Transmutes Into Memorable Words.

Naturally He Is Influenced By The Teachings Of Islam

And There Is Nothing In His Verses Which The Most Ortho-

Dox Muslim Will Object To, But Equally There Is Hardly

Anything To Which The Followers Of Other Faiths Will

Find It Difficult To Subscribe. That Of Course Is The

Supreme Test Of A Great Poet And Artist —  Whether He

Transcends His Age And His Country And His Environ-

Ments And Becomes Everyman. In The Verses That

Follow One Finds God’s Universality And All-Pervading-

Ness Stressed; God’s Country Has Innumerable Spring

Seasons; Everything Is In Essence Divine, Though The

Appearances May Be Diverse. In Another Verse He

States How Thin Is The Dividing Line Between Tears And








Poets And Poetky



Laughter. No Traveller Has Ever Returned To The Earth

To Tell Us Of The Hfe Beyond Death. The Ways Of The

Lord Are Inscrutable And It Is Vain To Seek To Explain

Them. Those Flowers Which Once Were The Garden’s

Pride Droop And Fade And Wither Unnoticed. One Man’s

Meat Is Another Man’s Poison The Dawn Smiles, But The

Dew Sheds Tears. Life Is A Short Wakmg And Death Is

A Long Quiet Sleep— But To Some, Alas, It Is A Sleep Dis-

Turbed By Dreams And Hopes And Thoughts Of The Day

Of Judgment. The Flowers Are Pleasant Enough, But

The Thorns Are There All The Time Death Has No Terrors

For Those Who Have Renounced Everything, What Can

It Take Away From Them? Everybody Wends His Way

Towards Death; The Procession Is Long And Unending;

But No One Knows The Nature Of The Destination. God

Has No Power To Turn Away Anyone From His Mansion;

For Where Is That Spot Where God Is Not? So Many

Wise Persons Spend Years In Search Of God: But Is There

Any Place Where He Is Not? One Talks Of Separation

And Of Union; One Undertakes Long Journeys In Quest Of

The Goal; One Spends Weary Days And Nights And Toils

Hard And Is Footsore And Dispirited; But All The Time The

Journey’s End Is Withm One’s Own Self We Take Life So

Seriously, But As Life Dwindles, We Discover That It Was

No Better Than A Dream, No Better Than An Empty Tale

It All Seems Very Simple And Elementary There Is No

Parade Of Learning. No Theological Text Is Quoted But

Surely The Very Essence Of All Religions Is Here, If Reli-

Gion Be But Another Name For Morality Tinged With



  1. Baste Ham Tere Saye Men Sab Shaikh-O-Barahman;


Abad Hai Tujh Se Hi To Ghar Dair-O-Hamm Ha.





Khwaja Mir Dard






2 . Wai Nadcini Ki Toaql E-Tnarg Ye Sabit Hua,


Khwab Tka Jo Kuchh Ki Dekha Jo Suna Ajsana Llia.


3 Jag Men Akar Idhar Udhar Dekha.


Too Hi Ay A Nazar J Idhar Dekha,


4 . Jag Men Koi Na Tuh Hansa Hoga


Ki Na Hansne Men Ro Diya Hoga.


5 . Duniya Men Kaun Kauii Na Eh Bar  Ho Gaya.


Par Munk Phir I$ Taraf Na Kiya Usne ]O Gaya.


6 Tujhi Lo Jo Yan Jalwa-Farma Na Dekha;


Earabar Hai Duniya Ko Dekha Na Dekha,


7 . Shaboroz, Ai Dard, Dar Pai Ho Uske,


Kisoo Ne Jise Yan Na Samjha Na Dekha,


8 . Jalta Hai Ah Para Khas P Khashak Men Ndla,


W’oh Gul Ki Ek Umr Chaman Ka Chiragh Tha,


  1. Kuchh Laye Na The Ki Kho Gaye Ham

The Ap Hi Ek, So, Gaye Ham.


10 . Hasti Ne To Tuk Jaga Diya Tka,


Phir Khulte Hi Ankh So Gaye Ham,


11 . Na Samjha, Dard, Ham Ne Bhed Yan Ki Shadi O Gham Ka,

Sahar Khandan Hai Kyon, Wti Hai Kis Ko Yad Kar Shab~




12 . Bala Hai Nashaye Duniya, U Ta Qayamat  Ah.


Sab Ahleqabr Isi Ka Khumar Rakhte Hain,


13 . Gul Ab To Mile Hai Hans He, Lekin.


Bulbul, Yih Ehubhenge Khar Dil Men.


14 . Bagh-E-Jahan Ke Gul Hain Ya Khar Hain To Ham Hain,

Gar Yar Hain To Ham Hain, Aghyar Hain Tp Ham Hain,


15 . Maut  Kya Ake Faqiron Se Tujhe Lena Hai?


Marne Se Age Hi Yih Log To Mar Jate Hain.


16 . Aht Me? Alum Nahin, Sath Se Apne Shaboroz.


Log Jate Hain Chale, So Yih Kidhar Jate Hain*








Poets And Poetry



  1. Mujhe Dar Se Tu Apne Tale Hai Yih Hata Mujhe Tu Kalian


Nahm ?


Koi Aur Bln Haiga Tere Siwa  Tu Agar Nahm, To Jahan




1c. Dhoonde Hai Tujhe Tamam Alajuj

Ear Chand Ki Tu Hahan Nahm Hai,


  1. Dard, Kuehh Mo Alum Hai Yih Log Sah»


Kis Taraf Se Aye The, Keedhar Chale?


  1. Na Poochho Kuehh Hamare Hijr Ki Aur Wasl Ki Baton

Chale The Dhoondne Jis Ko So Wo Hi Ap Ho Baithe


21 Ik  Umr Guzar Gayi Samajhte,


Maalum Kiya Na Main Ne,  Kya Hun\


22 Is Zeest Ka Etbar Kya Hai?


Koi Dam Men Yih Zindgi Hawa Hai.


Some Verses Have The Epigrammatic Touch, Sum-

Ming Up In Brief And Terse Form Either A Witty Sally Or

A Pregnant Truth. A Few Are Remarkable Merely For

Their Verbal Ingenuity Or Smartness.


  1. Be Tarah Kuehh Ulajh Gay A Tha Dic

Bewafayi Ne Ten Suljhaya,


  1. Dushmani Men Suna Na Howega,


Jo Hamen Dosti Ne Dikhlwva,


  1. Tar Damani Pai. Sheikh, Hamari Na Jay To.


Daman Nichor Den To Farishte Wazoo Karen,


  1. Kam Mardon Ke Jo Hain So Wahi Kar Jate Hain,


Jan Se Apni Jo Koi Ki Guzar Jate Hain,


  1. Be? Ad Marne Ke Mere Hogi Mere Rone Ki Qadr,


Tab Kaha Keejega Logon Se,   Woh Barsaten Kahar? ?


  1. Koi Samjhe Kyon Ki Yih Muddda Ki Paheli Ka Sa Hai




Kaha Main Tujhe Nahin Chah Kyd ? Laga Hahne Mujh


Se Ki * Han, Nahin \





Khwaja Mir Bard






7 . Sooraton Men Khoob Hongi, Sheikh, Go Hoore-Bahisht

Put Kahan Yih Shokhiyan, Yih Taur, Yih Mahbubiyan


8, Qasid Se Kaho Phir Khabar Vdhar Hi Ko Le ]Aye,


Yan Bekhaban A Gayi Jab Tak Khabar Awe,


9 Qasid! Nahin Yih Kam Tera, Apni Rah Le —


Us Ka Pay Am Dil Ke Siwa Kaun La Sake


Finally There Are The Lines In Which The Poet Justi-

Fies His Takhallus Of “Dard”, Poignant, Tender, Tinged

With Pathos. There Is Nothing Effeminate In His

Melancholy It Is A Genuine Reflection Of His Tempera-

Ment. It Is An Expression Of The Certainty Of Sorrow In

Store. For Him The Year Wakes Year To Sorrow   Eter-

Nal Passion! Eternal Pain!”


1 Yarah   Yih Dil Kai Ya Koi Mehman Serai Hai?


Gham Rah Gay A Kabhoo  Kabhoo Aram Rah Gay A


2 . Agar Yon Hi Yih Dil Satata Rahega.


To Ik Dm Mera Ji Hi Jata Rahega,


3 . Main Jata Hoon Dil Ko Tere Pas Chhore,


Meri Yad Tujhko Dilata Rahega,


4 . Qafas Men Koi Turn Se Hai, Hamsafeeroy

Khabar Gul Ki Ham Ko Sunata Rahega,


5 . Hal Mujh Ghamzoda Ka Jis Tis Ne

Jab Suna Hoga Ro Diya Hoga,


  1. Mere Nalon Pai Koi Duniya Men.


Bin Kiye Ah Kam Raha Hoga,


7 . Turn Ne To Ek Din Bhi Na Eedhar Guzar Kiya.


Ham Ne Hi Is Jahan Se Akhir Safar Kiya,


8 . Hans Qabr Pai Meri Khil Khila Kar,


Yih Phool Charha Kabhi To Akar,


9 . Saiyad! Ab Rihai Se Kya Mujh Aseer Ho?


Phir Kisko Zindgi Ki Tawakko Hahar Tak?








Poets And Poetry



When We Rise From A Perusal Of His Works, The

Total Impression Left On Us Is That Of A Smgularly Even-

Balanced Soul, One Who In The Midst Of The Travails And

Disappointments Of Life Saw Steadily Beyond The Imme-

Diate Present And Could Comfort Himself V/Ith What Was

To Come, One Who Longed For A Better World And Did

Not Consider His Hope To Be An Empty Dream.





Akbae Allahabadi— Poet Of Humoue

And Satiee


Tn The 19th Century, Urdu Poetry Had Advanced Far.


The Language Of Delhi Was The Standard Language,

Though Lucknow Now And Then Challanged Its Supre-

Macy. The Deccan Had Nourished It M Its Early Years,

But Had Ceased To Be A Busy Centre In Delhi And

Lucknow, Then, Most Writers Found Their Career Some

Migrated To The Court Of Hyderabad And Secured Pat-

Ronage, But Never Felt At Home There, And Were Cons-

Tantly Casting Longing, Lingering Looks Towards The



Urdu Became A Polished And Cultured Language, It

Shed Many Of Its Early Crudities, But It Lost Vigour In

The Process Elegance Was Attained At The Cost Of Viri-

Lity And Freshness Modes Of Expression Became For-

Mal And Standardised. Similes And Metaphors Followed

A Set Pattern Words Of Indian Origin Were Rigidly

Excluded. Much Of The Poetry Written At The Court In

Delhi, Lucknow, Or Hyderabad, While Undoubtedly Of

High Technical Excellence, Was Cheap And Tawdry, And

Sentimental Rather Than “Simple And Impassioned.” Nor

Was Vulgarity Frowned Down Upon. The Decadent Social

Life Of The Times Is Fully Reflected Yet, It Is Remarkable

How Large Is The Volume Of Reauy High Class Poetry

Produced By Meer, Sauda, Zauq, Ghalib, Atish, Nasikh,

Dard, Dagh And Anees. There Were Others Of Note Too

In This Nest Of Singing Birds. But The Time Had Come

For The Infusion Of New Blood. Hali And Akbar, More











Poets And Poetry



Than Any Others, Were Responsible For The Change That

Came Over The Spirit And Form Of Urdu. When In 1874,

Hah Wrote The Following Lines He Was Saying Something

New In A Style That Was New:


Ah Watan’ Ay Mere Bahisht-E-Bareen,


Kyaa Hue Tere Aasmaanozameen?


Teri Ik Musht-E-Khak Ke Badle.


Loon Na Hargiz Agar Bahisht Mile.


But It Was Left To Akbar To Alter The Tone And Con-

Tent Of Urdu Poetry To An Extent That Was Almost Re-





Syed Akbar Husain Was Born At Bara In The

Allahabad District On The 16th Of November, 1846. His

Ancestors Came Originally From Neishapore In Iran. His

Great Grandfather Was A Subedar M The Army And

Took Part In The Battle Of Plassey. His Grandafther,

Syed Fazl Mohammad, Was A Man Of Learning And

Received The Grant Of A Jagir From Nawab Asafuddoulah

Of Oudh His Father, Syed Tafazzul Husain Rose To Be

Naib Tahsildar, And Died In 1888 His Mother Hailed

From The Gaya District In Behar. Luke Other Youths Of

A Typical Middle-Class Family Of That Period, Akbar

Read Persian And Arabic, But He Was Attracted Too By

Enghsh. It Is To Be Remembered That When English Edu-

Cation Was First Started In India, The Muslims As A Com-

Munity Kept Away From The New Schools, And It Was

Not Until Sir Syed Ahmad Khan Came On The Scene

That They Decided To Enjoy The Advantages To Be Derived

From A Knowledge Of English Akbar Retained To

The End Of His Life A Deep Distrust Of A System





Akbar Allahab/Mi






Of Education Totally Divorced From Mi Igenous

Tradition, A Distrust Which Is Constantly Expressed

In His Verse. In 1867, He Became A Naib Tah-

Sildar. In 1873 He Passed The Final Pleaders’ Examina-

Lion And For Sometime Practised As A Lawyer – In 1880

He Was Appointed Munsiff M The Judicial Service He

Rose To Be District Judge And On Retirement Settled

Down At Allahabad, Living At “Ishrat Manzil”. He Died

On September 9, 1921, At The Age Of 75. His Surviving

Son, Syed Ishrat Husain, Who Retired After Holding The

Position Of District Magistrate, Died A Few Years Ago.

Ishrat’s Sons, Aqil And Muslim, Both Former Pupils Of

Mine, Have Migrated To Pakistan. Akbar Was Buried At

Kala Danda Near Khusro Bagh On His Tomb Are En-

Graved The Imes :


Qabr Men Ayi Tajalli Rooye Jaanaan Hi Mujhe,


Zahar Samjhe The Jise Woh Sharbate Deedaar Thaa.


Akbaps Literature


Three Volumes Of Kulliyat-E- Akbar Were Pubhshed

During His Life Time. The Fourth Volume Was Pubhshed

In Karachi In 1948. In Addition, We Have A Collection

Of The Letters Of Iqbal And Akbar; Aurat Nama; And

Gandhi Nama. There Are Many Books On Akbar, One

Of The Most Detailed Being That By Syed Talib Ali

There Is Much Valuable Critical And Biographical

Material To Be Found M The Akbar Number Of The

Aligarh Magazine, Some Interesting Letters And Anec-

Dotes Are Available In Padma Singh Sharma’s Padma

Parag. In The Latest Book On Akbar, Vinod Aur Vyan-

Gya* Just Published By The Leader Press, Shri Paras


  • ‘Vinod Aur Vyangya’ Edited By Paras L!Fath Sinba : Pujwlisljod

By Bbarafci Bbandar, Leader Press, Allahabad.








Poets And Poetry




Nath Sinha Has Collected All The Memorable Verses Of

The Poet, With Suitable Notes, And A Detailed And Well-

Informed Introduction Containing A Very Sympathetic

And Understanding Criticism Of His Work


This Book Deserves To Be Warmly Welcomed Not

Only By Those Who Are Already Admirers Of Akbar, But

Also By Those Hindi Readers Who Have So Long Been Un-

Able To Enjoy The Rich Repast That Is Now Set Forth Before

Them. Indeed, I Have Long Been Of The Opinion That Urdu

Will Prosper If It Is Written And Printed M The Deva-

Nagari Script That Is The National Script And Urdu

Will Reach A Very Large Mass Of Readers And Influence

Them And Be M Turn Influenced By The Other Languages

Written M Devanagari. There Is Not Another Writer Of

Urdu Who Is Like Akbar, Nor Has There Been Any Writer

In Any Of The North Indian Languages Who Has His Gift

Of Irony And Satire And Humour




Akbar The Man Was As Interesting As Akbar The

Poet. You Could Not Be Dull M His Company He Was

A Most Entertaining And Stimulating Conversationalist

Anecdote Followed Anecdote, Sly Allusions To Men And

Matters, Reminiscences Of Times Long Past, Rugged

Maxims Hewn From Life, Extemporaneous Verses Com-

Posed M An Mstant —  His Conversation Was Like Both

Wine And Bread, Mtoxicant And Nourishing. I

Had The Privilege Of Seeing Him On Several Occa-

Sions, But Only Once Did I Call At His House In The Com-

Pany Of Two Respected Friends, Mr. Kichlu And Maulvi

Nasiri, Both, Alas, Now Dead. He Talked To Us With The

Utmost Freedom, Described The Visit He Had Just Paid To





Akbar Allahabadi






His Son Ishrat At Partapgarh, And Kept Us Spell-Bound

For Over An Hour. He Was Then In The Last Year Of His Life,

But The Zest And Vivacity Of His Conversation Gave No

Hint Of The Approaching End. When Asked If He Had Been

Warmly Greeted By The Public Of Partapgarh He Replied:

‘Once God Visited The City Of London. All Day Long He

Wandered About, Went From Street To Street, Knocked

At Various Doors, And Was Repulsed Everywhere. No

One Offered Even To Give Him Water To Drink. Tired

And Hungry, He At Last Went To A House, Announced That

He Was God, And Asked For A Glass Of Water. This Was

Refused, And He Had To Walk About Again. He Entered

Another House, When He Was Desperately Thirsty, And

Said: ‘Give Me Some Water To Drink: I Am The Father

Of Jesus Christ’ On Hearing This, The House-Owner

Received Him With Great Courtesy, And Overwhelmed

Him With Attention. At Partapgarh No One Took Any

Notice Of Akbar, But Much Politeness Was Shown To The

Depuly Sahib’s Father”.


This Is Only One Fragment Of His Conversation That

Has Stuck To My Memory One Verse, Which Evidently

He Had Just Thought Of And Recited To Us Was :


Main Kisi Cheez Kaa Nahin Aadi,


Ek Aadat Hai Saans Lene Ki.


When A Young Poet Went Once To See Him He Said *

Tuhfaye Shabbeharaat Kya Doon?


Tu To, Ai, Jaan, Khud Pataakhaa Hal

Shri Para3 Nath Sinha Has Mentioned Several In-

Teresting Incidents And Anecdotes Which Recall Akbar’s

Arresting Personality. When I Saw Him First I Was Not

Impressed : Small-Sized, With A Wizened And Care-

Worn Face, Stooping Figure, Shambling Gait, He Would








Poets And Poetry



Have Passed Completely Ignored In A Crowd. But When

He Opened His Lips, One Forgot His Face, And Saw Wit And

Humour And Puck-Like Mischief Radiating From His Eyes

And Heard From His Lips Words Winged With Immor*



His Ghazals


Akbar Wrote Many Ghazals In The Traditional Man-

Ner, Treating Of Love In All The Phases Familiar To Readers

Of Urdu, Unsatisfied Longing, The Waywardness Of The

Beloved, Favours Bestowed On The Rival, The Desire Of

The Moth For The Lamp, The Harsh Imprisonment Within

A Cage In Springtime, The Escape From Dark Thoughts

Provided By The Compassion Of The Cup-Bearer, The

Beauty Of The Unbeliever And The Emptiness Of The

Mosque, And The Stupidity Of The Preacher, And So On

Endlessly, Using The Time-Worn Symbols That Seem In

Every Generation To Get A Fresh Lease Of Life. For Ins-

Tance, No One Who Is Familiar Only With The Lighter Side

Of Akbar’s Verse Will Believe That The Following Coup-

Let Is His :


Jo Zibah Kartaa Hai, Par Khol De, Mere Saiyymd


Ki Rah Na Jaaye Tarapne Ki Aarzoo Haaqu


Here Are Some Other Verses Appropriate To A Ghazal:


1 . Nigaahe Rtaaz Se Tumne Agar Dekhaa Rmhin Mujhko


To Phir Mam Kyon Taraptaa Hurt? Na Zakhmi Hiin  Na


Bismu Hun»


2 . Mareeze Muhabhaat Teraa Mar Gayaa,


Khuda Ki Taraf Se Dawwa Ho Gayu


3 . Saans Lete Hue Bhi Dartaa Hoon,


Yih Na Samjhen H Aah Karta Hoon





Akbar Allahabadi





Viika  Har Chhor Kar Kahaaii Jaaoon


Dll In Ke Saath Mam Thahartaa Iwon


4, Agar Allah Dete Qoowate Guftar Shamaaon Ko


To Daad’-E-Himmate Parivaanaa Detin Ikzahan Hokar,

Majaale Guftgoo Kisko Hai Unke Husn Ke Aage?

Zabaanen Band Kar Dm In Baton Ne Bezabaan Hokar.

Yih Irshaad Ap Kaa Bilkul Bajaa Hai, Hazrate Wayaz

Magar Mum Kyaa Kahoon, Kuchh Ban Nahm Partis


Jawwan Hokar,


5, Ayi Naseem Baagh Me, Mere Yihan Na Aaye Tum


Lala Wo Gul Bahut Khile, Dil Na Khilaa Bahaar Men


6, Kuchh Na Pooch H, Ai Hamnashin, Meraa Nasheman Than




Ah To Yih Kahnaa Bin Mushkil Hai Woh Guhhan Thua




7 Aayi Iwgi Kt6i Ko Hijr Men Maul,


Mujhko To Neend Bhi Nakin Aasi

S Cunahgaaron Ne Dekhaa Jamaale Rah Mat Ko,


Kahaan Naseeb Yih Hotaa Jo Be-Khataa Hote


  1. Keejiye Apni Nigah-E-Fitna Afzal Kaa Ilauj —


Nargise Beemaar Ko Beemaar Rahne Dihye*


  1. Ham Aah Bhi Karte Hain To Ho Jaule Hain Hadnaam,

W Oh Gad Bin Karte Ham To Charchaa Nahin Kotmu


  1. Koi Akbar Saa Bhi Diwaanaa Nazar Aayya Hai Ham,

Pahron Rotaa Hai, Jo Puchho To Sabab Kuchh Bhi Nahm*


  1. Ai Barq! Tarapne Men Hamin Hain Tere Saathi,


Ai Abr  Tere Saath Jo Giriyaan Hain To Ham Ham*


13 Tirckhi Chitwan Se, Khudaa Jaane Woh Dekhen Mujhe




Maut Kaa Waqt Kisi Shaklis Ko Maalum Nahm

  1. Museebat Ain Raalmt Hai, Agar Ho Aashiqe Saadiq,


Koi Parwaane Se Puchhe Ki Jalne Men Mazaa Kyaa Hai*








Poets And Poetry



15 Oh Kuchaye Janaan Ke Maze Ek Na Paaye.


Ham Pahle Samajhte The Ki Jannat Me Bhi Kuchh Hai»

Rindon Me To Hai Lutf Mayo Saaqi Wa Mutrih


Wayaz! Yih Bataa Tu Ten Sohhat Men Bin Kuchh Hai?


16 . Zara Dekhnaa Pliir Unhin Chitwanon Se


Yih Pyaan Adaa Dil Ko Hhaai Hui Hai


17 . Hayaa Se Sar Jhukaa Lenaa, Adaa Se Muskaraa Denaa,

Haseenon Ko Bhi Kunaa Sahal Hai Bijli Giraa Denaa,


18 . Ikbaar Nazar Aayaa Khizaan Kaa Jo Tasarruf


Phit Hxmne Kabhi Sooye Gulistaan Nahin Dekhaa.


Verses Like This, Though Written In The Traditional

Manner, Have Yet A Freshness Not To Be Found In The

Mechanical Compositions Of Most Of His Contemporaries.


Tour De Force’


In The Art Of Versification, Akbar Achieved Wonder-

Ful Results In Finding Perfect Rhymes Even For Foreign

Words And Proper Names. I Have Heard Of One Couplet,

Not To Be Discovered In Any Of His Published Books.

Someone Asked Him To Write A Verse In Which There

Should Be A Rhyme For The Name Of Mr. Kichlu With-

Out A Moment’s Delay, He Came Out With These Imes,

Which I Quote From Memory :


Koi ]Aa Ke Kah Do Mister Kichlu Scy

Ham Sab Ho Gaye Hain Zich Loo Se»


Of Such Tour De Force There Are Numerous Exam-



1 . Chhakre Pai Jo Charhte The, Ham Motor Pai Sawaar Aajy

Kfon Isko Samajhte Nahin Tumlog Swaraaj?


Tu Ne Parhaa Hai Duniyaa Ko Sirf History Men,


Duniyaa Ko Dekhy Ghafil, Qudrat Ki Mystery Men.



2 .





Akbak Allahabadi






3 . Dheet Sab Had Se Siwaa Yih Non-Coperoo Ho Gaye


Chup Huye Chintamani  Hairan Sapm Ho Gaiye,


4 * Raise Dyer Kaise Hunter,


Laao Saaghar, Laao Kantar,


5 Bujhi Jaati Hai Shamaai-I-~Mashtiqi Maghrih Ki Aandhise,

Umed-E Roshni Qaayam Hai Lekin Bliai Gandhi Sc,


6, Bahut Bajaa Note Ukh Gaye Ham Yih Aprii Pothi Men


Bhaai Maanik


Ghizaa Na Hogi To Hyaa Jioongaa, Diyaa Karo Turn Hazaar




7 , Kya Kahoon Isko Main Badbakhuye Nation Ke Siwaa?

Isko Aataa Nahin Ah Kuchh Imitation Ke Siivaa,


8, Pani Peena Paraa Hai Pipe Kaa


Harf Parhiiaa Paraa Hai Type Ka.


Pet Chaltaa Hat, Ankh Aayi Hai,


Shah Edward Ki Dohaai Hai.


The Vogue Of Westemisation


Akbar Was All Along Deeply Distressed At The Decline

Of The Influence Of Religion On Society He Was Not

Opposed To Material And Scientific Progress, But He De-

Plored The Want Of Spiritual Faith. He Was Not A Reac-

Tionary, Though Some Of His Lines Might Give That Im-

Pression He Recognised The Benefits Of Science, But He

Stressed The Importance Of The Eternal Verities He

Himself Believed In Islam, But He Was No Fanatic And

Admitted That Other Faiths Had Also A Right To Exist And

Prosper In Some Verses He Is Critical Of Sir Syed

Ahmad Khan And Of His Educational Programme.


Perhaps I May Here Recall A Conversation At The

House Of The Late Sir Akbar Hydari At Hyderabad. He








Poets And Poetry



Had Asked Me And The Late Dr. Ziauddm Ahmad To

Lunch, And In The Course Of Our Talk, He Said. ‘‘Ziauddm

Tell Me It It Is Not True That Differences Between The

Hindus And The Muslims Were Accentuated By The

Aligarh Movement”? Dr. Ziauddin Kept Silent, But

Was Obviously Very Uncomfortable At Any Rate,

Akbar Missed No Opportunity Of Having A Fling At

College Students In General And Those Of Aligarh M

Particular, For Abandoning Their National Culture


  1. Darwin Sahib Haqeeqat Se Nihaayat Door The,


Mam Na Maanoon Aa Ki Moons Aap Ke Lan £>Ot The*


  1. Saahabzaade Nashe Men Hain, Aur Beef Kunwarji In


Hai Tiffin;


Ham Maulvi Sahib Qiblaa Bin Chiip, Aur Pandit Ji Maha-


Raj Hhi Chup.


  1. Hai Yahi Behtar Aligarh Jaake Syed Se Kahoon —

Mujhse Chandaa Lijiye, Niujhko Musalmaan Kijiye.


  1. Ghalat Bilkul Yih Daawaa Hai Khudaa Ko Jam Sakte




Ma Ar Yih Saaf Zaahir Hai Khudaa Ko Man Sakte Hain*


  1. Mazhabi Bahas Mam Ne Ki Hi Nahin


Faaltoo Aql Mujh Men Thi Hi Nahin,


  1. Taakeed-E-Ibaadat Pai Yih Kahte Ham Larke»


Peeri Men Bhi Akbar Ki Zarafat Nahin Jatij


  1. Yih Mere Saamne Shaikho-Barahman Kyaa Jhagarte




Agar Mujh Se Koi Poochhe Kahoon Donon Kaa Qaayal




  1. ‘Goodbye’ Kaa Gul Machtaa Hai, Atraafe Jahaan Men,

“Tasleem” Nahin Rahti Hau “Lax”, Rah Nahin Jatu





Akbar Aijlahabadi



59 ‘



9 . Khwaahaane Naukari Na Rahen Taahbane Unty

Qaayam Hm Hm Raaye Yih Ahle Shaoor Ki,


College Men Dhoom Mack Rahi Jiai ‘Pass  ‘Pass  Ki,

Ohdon Se Sadaa Aa Rahi Hai  Door Door  Ki.


10 Ik Din Woh Than Ki Dab Gaye The Deen Se,


Ek Dm Yih Hai Ki Deen Dabaa Hai Machine Se.


11 . Laren Kyon H Nduon Se Ham, Yahm Ke An Se Panpe Kain

Hamaari Bhi Duaa Yih Hai Ki Gangaji Ki Barhti Ho.


12 . Hareefon Ne Rapat Likhwaayi Hai Jaa Jaa Ke Tliaane Men,

Ki Akbar Zikr Kartaa Hai Khudaa Kaa Is Zamuane Men.


13 . Deedni Hai Yih Tamaashaaye Machine Inqalaab


Baap To Qiblaa The, Betaa Esquire Ho Gayaa.


14 . Europe Waale Jp Chaahen Dil Men Hhar Den,


Jiske Sar Par Jo Chaahen Tohmat Dhar Den.


Bachte Raho Inki Teziyon Se Akhar,


Turn Kyaa Ho? Khudaa Ke Teen Tukre Kar Den.


15 . Aap Kyaa Puchhte Ham Mujhse Khudaa Hm Ki Nahin?

Ilm Bilfail Kaa Mujhko Nahin; Saabiq Men To Than.


16 . Har Rang Men Jise Nazar Aati Hai Shaane Hag,


Baaghe Jahan Men Kyaa Use Parwaaye Inqilab*


17 . Sitaaron Hi Ko Has Dhoondhaa Kiye Hain Doorbeenon Se,

Khudaa Ki Justjoo Karte Jo Chashmedoorbeen Hoti.


18 . Bahut Aaraustaa Ham Ho Hiya Taalim-E~Maghnb Ne,


Bas Itni Hi Kasar Samjho, Jo Kuchh Imaan Baaqi Hai.


  1. Zindgi Karti Hi Rahti Hai Museebat Puidaa,


Baa Khudaa Is Men Bhi Kar Late Ham Lazzat Paiiaa.


Homage To Gandhi


In Shri Paras Nath Sinha’s Book There Are Many

Verses Relating To Gandhiji, Some On The Hindi-Urdn

Controversy, And Several On Hindu-Muslim Unity.

There Are, Of Course, Many Specimens Of Akbar’s Special





Poets And Poetry



Brand Of Hixmour And Satire Here Are Some Lines On

Gandhiji And On The Non-Co-Operation Movement, Culled

Partly From Vinod Aur Vyangya, And Partly From The

Fourth Volume Of The ‘Kulliyat’:


  1. Hon Mubaarak Hazoor Ho Gandhi,


Aise Dushman Naseeb Hon Kisko?


Ki Piten Khoob Aur Sar Na Uthaaycn,


Aur Khisak Jaayen, Jab Kaho  Khi$Ko\


  1. Inqilab Aayaa, Nai Duniyaa Naya Hangamaa Hai

Shadhnaama Ho Chukaa Ab Waqt-E-Gandhinaamaa Hai


  1. Lashkare Gandhi Ko Hathiyaaron Ki Haajat Kuchh Nahin

Han! Magar Be Mtihaa Sabr-O-Qanaat Chaahiye,


  1. Jai Ki Bhi Sadaa Aayegi, Charkhe Bhi Chalenge,


Lekin. Yih Samajk Lijiye  Sahib Na Iaienge,


  1. Aage Tumhaare Tang Kisi Kaa Nahin Jamaa,


Jai Ho Tumhaari, Ai Mere Gandhi Mahatma


Lene Ke Turn Nahin Ho Government Ki Madad»


Chooran Ko Kyaa Zaroor Peppermint Ki Madad?


  1. Kyoji Dile Gandhi Se Saheb Kaa Adab Jaaiaa Rahaa

Bole Kyon Sahib Ke Dil Se Khauf-E-Rab ]Aafaa Rahaa


Hindi, Urdu, Hindu, Bluslim


I Draw Attention Next To Some Lines About Hindi

And Urdu And Hindu And Muslim. In A Message To The

Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Apologising For His Absence

From Its Conference On Account Of Bad Health, He Said :

Men Jaanib Se Iva Lekin Dil Ko Rakhiye Mutmain,


But Kaa Jo Maddaah Ho  Hindi Kaa Haami Kyon Na Ho?


Here Are Some More Verses :


  1. Ai Barahmauj Meraa Aur Teraa Hai Ek Aalam»


Ham Khwaab Dekhte Ham, Tu Dekhtaa Hai Sapnaa.





Akbak Allahabadi






  1. Hindi Muslim Men Hind Ki Niw Blu Hai


Ajtaar Men Hai Kha]Oor To Sev Bhi Jial


Allah Allak Hai Zabaan Par Beshak,


Lekin Ek Rang ”Bam Mahadev  Bhi Hai.


3 . Sher Men, Akbar  Jahi Mazmoon Tu Har Bacur Baandh,

Ai Musalman  Subh Le, Ai Barahman  Zunnaar Baandh


4 . Ham Urdu Lo Arahi Kyon Na Karen


Woh Hindi Ko Bhaashaa Kyon Na Knren?


Jhagre Ke Liye Akhbaron Men,


Mazmoon Taraashaa Kjon Na Karen”


Aapas Men Adaawat Kuchh Bhi Nahin


Lekin Ek Akhaaraa Qaayam Hai.


Jab Is Se Falak Kaa Dil Bahle,


Ham Log Tamaashaa Kyon Na Karen?


5 . Dashahraa Aur Muharram Saath Hogaa,


Nibah Iskaa Hamare Hath Iiogaa.


  1. Kahtaa Hoon Main Hindu Musalmaan Se Yahi,


Apni Apni Rawish Pai Turn Nek Raho.


Laathi Hai Hawaaye Dahar, Paani Han Jao,


Maujon Ki Tarah Laro  Magar Ek Raho.


7 Hindu O Muslim Ek Ham Donon,


Yaani Yih Donon Ashiayi Haim

Ham-Watan  Ham~Zabaan Wa Ham-Qismat,


Kyon Na Kah Doon Ki Bhaai Bhaai Ham,


8 . Jahaan Dekh Ik Jaa Namaaz Aur Pujaa,


Unhni Ki Taraf Is Zamaane Men Tu Jaa.


The Great Satirist


I Have Left To The Last That Portion Of Akbar S Work

Which Is Most Characteristic Of Him — Satire. It Is Sharp

And Incisive, But It Does Not Wound. It Makes The

Victim Smart, But It Is Intended To Instruct And Improve.








Poets And Poetry



There Is No Trace Of Malice Or Of Venom. From That

Humour Rescues It. There Are So Many Examples That

One Could Quote, Bearing On Girls’ Education, Decay In

Manners, Slavish Imitation Of The West, Desire For Pub-

Licity, Vanity Based On A Little Learning, Ignorance Of

Tradition. There Are Descriptions, Too, Of An Age Which

Seems Already To Belong To History — The Reverence

Shown To The British Officers, Life In The Cantonment,

Fondness For European Food Served In Restaurants,

Craze For Titles And Official Favour; But They Are Valu-

Able As Shedding Light On A Period Of Our History Which

Is Happily Over. There Is Much Food For Thought Here .


1 . Kyon Civil Surgeon Kaa Aanau Roktaa Hai, Hamnashin.

Is Men Hai Ek Baat Honour Ki, Shafaa Ho Yaa Na Ho.


  1. Hokim-O’vaid Ek Scan Hain, Agar Tashkheesh Ackchi Ho

Hamen Sehat Se Matlah Hai  Banafshaa Ho Ki Tulsi Ho.


3 . Hue Is Qadar Muhazzab Kabhi Ghar Kaa Munh Na Dekhaa

Kati  Umr Hotelon Men, Mare Aspataal Jaa Kar.


4 . Baaham Shabe Wesaal Ghalat Fahmxyaan Kuin,


Mujhko Pan Kaa Dhokha Huaa, Unko Bhoot Kaa,


5 . Chor He Bhaai Girdhkau To Suna Karte The,


Ab Yih Sunte Hain Editor Ke Biraadar Leader,


6 . * Kato Honour Ko Waapas  Bhaiji Hi Chuthi Aayi Hau

Are Yih Kyaa Ghazab Haij Laat Saahib Ki Dokaayi Hai.


7 . Hamen Bhagwaan Ki Hr Pa Ne To Baabu Banaayaa Hai

Magar Europe Ke Slialaa Log Ne Ulhoo Banaayaa Hai


  1. Editory Hai Khatranoak Is Zamaane Men,


Likhaa To Khub, Police Men Magar Pakar Bhi Gaye.


9 . Barq Ke Lamp Se Aankhon Ko Bachaaye Allah,


Roshni Mti Haif Aur Noor Chalaa Jaataa Hal





Akbar Allahabadi






10 . Khud Hi Ham Engine Driver The, Huye Rukhsat Woh Dm.

Dll Dharaktaa Hai Ab Apnaa Rail Ki Aawcieiz $E.


11 . Apni Jagah Har Ik Kaa Armaan Mkal Rahaa Haij

Topen Hhi Chal Rahi Ham, Jootaa Bhi Dial Raha Hai,

Lekin Rahaa Main Diupkaa  Dil Men Yih Baat Sochi,


Kis Taqwlyat Pai Utthoon, Engineer Na Mpdii.


12 . Firangi Se Kahaa  Pension Le Kar Bhi Yahin Rahiye ,

Kahaa ‘Jeene Lo Aaye Hain  Yihaan Marne Nahin Aaye\


15 . Qaum Ke Gham Men Dinner Khaate Ham Hukkaam He




Ran} Leader Ho Baliut Hai  Magar Aaraam Ke Saath,


14 . Committee Men Dianda Diya Kijiye,


Taraqqi Ke Hijje Kiya Kijiye,


15 . Dekho Jise Woh  Piprieep Office Men Hai Daataa,


Bahre Khuda  Mujhe Bhi Kahin Chhap Dijiye


16 . Hagaamaya Mahshar Kaa To Maqsood Hai Maalum,

Delhi Men Yih Darbar Hai Maalum Nahin Kyon,


17 . Native Se Nahin Ho Sakte Jo Gore, To Hai Kyaa Gham

Gore Bhi To Bande Se Khuda Ho Nahin Sakte,


18 Ghar Ke Khat Men Hai Hi Kal Ho Gayya Chehllum Uskaa

Pioneer’  Likhta Hai Beemar Kaa Haal Achchaa Hai,


19 . Hijr Ki Shab Yon Hi Kaato Bhaiyo,


Unkaa Photo Le Ke Chaato Bhaiyo,


20 . Pahunche Hotel Y To Phir Id Ki Parwaa Na Rahi.


Cake Ko Chakh Ke Sev:Aiyon Kaa Mazaa Bhool Gaye.

Mom Ki Putlioyon Par Aisi Tabeeyat Pighli,


Chamane Hind Ki Pariyon Ki Adaa Bhool Gaye,


21 . Vnse Bibi Ne Faqat School Hi Ki Baat Hi,


Yih Na Batlaayaa Kahaan Rakhi Hai Roti Raat Kl


22 . Girah Men Zar Nahm Aur Teemtaam Laazimi Farz,


Isi Sabab Se Mahaajan Ki Aamad Aamad Hai








Poets And Poetry



23 * Jummji Ke Paat Ko Dekhaa,


Achche Suthre Ghaat Ko Dekhaa.


Sab Se Unche Laat Ko Dekhaa,


Hazrat Duke Connaught Ko Dekhaa,


Khemon Kaa Ek Jan Al Dekhaa.


Is Jangal Men Manual Dekhaa,


Barhmaa Aur W Anangal Dekhaa,


Izzat-Khaahon Kaa Dangal Dekhaa,


Achche Achchon Ko Bharkaa Dekhhaa,


Bheer Men Khaate Jhatkaa Dekhaa


Munh Ko Agarche Latkaa Dekhaa.


Dll Durbar Se Atkaa Dekhaa

Ki Hai Yih Bundish Zahne Rasaa Ne,


Koi Maane Khwaah Na Maane.


Sunte Hain Ham To Yih Afsaane,


Jis Ne Dekhaa Ho Ivoh Jaane,


24 . Boot Dawson Ne Banaayaa, Mamne Ek Mazmoon Hkhauj,

Mulk Men Mazmoon Na Phailaa, Aur Jootaa Chal Gaya .

25 Aisaa Shauq Na Kainaa, Akbar, Gore Ko Na Banaana




Bhaai, Rang Yahi Liai Achchaa, Ham Bhi Kaale, Yaar


Bhi Kaalaa,.


26 . Furqat Ne Kahaa Jaagiye Aap,


Khatmal Ne Kahaa Bhagiye Aap.


27 . Mecca Tak Rail Ka Saamaan Huaa Jaataa Hai,


Ab To Engine Bhi Musalman Hua Jaataa Hai,


28 . Samjhen Na Hazoor Third Waalon Ko Haqeer.


Engine To Wohi Hai Jiski Ham Sab Ko Hai Acts,

Station~E‘Gor Tak Hai Yih First- O-Second.


Bad Iske Muwafiqe Amal Hogaa Class,


29 . Biscuit Hi Khaataa Hoouj Bilaa Chaay,


Nayi Miuat Kaa Hoon Main Zaahide Khusq.





Akbar Allahabadi






30 . Hat Hi Ko Kar Liya Jab Qaum Ke Sar Ne Qabool,


Dakhle Angrezi Pai Urdu Ki Slakayat Hai Fizool


31 . Till Baliut Unko Musalmanou Ki Tahzeeb Hi Fikr


Bole, ‘ Masjvd Ke Tale May Kaa Bhi Saamaan Rake  .


32 . Phaeton Nafees  Sarak Khushnumaa, Dinner Har $Hab

Yih Sab Chhor Kar, Haj Kaa Safari Khub Kahi,


33 . Ham Ne Waayaz Ki Khoob Daarhi Nochi,


Yih Aish Chhor Ke  Haj Kaa Safari Ye Khub Kahi,

Mazhab Kp Shikast De Ke Kyaa Paayenge?


Akhir Ko Rahenge Mo Chi Ke Mochi.


34 Aage Engine Ke Deen Hai Kyaa Cheez?


Bhains Ke Aage Been Hai Kyaa Cheez?


Allahabad Has Produced Great Statesmen, Lawyers,

Judges, And Politicians. It Has Long Been A Centre Of

Learmng. But In Modern Indian Literature Its Most

Distinguished Contribution Has Been Akbar His Me-

Mory Should Be Cherished And His Works Should Be

Studied With Close Attention. The Leader Press And

Shri Paras Nath Sinha Have In Some Measure Paid

Allahabad’s Debt To Its Luminary, And Scholars Both Of

Hindi And Urdu Will Warmly Welcome This Book.








Sir Muhammad Iqbal Is One Of The Outstanding

Figures In The Indian Literature Of This Century. Ttig

Writings In Urdu And Persian Have Attained Popularity,

His Lectures On Philosophico-Religious Subiects Have Been

Highly Praised; And There Is No Doubt That He Has Deeply

Influenced A Large Number Of Younger Writers And

Thinkers An Erudite Scholar, He Used His Learnmg For

Enriching The Urdu Language, Although Towards The

Close Of His Life He Preferred To Write In The Language

Not Of His Own Country But Of Persia. This Is To Be

Regretted. Of The Hundreds, Perhaps Thousands, Of In-

Dians Who Have Chosen To Write In Persian During The

Last Four Centuries, Not More Than One Finds Mention

In Any History Of Persian Literature Ghalib, Who Set

Such Store By His Persian Poetry, Is Unknown In Iran,

Whereas His Compositions M Urdu Have Placed Him

In The Front Rank Of Those Who Have Written In The

Modern Language Of Delhi. It Seems, Therefore, That

For Iqbal Too It Was An Error Of Judgment To Prefer

Persian To Urdu What, Ultimately, Is His Contribution

To Literature? Has He Anything New To Say’ Has He

An Attractive Way Of Expressing His Thoughts’ Are His

Images And Symbols, His Vision And Ideas New? Is He

In Any Respect An Innovator? Does He Rank High As A

Music-Maker? Has He Any Fresh Outlook On Life? Can

He, By Reason Of His Language Or His Melody Or Philo-

Sophy, Claim A Position Of Pre-Eminence Among Poets

And Thinkers?











Of His Theology Or Politics, I Am Not Competent To

Write, Nor Of His Compositions In Persian. His Urdu

Poems, However, I Have Read And With Much Delight.

It Is Regrettable That Detached And Disinterested Critic-

Ism And Appreciation Of His Urdu Work Have Not So Far

Been Attempted. Most Of The So-Called Critical Estimates

Have Been Indiscriminating Eulogies, In The Style Re-

Mmiscent Of The Tadkiras Of Old. This Is Not Surprising,

For Most Of Those Who Have Written About Iqbal Either

Knew Hun Themselves Or Had Fallen Under The Charm Of

His Personality. Thus The Personal Element Was Bound

To Affect Judgment. Was It Not A Wise Man Who On The

Publication Of A New Book, Read An Old One? There

Was Another Prudent Person Who Never Quoted An

Author Who Had Not Been Dead At Least A Hundred Years.

So Far At Least As Pure Literature Is Concerned, This

Delay Matters Little. All That Is Of Only Contemporary

Interest, All That Is Merely Topical, All That Is Super-

Fluous And Irrelevant, Can Then Be Eschewed, Smd A

Work Can Be Judged Solely On Its Literary Merits. Many

Best-Seuers Are Hardly Heard Of After A Decade, Whereas

Many Works Of Permanent Value Which Posterity Would

Not Be Without Have For Years After Publication Remain-

Ed Unnoticed. Thus Inexorable Time Is A Sure Judge.

Nevertheless, Contemporary Criticism Is Of Historical





Dr. Sinha’s Book Appears Nearly Nine Years After

Iqbal’s Death; But It Is Doubtful If Its Balance, Sobriety

And Critical Fairness Will Be Much Appreciated, As The

Cult Of Iqbal Is Still Not Far Removed From Idolatory.

Dr. Sinha Has Devoted Many Years To The Study Of





Poets And Poetry



Iqbal’s Works He Has Read Everything Written By

Iqbal, And Almost Everything Written About Iqbal. I

Say ‘Almost Everything’ Advisedly, For Not Even An

Omnivorous Reader Like Dr. Sinha Could Have Come

Across All Newspaper And Magazine Articles About Iqbal.

Dr. Sinha Has Brought To Bear Upon This Study A Vast

Knowledge Of European And Oriental Literature, An

Amazing Memory, And The Complete Freedom From

Narrow Interests And Sympathies, Which Is The Secret

Of The Universal Respect Which He And His Writings En-

Joy. For Over Half A Century. Dr Sinha Has Devoted His

Hours Of Leisure To Literary Pursuits. He Has Read Much

And Written Much His Interests Have Been Many-

Sided. He Had Many Years Of Active Work In The Legis-

Lature — Central And Provincial. For Several Years He

Was M Charge Of The Finance Of The Provinces Of Bihar

And Orissa. He Presided For Many Years Over The Des-

Tinies Of The Patna University. He Has Edited For

Nearly Five Decades A Leading Magazine. He Had Busy

Life As A Lawyer. At Allahabad And At Patna He Has

Been The Centre Of Gaiety And Conviviality. He Has

Been A Welcome Guest And A Charming Host At Gather-

Ings Not Only Of Contemporaries, But Also Of Those Con-

Siderably Junior To Him But Despite His Busy Social

And Professional Life, His Legal And Administrative Work,

His Parliamentary Pre-Occupations, He Has Persisted In

His Love Of Literature. The Production Of This Monu-

Mental Book, At The Age Of Seventy-Six, Is A Tribute As

Much To His Vitality As To His Devotion To Letters.


The Parts Of Dr. Sinha’s Book Which Contain Literary

Criticism (As Distinct From A Discussion Of Iqbal’s Theo-

Logy, Philosophy, And Politics) And Which Will Interest











Most Readers, Are Chapters V, X, Xi, Xvi, Xvii, And

Xxi. It Has Been Said That Iqbal Started By Being The

National Poet Of India, Then He Became A Poet Of Islam,

And Ended As A Poet Of Humanity. Dr. Sinha Has De-

Monstrated How Beautiful And Touching Some Of His

Poems On Indian Themes Are: “Ravi”, “Hamara Des”,

“Ram ”, “Swami Ram Tirth”, “Naya Shivala”, “Nanak”,

“Abre Kohsar”, Which Are Notable Contributions To

Indian Poetry; But They All Belong To The First Part Of

His Career, And May Not Unjustly Be Relegated, For All

Their Intrinsic Beauty, To The Period Of His Poetic

Apprenticeship. It Is A Tribute To His Greatness That

Even In His Early Years He Was Capable Of Producing

Such Exquisite Verses, As Have Been Quoted By Dr.

Sinha “On The Glow-Worm”: —


Is It The Light Of The Glow-Worm In The Garden, Or

Is It A Candle Burning In The Assembly Of Flowers?


Has A Star From The Sky Come Down To The Earth,

Or Is It The Ray Of The Moon Which Is Brightening All Life?


Has The Ambassador Of The Day Come To The King-

Dom Of The Night, Or A Stranger Far From His Home

Found Honour In A Foreign Land ?


Is It A Button Which Has Fallen From The Garment Of

The Moon, Or A Particle From The Raiment Of The Sun?


It Is But A Hidden Reflection Of The Eternal Beauty,

Which Nature Has Brought From Her Close To The Gaze

Of The Assembly


In This Little Moon Of A Glow-Worm There Are Both

Darkness And Light. Sometimes It Goes Into Eclipse,

And Sometimes It Emerges From It. The Moth Is An In-

Sect, And So Is The Glow-Worm; But That Seeks Light, And

This Is The Giver Of Light Itself








Poets And Poetry



Or The Following :


The Light Of The Moon Is Still, All The Branches Of

Trees Are Motionless.


The Songsters Of The Valley Are Silent, And So Also

The Green-Clad Ones Of The Hills


Nature Has Lost Consciousness And Sleeps In The Lap

Of Night.


Silence Has Cast Its Spell Everywhere; Even Nakir

(The Angel Who Watches Over The Dead) Has Gone To



The Silent Caravan Of The Stars Moves On Without

The Tinkling Of The Bells.


Silent Are The Hills, The Valley, And The River.


Nature Is Rapt In Contemplation.


Oh, My Heart: Be Silent Also, And Take Your Sorrow

Into The Recess Of Your Bosom, And Rest In Sleep.




What A Pity That The Poet Who Was Capable Of

Writing In This Strain Should Have Decided Practically To

Abandon Urdu And Write In Persian, Which He Could Use

Not As A Native But As A Foreigner? Professor Browne

Says: “Persian Literature Produced In India Has Not,

As A Rule, The Real Persian Flavour, Which Belongs To

The Indigenous”. The Leader Of The Iranian Cultural

Mission To India, In 1944, His Excellency Ali Asghar

Hikmet, Is Reported To Have Said That Iqbal Was Not

Known In Iran How Tragic That He Chose Persian In

Preference To Urdu As The Vehicle Of His Maturer And

More Ambitious Poetic Compositions. How Tragic Also











That When He Did Return To Urdu, As In Bal-E-Jibrael,

He Should Have Abandoned The Comparatively Chaste

And Fluent Language Of Bange-Dara, And Affected A

Pedantic And Artificial Style Which Is Neither Good

Urdu Nor Good Persian. One Remembers Johnson’s

Criticism Of Spenser That In Affecting The Obsolete He

Writ No Language. Who Today Writes, Or Half A Century

Hence Will Write, In The Style Of Bal-E-Jibrael? La

Chapter Xi, Dr. Sinha Has Dispassionately Discussed

This Subject, And Demonstrated How Unnecessary And

Even Harmful Iqbal’s Departure From The Traditions Of

Urdu Was.


In The Sixteenth Chapter There Is A Critical Survey

Of The Work Of Ghalib, Hali, And Iqbal, And Dr. Sinha

Arrives At The Conclusion That Not Only In Diction, Style,

And Choice Of Language, But Also In The Expression Of

Noble Ideals, And Truly Poetic Sentiments, Hali Is

Superior To Iqbal. This May Seem To Be An Attempt At

“Debunking”, And Will In All Probability Not Be Agreed,

To By Most Of Iqbal’s Admirers. Indeed, In Regard To

Hali Himself, It May Be Said That The Popularity Of His

Musaddas, And His Longer Poems, Has Unjustly Led To A

Neglect Of His Ghazals, In Which Too He Excelled. But

Hall’s Greatness Is Well Revealed In The Following Lines,

As Translated By Ward :


“Thou, Knowledge, Art The Key To The Storehouses


Of Joy;


Thou Art A Willing Fountain Of Delights And Profits;


Rest In Respect Of Both Worlds Is Under Thy Shade:


Thou Art A Means Of Subsistence Here, And A Guide


To The Hereafter.








Poets And Poetry





Dr. Sinha Discusses Iqbal’s Place Among The Great

Poets With A Sure Msight Into The True Elements Of Lite-

Rature It Will Be Difficult To Dissent From Him When

He Says’ —


“Poetry Is Immortal, Precisely To The Extent To Which

It Rises Above Dogma And Environment, And Touches

The Heart Of Every One By Reason Of The Appeal To The

Human Element Enshrined In It. All Other Poetry Can

Be Admired And Used By A Few; It May Even Arouse

Enthusiasm In A Few Breasts; It May Also Serve A Tem-

Porary Need. The Pity Is That Iqbal, Who Might Have

Written The Poetry Of Universality, And Contributed To

“World Literature”, Allowed Himself To Write A Vast

Mass Of Verse In The Interests Of Dogma And Propaganda


If Kalidasa Is A Great Poet, It Is Because He


Reads The Human Heart, Depicts Human Emotions And

Passions, Dehneates Human Character, And Describes The


Beauties Of Nature The Best Poetry Is Ever


Unobtrusive; It Captivates Our Senses; Lends Grace To

Our Emotions, Brings Sweetness And Gentleness Into

Our Lives, And Presents To Us Examples Of The Cardinal


Virtues That Uplift Humanity The Florentine


Dante, Howsoever Deeply Influenced He Might Have

Been By Christiamty, Has Made His Divine Comedy Last

Through The Ages By Reason Of Its Mtrinsically Charac-

Teristic Note Of Universality Surely, It Is Not Its Theo-

Logy, Not Its Dogma, Not Even Its Deeply Religious Back-

Ground, But Its Remarkable Catholicity Of Outlook On

The Eternal Verities Of Hfe That Has Appealed To Human-

Ity Throughout The Centuries What Ensures











Dante’s Permanent Appeal To Humanity Is The Combina-

Tion Of Grandeur, Pathos, The Sense Of Suffering, And

Wide Human Sympathy, And Not Any Special Pleading


For Christian Dogmas And Milton? Puritan,


Protestant, Cromwell’s Supporter —  Is There In His Poems

A Reminder Of All This, Or Does One Not Rather Forget

The Circumstances In Which He Lived And Worked, And

Even Causes For Which He Strove And Suffered? Is Not

His Paradise Lost A Grand Epic Of The Whole Human

Species, Capable Of Ministering To Humanity’s Moral And

Spiritual Needs, Wholly Irrespective Of The Biblical Back-

Ground Of Its Story?”


Dr. Sinha’s Encyclopaedic Learning, His Critical

Faculties, His Straightforwardness, And The Courage Of

His Convictions, Will Impress All Readers Of This Book.

It Will Long Remain A Monument To His Industry, His

Thoroughness, And His Desire To State The Truth As He

Sees It. It Will Be Welcomed Also By Scholars As A Most

Noteworthy Addition To Critical Literature, As It Is A

Penetrating And Thoughtful Study Of Iqbal, And A

Balanced And Critical Estimate Of His Poetry And Mes-






Shad Azimabadi



The Poetic Muse Of Urdu Soared On Its Wings From

Delhi And Found At Patna And Distant Murshidabad

Some Distinguished Votaries. Elhwaja Meer ‘Dard’ Sent

Out Four Disciples Who Succeeded In Impressing Their

Master’s Genius On Young Aspirants For The Poetic Laurels

— Qayam, Hasan, Tapish, And Ashki, The Last Of Whom

Conveyed To Patna The Message Of Dard. Ashki And

Anees — The Great Tragic Poet Of Lucknow —  Were The

Two Persons At Whose Feet Young “Shad” Sat, And To

Whose Inspiration He Owed Much. He Says Himself :

‘Ham-Bazm Rah Chuka Hun Anees-O-Dabeer Ka”. It Is

To Them That Shad’s Elegant Style And Dommant Poetic

Mood Can Be Traced. He Also Drank Deep At The Foun-

Tain Of Hindi Literature.


Khan Bahadur Nawab Syed All Muhammad ‘Shad’

Was Born In 1846 And Died In 1927 At The Ripe Old Age

Of 81. He Is The One Major Literary Figure Of The Pro-

Vince Of Bihar In Contemporary Urdu Literature. That

Observation Does Not Imply That One Can Find The Note

Of Provincialism In His Work, Nor That His Language In

Any Way Falls Below The High Standards Of Delhi And

Lucknow. Indeed, Such A Discerning Critic As Neyaz

Fatehpuri Thinks That He Is The Leading Ghazal Writer

Of The Past Half Century. Without Attempting To Place

Poets As In A Class List, One May At Any Rate Venture To

Suggest That Few Poets Have Succeeded As Successfully

As Shad In Capturing The Essential Note Of The Ghazal

And Exhibiting His Command Over The Different, Mobile,





Shad Azimabadi






And Variable Phases That Keep The Ghazal Ever-Fresh

And Ever-Charming. The Ghazal Has, During The Cen-

Turies, Gathered Round Itself Certain Symbols Which Are

Recurrent And Which Every Poet Has, With Greater Or

Less Success, Considered It Necessary To Employ In.-

Spite Of The Evident Disadvantages Of Being Tied Down

To Conventional Imagery, This Very Disability Is A Per-

Petual Challenge To The Poet’s Ingenuity And His Skill

In Redeemmg Them From Staleness. What, One May

Ask, Can Anyone Say That Is New And Fresh About The

Tavern, Wine, And The Nightingale? What Uncelebrated

And Un S Ung Word Can One Use About The Hunter, The

Dew-Drop, And The Rose? Can The Spring, The Long

Night Of Separation, The Cruelty Of The Beloved, The

Grave, And The Day Of Judgment Fail After All This Time

To Become Stale, Flat And Unprofitable’ These Are Per-

Tinent Questions The Answer To Which Is Furnished By

The Fact That These Symbols Are Still Employed And Still

Delight Large Numbers Of Readers Who Find Attraction

In The Manner In Which They Are Used To Express Vary-

Ing Shades Of Emotion And Turns Of Thought. Even

Originality Is Possible Through The Medium Of These-

Time-Worn And Apparently Effete Images. As Ghalib

Says :


“Banti Nahin Hai Bada-O-Saghar Kahe Bagkair”


% -If A


One May Note, In Passing, That Shad Followed The

Earlier Urdu Writers In Employing A Fair Number Of

Hindi Words And Did Not Rigidly Eschew Them In The

Manner Of The Later Poets. Some Lines In Which He

Has Used Them With Considerable Efl Ect May Be Quoted








Poets And Poetby



In Illustration :


L ‘ Samjha Chuki Uski Pmi Nazar Dtikh Dard Jo Woh


Sail Jana,


  1. Kaho Phoolon Se Auron Ko Dikhayen Rang Roop Apnaj”


3 .  ‘Nikal Ke Ruh Danivadol Ho Na Jaye Kaliinf’


4 .   Yih Rat Bhayanak Hijr Ki Hai\


5 . “Bare Guroo Ke Parhaye Hue Yih Chele Hain!


6 . “Chale Jayen Be Thah Darya Ke Andar \


7 .   Bharosa Kai Jiska Usi Se Duayen


8 . “Na Jao Door Unhen Wau Zon Pai Dhyan Karo,


9 . “Ankhon Se Sidhari Beenayi.


10 . “Sansar Men Hat Char Taraf Hoc Ka Hai Alam”


11 . “Baith Na Hardam < San Maref


12 . “Rat Chali Imi Jo Gin Ho Kar Os Se Apne Mmih Ko Dho




13 . “Ishq Men Ek Mat Hui Sab


14 . “Kuch Aur Dhun Hai, Chala Hun Jo Bagh Ko, Ai Shad/*


15 . “Kahin Zahar Aur Kahin Amrit Samajh Men Kuchh Nahin




16 . “Kathin Hai Yih Ghari, $Ar Par Museehat Ha Zamana




17 . “Jo Dekhe Ghaur Se Sara Bharam Khul Jaye Dunya La/*


18 . Nit Nayi Dasian Sunte Hain,


19 Muztarib Yun To Ham Pardes Men Sab Pardesi/*


20 . “Kuchh Ajab Tarah Ki Udasi Hai/*


Not For Nothing V/As Shad A Pupil Of Dard’s And A

Keen Reader Of Hindi.


1c I 4.


Persian And Urdu Poems Are Full Of References To

The Tavern, Glorification Of Wine, And Appeals To The

Cup-Bearer It Is Not Necessary To Discuss Whether All

These Have A Mystic Meaning. Whether Hafiz And Umar





Shad Azimabadi






Khayyam And Those That Followed Them Were Sufis,

Avowed Or Hidden, Is A Question To Which Many Answers

Have Been Given. What Matters Is That They Created,

By Means Of The Symbol Of Wine, An Atmosphere M

Which The Love-Lyric Has Flourished Through The Ages.

One May Quote Professor York Powell, Who Says .


“Those Who Would Make Of Omar A Sufi, Such As

Jilal-Ad-Din, Or A Hedonist, Such As Rochester, Are As

Much At Fault As Those Who Would Make Of Rabelais

A Crusader Or A Drunkard Omar Had Gone Beyond

Empty Phrases And Passed The Marshy Reek Of Mysticism

By; He Lived Far Above The Haunts Of The Mere Hog-

Philosophy. His Palate Was Too Keen, His Senses Too

Exquisite, His Brain Too Healthy And Active To Allow

Him To Find Complete Satisfaction In Animal Pleasures

Only. These Same Animal Pleasures He Does Not By

Any Means Despise. They Are Natural, To Be Enjoyed

And Fully Enjoyed In Their Seasons, But There Are Others.

For Omar, The Persian, There Were Many Gratifications

And Among Those That Thrill, And Rightly, The Bodily

Senses. He Was No Despiser Of The Common Joys Of

Mankind; He Acknowledged Their Blessedness. For Him,

As For Blake, Earth Was A Beautiful Place: Like Brother

Martm, He Loved Wine And Song And Woman The

Perpetual Miracle Of The Spring Did Not Appeal To Him

In Vam. The Odour Of Roses Came To Him As A Very

Breath From Heaven”.


Of Hafiz, Payne Says:


“There Were Two Men M Him: One The Celestial

Poet, Whose Lips Burned With The Live Coals Of Inspira-

Tion And Whose Soul Was Consumed With Contempt For

All That Was Not The ‘Blauen Blumen’ Of The Fields Of








Poets And Poetky



Heaven, Whose Eyes Were Blinded To The Sights Of This

Sublunary Sphere By The Visions Of The Viewless World

And Whose Ears Deafened To The Sounds Of Life By The

Spheral Harmonies Of The Ideal, And Another, The Care-

Less Epicurean, For Whom Life Was Sweet And Who Was

Unconcerned To Quarrel With A World In Which Wme

And Women, Praise And Pleasure, Were To Be Purchased

At The Cost Of A Trifling Song Or A Set Of Laudatory Verses

Addressed To Some King Or Man Of Wealth And Liberality


It Was Little That He Needed For The Establishment


Of His Own Heaven Here On Earth; It Was Enough For

Him To Sit At The Willow-Foot To Drink The Bitter Wine

Of Bihisht And Listen To The Chirp Of The Rebeck And The

Wail Of The Reed-Pipe, By The Marge Of The Nil, The

Silver Lakes Of Whose Water Recalled To Him, With No

Unpleasmg Admonition, The Fleeting Character Of Those

Goods Of Life And The World Which He Was Content To

Barter For The Darling And Less Deceptive Illusions Of

Dreamland The Necessary Funds Once Forth-


Coming, The Troubles Of The Time Of Straitness Were

Quickly Forgotten And The Poet Hastened To Provide

Himgplf With The Simple Elements Of Mirth, ‘The Gear Of

Pieasance’, As He Calls It, Roses And Wine, A Cup-Bearer

And A Minstrel And A Fair-Faced Light Of Love To Share

And Poetise The Frugal Debauch. These Granted, Life

Had Yet Sweet Hours For Hafiz. “When The Rose-Bride

Came Once More To The Festival Of Spring, When The

Sweet Bird Had Brought Its Dulcet Pips Summer S

Sign Nrifl The Tulips Overran The April Meadows With

Their Red-Raimented Hosts, The Leveling Of Youth’s Sweet

Season Tarried Not To Return To The Visions Of The Bard

Of Shiraz And He Was Content For A While To Dream





Shad Azimabadi






The Dreams Of The Lover And The Poet In Banqueting-

Halls Of The Cornfields, Overshaded By The Canopy Of The

Clouds. Who Shall Blame Him”?


Biographical Speculation Aside, What Matters Is That

To Hundreds Of Poets Who Have Never Touched Anything

More Potent Than Water And Who Indeed Regard Wine As

An Abomination, Have Yet Found In It A Real Inspiration.

Nor Is It In Order To Drown Any Personal Grief That The

Thought Of Wine Brings Solace. There Is Nothing Per-

Sonal About The Use Of The Image* It Is A Poetic Stock

M Trade : The Wine Brings Oblivion, It Suggests A Means

Of Escape From The Stern And Cruel Facts Of Life: It

Comforts; It Inspires; It Revives Whoever Supplies The

Energy, The Vital Force — The Cup Bearer — Is Welcomed,

Made Much Of, Placed On A Pedestal, Considered Fit To

Om The Company Of Priests And Prophets Shad, Fol-

Lowing This Long Poetic Tradition, Has Written With

Genuine Feeling And Energy.


The Craving For Drink Is Insistent, The Desire Is

Immediate, But There Are So Many Preliminaries To Be

Arranged —  The Flask, The Glass, And Then The Liquid —

How Much Patience Does It Call For


L Kalian Se Laoon Sabr-E-Hazrate Aiyub, Ai Saqi!


Khum Ayega, Surahi Ayegi, Tab Jam Ayega.


2 He He Khud Peer-E Mughan Hath Men Meena Ay A,

Maikasho! Sharm! Ki Is Par Bhi Na Peena Aya.


  1. Ghazab Nigah Ne Saqi Ki Bandobast Kiya


Sharab Bad Ho Di, Pahle Sab “Ko Mast Kiya.


The Sight Of The Flagon Brings As Much Delight As

The Arrival Of The Priest Or The Prophet Or God Himself;


  1. Suboo Ke Ate Hi Allah Ri Khushi Ai Mast,


Imam Aya, Rasool Agaye, Khuda Aya.








Poets And Poetey



The Gift Of The Dregs Of The Flask Was Followed By

Praise Of His Patience He Received Much More Than He

Had Ever Asked :


  1. De Ke Tahi Suboo Mujhe Sabr Ha Hausla Diya


Jis Ki Falab Thi, Saqial Us Se Kahin Siwa Diya,


  1. Na Poochh Ahwal, Saqi, Maikaskon Ka,


Suboo The Hath Men, Ankhon Men Tu Tha»


  1. Pilaji Shaikh Ho Dam De Ke Apne Hisse Ki,


Yahi To Ham Se Has Ik Wz Har-E-Khair Hua.


  1. Saqiya Tu Na Mere Shukr Ka Matlab Samjha


Tab To Paimanae Khali Ko Labalab Samjha


9 Na Samjho Aur Ka Ana Ise, Saqi Ka Ana Hai


Vihot Tdazeem Ko, Rindo» Wall Aya  Imam Aya»


(When He Fell Intoxicated In The Tavern, Thank

Heaven, He Had Enough Consciousness Left To Manage

To Fall At The Feet Of The Cup-Bearer) .


  1. Larkhara Kar Jo Gija Paon Pai Saql Ke Gira,


Apni Masti Ke Tasaddiiq Ki Mujhe Hosh Toha,


  1. Bazme Saqi Ke Nisar, Uski Kahani Duhrao,


Qissaye Kausar Wa Afsanaye Jannat Mdalum,


  1. Ghatayen Char Soo Uthi, Yihan Khali Hai Paimana


Ten Faiyaziyan Ham Bhi To Ai Abre Karam Dekhen.


  1. Kahan Yih Tab Ki Chakh Chakh Ke Ya Gira Ke Piyun,

Mile Dhara Hua Saghar To Dagdaga Ke Piyum


(Let Me First Have My Drink, And Then, O Preacher,

We Shall Set About Discussing The Unsolved Problem Of

What Is Allowed And What Is Forbidden! .


  1. Sharab Pine De Pahle, Wdaz Pkir Is Ki Tahqiq Ho




Yahi Na Ab Tak Khula Hi Akhir Haram Kya Hai, Halat


Kya Hal





Siiab Azimabadi






  1. Main Nisar Tujh Pai Him, Saqia, Tujhc Mil I>Ake To


Kuhm Se La


Jo Pila Dlya Tha Alast Men Usi Jam Se Hamen Kam Lai,

Io. Kahn To Jam Dhara Hai  Kisi Iaraf Saghar


Kidhar Jhakae Sar Insan, Kidhar Namaz Laie?


The Spring Tide, With Its Message Ol Blossom And

Fresh Renewal Of Life, Is Another Favourite Topic In Urdu

Poetry, As Indeed It Is In The Poetic Literature Of Most

Countries. Shad Has Naturally Much To Say About It.

The Dew Sheds Tears, But The Flowers Smile :


H Bahar-E-$Habnam-O- Ul Tere Akhtiyar Men

Kahin Kisi Ko Kansana  Hahin Rula Dena-


The Whirling Of Time Brings About To-Day The Joys

Of Spring And Tomorrow The Fear Of Pale Autumn.


  1. Khushi Bahar Ki, Dharka Khizan Ke Ane

Gulo! Faqat Yih Ulat-Pher Hai Zamane Ka.


The Advent Of Spring With All Its Promise Of Bud

And Blossom Should Bring Joy; But Alas, One Remembers

The Faded Flowers Of Yesterday And One’s Thoughts Are

Tinged With Melancholy.


  1. Guzre Hue Gulon Ki Shakl Saf Nazar Men Phir Gayi,


Aur Bhi Dil Tarap Gaya, Range-Bahar Dekh Kar.


How Swiftly Do The Days Of Spring Pass! The Plants

Are Decked With Blossoms, But Soon There Is Neither Leaf

Nor Flower.


  1. Kypn, Baghban, Yahi Teri Gulshan Hi Thi Bahar?


Tkakre No Phool Char Din Is Rahh Rahhao Par!


Thanks To The Spring, The Taverns Are All Full And

There Is A Universal Zest For Life.


  1. Teri Is Amad He Sadqe, Ai Bakar


Aj Kya Kya Maykade Abad Hain.











Poets And Poetey



Even Though The Days Of Spring Are Not Gone Quite,

There Is In The Atmosphere A Dread Of Impending Disas-

Ter — There Are Faint Traces Of Desolation And Of Sullen



  1. Abfii Se Weeranapan Ay An Kai


Abki Se Wahshat Baras Raki Haij

Abhi To Santa Hun Kiichh Dinon Tak,


Bahar  Ai Ashiyan, Rahegi.


To One Who Is Lonely And Distressed And Cheerless

The Fragrant Breezes Of Spring Only Cause Greater Pain

And Misery.


  1. Pahunchai Boo-E-Gul Mere Nazuk Mizaj Tak,


Patthar Ten Smajh Pai Naseem’e-Cbaman Pare.


To One Who Is Happy By Nature, Adverse Circums-

Tances Matter Little; Even Though It Is Surrounded By

Thorns, The Rose Keeps A Cheerful Attitude And Blossoms



Kanton Men Hai Ghira Hua Charon Taraf Se Phool,


Is Par Khila Hi Parta Hai  Kya Khush Mizaj Had


The Dew-Drops Deserve Well Of The World. The

Spring Is Past Long Since, The Branches Are Dry, The

Leaves Are Withered, But The Dew Keeps The Soil Sweet

And Wet — A Constant Reminder That Spring Is Not Far



  1. Ilahil Shabnum Rake Salamat- Bahar Hi Yadgar Hai Yeh

Ki Bagh Sookka Para Hua Hai Magar Mmm Dekhiye To


Nam Hal


  1. Tu]He Andealeeb-A- Nalan Ho Najat Agar Qajas Se,


Mera Tazkira Bhi Karna Fo Kabki Bahar Aye*


:Jt Is? I:


The Ghazai Is A Love-Poem And Naturally The Senti-

Ment Of Love Is The Dominant Sentiment — Love In All Its





Shad Azimabadi






Phases Of Desire, Longing, Wonder And Wild Desire, Hope

Of Fulfilment, Union, Separation, Jealousy, Hatred Of The

Rival, The Sense Of Despair. The Lover Scolds, Chides,

Prays; He Seeks To Arouse Pity; He Calls Down Upon The

Cruel Slayer The Wrath Of The Day Of Judgment. Most

Love Poetry Is Plaintive; Melancholy Its Chief Note.

One Recalls The Sugar’d Sonnets Of Shakespeare; How

By Day His Limbs And By Night His Mind Find No Quiet;

He Forgives The Gentle Thief Her Robbery, Although She

Steals All His Poverty; His Grief Lies Onward And His

Joy Behind; His Beloved Kills The Spirit Of Love With A

Perpetual Dullness; He Is To Wait Though Waiting So Be

Hell; For He Watches Whilst She Doth Wake Elsewhere

From Him Far Off; Tired, For Restful Death He Cries; “Since

I Am Near Slain, Kill Me Outright With Looks, And Rid

My Pain”. Burns’:


“And My Fause Luver Staw The Rose.


But Left The Thorn Wi’me”;

Or Shelley’s:


“A Widow Bird Sate Mourning For Her Love

Upon A Wmtry Bough”;

Or Landor’s:


“Rose Aylmer, Whom These Wakeful Eyes

May Weep, But Never See,


A Night Of Memories And Sighs

I Consecrate To Thee”;

Or Tagore’s;


“Time Glides On And Still No Sound Of The Wheels

Of Thy Chariot. Many A Procession Passes By

With Cries And Shouts And Glamour Of Glory. Is

It Only Thou Who Wouldst Stand In The Shadow

Silent And Behind Them All?








Poets And Poetry



And Only I Would Wait And Weep And Wear Out My

Heart M Vain Longing’’ —


Are All Tinged With Melancholy. Urdu Poetry, Again

Like Others, Has Frequent Touches Of Levity And Mirth,

Passages Where Mmble Wit Is Displayed, But These Are

All On The Surface And Do Not Express The Moods Of

Earnest Passion. They Also Have Their Appeal And Of

Them Too There Are A Good Many Specimens In The

Work Of Shad.


But First To Refer To Those Verses Where The Senti-

Ment Of Love Is Deeply Felt.


1 . Kahan  Hai Uska Kucha? Kauri Hal Wok? Kya Khabar,




Par Una Jante Hain Nam Hai Ashiqnaivaz Uska.


  1. Agar Marte Hue Lab Par Na Tera Nam Ayega.


To Main Marne Se Dar Guzra  Mere His Learn Ayega?

Shabd-Hijran Hi Sakhti Ho To Ho, Lekin Yih Kya Ham Half

Ki Lab Par Rat Bhar Rah Rah Ke Tera Nam Ayega.


3 . Jab Ahle Hosh Kahte Hain Afsana Ap Ka


Sunta Hai Aur Hansta Hai Diwana Ap Ha.


4 . He Kahte Hain Khubi, Ham To Is Khubi Ke Qayal Hain

Hua Jab Zikr Yektai Ka Nam Aya Wohin Tera.


5 . Tu Ne Deedar Ka Jin Jin Se Kiya, Wa*Ada


Hai Ri Unki Khushi, Hai Re Arman Unkou


6 . Nalon Ki Kashakash Sah Na Sala  Khud Tare Nafas Bhi


Tut Gaya,


Ik Umr Se Thi Tahleef Jise Hal Skab Ho Woh Qaidi Chhoot




7 . Hushr Men Jo Hai Woh Lata Hai Qadmt Jhuh Jhuk Kar

Aj Dekhe Kol Rutba Tere Diwane Ka!


8 » Jab Kisi Ne Hal Puchha Ro Diya,


Chashmetarl Tu Ne To Mujhko Kho Diya.





Shad Azimababi






9, Kuchh Is Tarah Se Kahi Apni Dastan, Ai Skad


Unhen Bhi Aj Bari Der Tak Hansa Ay A,


10, Bar Hay A Kis Mubarak Rah Men Paye Talab Main

Ki Apne Naqshepa Ko Choom Leta Hai Cjadam Mera.


Il Aya To Dil Men Tha Ki Jhuka Den Jabeen-E-Shanq


Lekin Wohan Ki Khak Ke Qabil Yih Sar Na Tha»


  1. Faqat Shore Dile Pur Arzoo Tha,


Na Duniya Thi  Na Mai Tka Aur Na Mam Tka,


  1. Tere Gesuon Ko Na Bhule Kabhi Ham


Skaben Mukhtalif Thin, Fasana Yahi Tka,


  1. Zindgi Bhi Laqab Isi Ka Ha\


Nam Mama Bhi Hai Muhabhat Ka,


  1. Wohi Rah Rah Ke Gkabrana Wohi Nahargar Alien,


Bajuz Is Ke Bata Tujh Se, Dile Nakam Kya Hoga?


  1. Shad Waqte-Nazcha Tha Khamoshy Lekin Der Tak,


Nam Rah Rah Kar Kisi Ka Zerelah Ata Raha.


  1. Gharib Shamala Ko, Ai Suhah, Yon Na Hanske Jala,


Isi Ne Rat Ko Roshan Kiye Tha Ghar Kya Kya,


  1. Thak Gaye Paon, Gayi Darhadari Shukr-E-Khuda,


Ab Yon Hi Tabaqayamat Tere Dar Par Ham Hain

Husn-O-Ishq Ek Hain, Zakir Men Faqat Nam Hain Do,

Yih Agar Sack Hai To Kya Unke Barahar Ham Hain?


  1. Parwane Ki Bisat Hi Kya, Thi? Fana Hwa,


Dekha To Shame? A Bhi Na Rahi Apne Hai Men


  1. Hazaron Hasraten Hain Dil Men, Lakhon Arzooyen Hain,

Bhala, Nasih, Kami Kis Cheez Ki Allah Ke Ghar Men?


2l Ai Nalaye Hazeen, Na Usar Tujk Rnen Ko, Magarj,


Itna To Ho Ki Ro Ke Kisi Ko Rula Saken,


  1. Ajal Jab Tak Nahin Ati Yahi Rone Rulane Hain,


  1. Kkalish Dil Ki To Ai Saiyad, Mitti Is Aseeri Men.


Agar Bijli Jala Deti Hamare Ashiyane Ko,.








Poets And Poetey



24 Barhe Jate Hain Dukh Yih Umr Jon Jon Ghaiti Jail Hau

Magar Main Sock Kar Khush Boon Hi Beri Katti Jati Iml


25 . Suna Hai Bad Fana Ke Hai Zindgani Phir


Agar Yahi Hai To Phir Ham Kahin Ke Bhi Na Rahe,


26 . Shabnam Ko Din Dikhaya Zamane Ne Hooch Ka,


Kul Ek Shab Qayam Kiya Tha Gharib Ne,


27 . Nargis Ko Dekh Kar Yahi Hota Hai Ab Yaqeen,


Hasrat Bhari Yih Ankh Kisi Naujawan Ki Thl


28 . Nasheman Hare Shakh-E-Gul Par Na Bulbul


Kisi Ko Bhi, Yih Skakh Ab Tak Phali Hai?


29 . Hijr Ka Din Bhi  Din To Hai, Lekin


Kuchh Ajab Tarah Ki Udasi Hau


Then There Are Some Verses In A Playful Mood, In

Which Verbal Finesse And Smart Expression Contribute To

Our Delight. How Can The Heavens Be Expected To

Make A Gift Of Wine? It Is Vain To Pray To Them, For

The Sky Itself Is An Inverted Bowl.


1 Ai Falak! Tujh Se Yih Ummid Ki Tu Dega Sharab!


Kkud Tu Taswir Hai Ulta Kua Paimane Ki.


It Is All Very Well For The Preacher To Counsel And

Advise; He Will Know Better When He Himself Loses His



2 . Maza Mil Jayega Jeene Ka Tujhko,


Kisi Zalim Pai, Nasih, Tu Bhi Mar Dekh.


Who Does Not Know That You Are Intoxicated With

Your Youth; But Must You Walk With The Unsteady

Steps Of One Who Is Drunk?


3 . Nasha-Eqoshe Jawani Men Kise Shak Hai, Magar,


Yun Na Chaliye Jhoom Kar, Yih Chal Matwalon Ki Hai*


I Found My Heart Deserted In Her Streets And I

Could Have Picked It Up And Regained Possession Of It;





Shab Azimabadi






But Xt Would Be Wrong To Take Back A Thing Given As A



  1. Para Hua Tha Dil Us Kooche Men, Utha Lete


Magar Jo Di Hm Shat Thi Phir Us Ko Kya Late.


To Prefer The Houris Of Heaven To The Earthly-

Beauties Of Flesh And Blood —  If This Be To Follow Religion,

Then, O Preacher, I Am Much Better Off Than You.


  1. Baton Se Qata Kar Lena Faqat Hooron He Lalach Se

Yahi Gar Kaq Parasti Hai, To Zahid  Tujh Se Ham Behtar»


  1. Kitabon Men To Beshak Sabr Ki Takeed Hat, Nasih,

Sabaq Sab Hhool Jata Tu Jo Tera Imtahan Hota.


Messenger, Does She Consent To Come To The Trysting

Place? Pray, Tell Me What Exactly The Message Can



  1. Namabar, Vuasl Ka Iqrar Karen Woh Khat Men!


Is Ibarat Ka Zara Phir Mujlie Matlab Samjha.


Select Some Other Fate For Me; There Is No Novelty

M Death —  It Has Become So Commonplace


  1. Kuchh Aur Mere Waste Tajweez Kijiye


Marne Me Koi Lutf Nahin — Axym Ho Gaya.


O Angels, What Submission Have You To Make To



Silence, Do Not Disturb Him, He Is Taking His Rest


  1. Hazrat-E-Skad Se Karni Hai, Farishto, Kya Arz?


Chup Raho, Ghul Na Karo  Ap Ne Aram Kiya.


Sjt »5s


To Shad The Thought Of Death Is Strangely Welcome.

It Suggests To Him Peace And Release —  The Spirit Free

From Its Physical Frame, No Sound, No Wandering,








Poets And Poetry



Silence And Rest : Repose, Quiet. He Feels Like Christina

Rossetii :


With Stillness That Is Almost Paradise

Darkness More Clear Than Noon-Day Holdeth Her,

Silence More Musical Than Any Song;


Even Her Very Heart Has Ceased To Stir;


Until The Morning Of Eternity


Her Rest Shall Not Begin Nor End, But Be;


And When She Wakes She Will Not Think It Long’

Here Are Some Of His More Notable Verses On This

Theme :


1 . Mam Apne Mdrnq Ko Samjha Hun Ndamat  Ai Shabegham

Main Aur Dhun Men Hun Kya Kar Sakegi Tu Mera.


2 . Tere Ghar Ki Mehmani Men Hai Kya  Aisa Maza?


Jo Yahan Aya  Woh, Ai Goreghariban Rah Gay A.


3 . Dhoye Kakan Talak Tane Khaki Ke Bojh Ko?


Ab Tuh Ko Mile Koi Gosha Panah Ka.


4 . Chain Se Shahr-E-Khamoshan Men Har Ik Sota Hah

Asra Sab Ko Hal Ai Wd Ada-E-Farda  Tera»


5 . Thake Mande Lahad Men Ham To Mar Rahne Ko Aye Hain,

Farishte Kahte Hain   Uthiye To, Kuchh Kahne Ko Aye


Haw? ,


6 . Na Bechalni, Aa Betahi Koi Turhat Ke Sone Me,


A Jab Aram Se Chupke Pare Hain Ek Hone Mem


7 . Musafirame-Adam Ko To Dekhiye, Ai Shad.


Nahin Hai Kuchh Jo Ta’alug Maze Se Sate Haim


8 . Aram Se Hoon  Qabr Ke Andar Jo Hand Hoon.


Main Bhi To Admi Hun—Faraghat Pasand Hoon,


9 . Bekhabar, Aj Har Ik Kam Se So Lete Haiuf

Chaunkna Subah-E-Qayamat Ko Hai—W Lete Hain.


10 . Apni Hasti Ko Gham-O-Dard-O’ Museebat Samjho*


Maut Hi Quid Laga Di Hai — Ghamemat Samjho.





Shad Azimabadi






  1. Salamat Rahe Apni Turbat Ka Gosha


Ki Ham Begharon Ka Yahi Ik Makan Hat


  1. Khwah Duniya La Cibh Dekh Raha Tha Kya Kya


Ai Ajal  Kyon Mujhe Sole Se Jagaya Tu Ne?


  1. Ankhen Shabefiraq Men Kyon Ho Chali Kain Band?


Ayi Hat Neend, Maut Ka Shayad Haliana Hau


14 Faqat Bharose Pai Tere Hai Zindgi Apni,


Khuda Hayat Teri, Ai Ajal, Daraz Hare


  1. Maut Qayam Rake Duniya Men Kamesha Yarab„


Ik Yahi Skakl To Apne Liye Aram Ki Hau


16, Aram Kar Lo Qdbr Men Chande, Musafirof

Manzil Tak Aur Ab Koi Mehmansara Nahin.


Flk 3$:


From A Lyric Poet One Has No Right To Expect A Sys-

Tem Of Philosophy. The Lyric Is The Expression Of A

Mood, The Capturing Of A Beautiful Moment. But As The

Poet Sings Frequently And At Great Length, It Is Natural

That He Should Now And Then State His View Of Life,

Utter Truth As He Sees It, Affirm His Faith. Let Not Carp-

Ing Critics Pick Holes And Point To Inconsistencies.

Thought Is Free. Shad Lived A Long Life, And His Obser-

Vations On The Eternal Problems Deserve To Be Consi-

Dered, Not Because He Offers To Solve The Riddle, But

Because He Tried To Understand It. Of The Many-Sided

Eharacter Of The Creator Whom Every Man Creates In

His Own Image, He Says :


‘‘Jis Se Tera Bayan Sunte Hain,


Nit Nayi Dastan Sunte Hain”.


Fidelity, He Says, Is The Most Divine Of Attributes :

“Bharosa Kar Liya Hai Tu Ne Jis Par,


Wohi, Ai Admi, Tera Khuda Hah’.








Poets And Poetry



Every Man Interprets The Word Of God M Ms Own



Hya Bat Ap Ke Lab Id,


Sab Samajhte Ham Apne Matlab M\


One Man’s Meat Is Another Man’s Poison. When

One Weeps Another Laughs. It May Be That In The World

Joy Is Obtained At The Cost Of Another’s Pain. When

The Dew Sheds Tears, The Blossoms Sparkle In Glee.

Parti Hai To Hole Hain Shugufta Ghunche,


Ranj Is Bagh Men Shayad Sabab-E-Shadi Hai’


Most Men Waste Their Time In The Pursuit Of Their

Desires; They Amuse Themselves Like Children With Toys

And Beguile Their Hours With Them :


Tamannaon Men Uljhaya Gay A Hoon


Khilauna De Ke Bahlaya Gaya Hoon \


One Has To Go On And On; There Can Be No Excuse;

The Long Travail Has To Be Gone Through : But The Won-

Der Of It Is That No One Knows The Stages Nor The Jour-

Ney’s End.


Safar Zaroor Hai Aur Uzr Ki Majal Itahln,


Maza To Yih Hai, Na Manzil Na Rasta Ma’alooml**


It Is A Mistake To Establish Any Relationships Here

On Earth By Giving One’s Heart : No One Returns Here,

Having Departed Hence.


” Tdaluq Men Na Phansy Dil Ko Laga Kar,


Tujhe Ana Nahin Duniya Se Ja Ka/


It May Be Only In A Small Measure, But Every One

Has Happiness. Who Can Subsist If His Portion Is Only

Sorrow And Pain?


  • Kam Sahiy Phir, Bhi To Muta Kai Khushi Ka Hissd .


Sirf Gham Khane Se Hota Hai Guzar Kis Ka?





Shad Azimabadi






All Absence Of Desire Brings The Realisation Of The

Highest Goal; Make The Sum Of Your Desire Zero, And

You Attain Everything.


“Yih Samjhao Use Dil Men Ho Jiske Mudda’a Koi \


Ki Tarke Mudda’a Karne Se Hasil Rnudda’a Kogcd’.


In All This There Is Nothing Maudlin Or Week-Kneed

It Is The Utterance Of One Who Had Poise And Could See

Straight. It Is Worth While Reading Him And Remem-

Bering His Best Verses, Some Of Which Have Been Culled

In This Paper.


“Short Is The Date, Alas, Of Modern Rhymes,


And ’Tis But Just To Let Them Live Betimes”.





The Maesiyas Of Shad



In The History Of Poetic Literature, Few Episodes

Have Produced More Strikmg And Emotionally Lasting

An Impression Than The Martyrdom Of Husain. The

Incidents Occurred Centuries Ago, In Distant Arabia,

And Yet The Memory Of It Is Kept Vivid And Fresh, Main-

Ly On The Occasion Of Muharram Year After Year. The

Episode Is Quite Brief— The Difference Between Husain

And Yazid; His Leaving His Home; His Bemg Encircled

On The Field Of Karbala; The Enormities Perpetrated By

The Soldiers Of Yazid; The Stoppage Of Supply Of Water;

Many Other Privations; Unyielding Resistance; Final

Martyrdom. Round This Incident Has Grown Up In Our

Country A Vast Poetic Literature In Which Epic, Lyric,

And Tragedy Are Inextricably Interwoven. I Do Not

Know Of Other Languages; But Apart From Urdu, I Have

Read Poems On The Happenings At Karbala In Bengali

And Maithili. In Urdu, Of Course, It Furnishes Copious

Examples. Unfortunately, The Marsiya Has Been Fre-

Quently Criticised And Judged Not By Literary And Im-

Guistic Tests, But By Sectarian — That Is To Say, Extrane-

Ous And Not Literary And Artistic — Standards. It Has Been

Looked Upon As Essentially A Vehicle For The Expres-

Sion Of Shia Sentiment And The Accentuation Of Shia

Feelings Of Resentment Against The Majority Sect. That

The Marsiya Is Primarily The Work Of The Shia Poets

And That It Is The Shia Section Of The Muslims Who Are

Most Touched By It Is True. But I Have Seen Non-Shias

And Non-Muslims Also Being Moved By It, And I Knew

At Least One Hindu Who Wrote Excellent Marsiyas. It Is

Necessary, Therefore, That We Should Clear Our Mind Of





The Marsiyas Of Shad





Bias And Prejudice Based On Differences Of Sect Or Reli-



Judged As History, It Has Been Objected By Some

Critics That The Incidents Described By Such Poets As

Anees And Dabeer Did Not All Happen In The Manner

Related By Them, Or At Least, That There Is No Historical

Evidence To Support Them. This Criticism Cuts Of Course

At The Very Root Of All Romance, Epic, Drama, Fiction

Inspired By A Historical Character Or An Incident In

Mstory, It Is Well To Recall The Words Of Aristotle :


“It Is Not The Poet’s Province To Relate Such

Things As Have Actually Happened, But Such As

Might Have Happened, Such As Are Possible Accord-

Ing To Either Probable Or Necessary Consequence”.

Next, Judged As Elegy The Marsiya Has Been Criticised

As Containing Much Extraneous Matter That Detracts

From The Intensity Of The Grief And Distracts Attention

From The Central Theme Which Is The Sufleering And

Martyrdom Of Husain. Let Us See What Has Been The

Practice Of Elegiac Poets In Other Languages. Jebb, In

His “Grammar Of Greek Literature”, Says :


“Greek Elegy Dealt With The Greatest Variety

Of Subjects, — The Wars Which The Poet’s City Is Wag-

Ing, The Political Feuds Among The Citizens, The

Laws Or Principles Which The Poet Wishes Them To

Adopt, His Own Opinion On The Manners And Morals

Of The Day, His Views As To The Best Way Of Enjoy-

Ing Life, Festive Pleasure, Lamentation For The Dead

— Eveiything That The Poet And His Friends Are

Wont To Think Or Talk Of”.


Let Us Recall Milton’s “Lycidas”, Where The Poet Is Not

Content Merely To Pay The Meed Of Melodious Tear, But








Poets And Poetry



Digresses Into A Tirade Against The Corrupt Clergy Of The

Age —  “Bhnd Mouths That Scarce Themselves Know How

To Hold A Sheep-Hook”. Tennyson, In His “In Memo-

Riam”, Laments The Death Of Hallam, But Also Deals

With Questions Of High Philosophy, Religious Doubts,

Nature Red In Tooth And Claw, And The Blind Hysterics

Of The Celt Matthew Arnold Mourns The Passing Of

Clough, But Is Interested Rather In The Sweet City With

Her Dreaming Spires. Why, Then, Should It Be A Special

Complaint Against The Marsiyas That They Contain Elabo-

Rate Description Of Swords And Horses And Betrothal

Rites? The Truth Is That Notwithstanding Extraneous

Elements, The Central Theme Is Invariably One Of Sorrow

And Lament.


The Earliest Urdu Marsiyas Appear To Have Been

Written By Poets Connected With The Courts Of Gol-

Conda And Bijapur In The Deccan. Some Of The Well-

Known Names Are : Wajahi, Lateef, Mirza, Zauqi,

Ahmad, Ashraf. In North India, The First Considerable

Marsiya Writers Are Sauda And Meer. The Marsiyas Of

Meer Have For The First Time Been Collected And Edited

By Syed Masihuzzaman Of The Allahabad University

And Published By The “Anjuman Mahafiz-I-Urdu” Of

Lucknow. These Marsiyas Do Not Have The Poetic

Excellence Of His Ghazals, But The Authentic Meer Touch

In Them Is Unmistakable. The Sense Of Tears In Things

Human Which We Find In His Poems Is Present In The

Marsiyas. In Concluding One Of Them He Says :


“Basj Ah To. Meet, Rakh Le Tuk Zaban Ko,


Yahin Se Ckhor De Is Dastan Ko,


Ridawega Kahan Tak Mardman Ko,


Nahin Taqat Rahi Mizgan Tari Ki”.





The Maesiyas Of Shad






In Them We Find Glimpses Of Contemporary Life And

Maimers And Rites Of India — An Anachronism Sanctioned

By The Practice Of Poets Through The Ages.


The Most Prominent Names In The History Of The

Urdu Marsiya Are, Of Course, Anees And Dabeer.

Writing At A Late Date, Hali Of Panipat, Said:


“Par Jab Tak Anees Ka Sukhan Kai Baqi,


Tu Laknoui Ki Hai, Laknow Tera Hat.”


Here Are A Few Verses From Anees :


“Kaisi Yih Neend Aj Hat, Pyare, Utho, Uthho,


Mamoon Ke Sath Ran Men Sidharo, Uaio, Utho,


Kapre Lahoo Se Bhare Yih Utaro, Utho, Utho,


Vljhe Hain, Gesuon Ko Sanwaro, Utho, Utho.


In Pyan Pyan Ankhon Pat Aman Nisar Ho,

Angrayian To Lo, Ki Jigar Ko Qarar Ho”.


4 :


Bachchol Tumhin Batao, Main Ghurhat Men Kya Karoouf

Ghar Hai, Na Yih Watan Hai, Museebat Men Kya Karoon,

Bhai Ghira Hua Hai, Is Afat Men Kya Karoon


Faqon Men, Tishnagi Men, Saoobat Men Kya Karoon,

Rahat Na Tooh Ko, Na Kisi Dil Ko Sabr Hai,


Pani Na Ghusl Ko, Na Kafan Hai, Na Qabr Haip

  • ❖ 41


Anees And Dabeer Were The Two Recognised Mas-

Ters Of Marsiya, And It Is With Pardonable Pride That

Shad Says:


Ham Bazm Rah Chuka Hoon Anees O -Dabeer Kd ,


Tfi 4


Several Years Ago I Wrote An Article On The Poetiy


Of Shad. I Confined My Observations Mainly To His








Poets Al<M Poetey



Ghazals, For I Had Then No Loiowledge That He Had

Written Any Marsiyas. I Spoke Of His Felicitous Langu-

Age And Its Grace And Elegance. I Was Struck With The

Ease With Which He Transformed Weighty Thoughts Into

Limpid Lyrics. I Drew Attention To The Wit And Playful-

Ness Which Characterised Some Of His Verses.


I Should Like To Quote Some Verses Which Will

Reveal The Wide Range Of His Poetry And The Manner

In Which He Invested Even Well-Worn Themes With

Freshness. First, Here Are A Few Lines On Wine :


1 . Leke Khud Peere-Mughan Hath Men Me Na Aya,

Maikasho! Sharm  Ki Is Par Bhi Na Peena Uya,


2 . Na Samjho Aur Ka Ana Ise, Saqi Ka Ana Hai


Utho Taazim Ko, Rindo! Wall Ay A. Imam Ay A.


3 . Larkhara Kar Jo Gira Paon Par Saqi Ke Gird,


April Masti Ke Tasadduq  Ki Mujhe Ko$H Raha.


4 . Sharab Peene De Pakle, Wayaz, Phir Iski Tahqeeq Ho




Yahi Na Ahtak Khula Ki Akkir Karapi Kya Hui  Kalal


Kya Hai.


Then I Draw Attention To Some Verses On Nature :


1 . Khushi Bahar Ki, Dkarka Khezan Ke Ane Ka,


Gulo! Faqat Yih Ulas Pher Hai Zamane Ka*


2 . Kyouj Baghban! Yahi Tere Gulshan Ki Thi Bahar?


Thahre Na Phool Char Din Is Rakh-Rakhao Pari


3 . Paliunchai Boo-E-Gul Mere Nazuk Mizaj Tak,


Fatthar Teri Samajh Pai, Naseerne Chaman, Pare*


4 . Kanto Men Hai Ghira Hua Charon Taraf Se Phool.


Is Par Hhila Hi Parta Hai, Kya Khush Mizaj Hai.





The Marsiyas Of Shad






Next, Take Some Verses Of Love Which Is The Main Theme

Of The Ghazals :


]. Shabe Hi] Ran Hi Scilchti Ho To Ho  Lekin Yih Kya Kam Hai?


Ki Lab Par Rat Bhar Rah Rah Ke Tera Nam Ayega


2* Aya To Dil Men Tha Ki Jhuka Den Jabeene Shauq,


Lekin Wahan Ki Khak Ke Qabil ‘Yih Sar Na Tha.


  1. Husn-O-Ishq Eh Hain Zahir Men Faqat Nam Hain Doy

Yih Agar Sach Hai To Kya Unke Barahar Ham Hain?


  1. Hazaron Hasraten Ham Dil Men Lakhon Arzooyen Hauiy

Bhala, Nasihy Kami Kis Cheez Hi Allah Ke Ghar Men?


There Are Also Some Noteworthy Lines On Death :


  1. Tere Ghar Ki Mehmani Men Hai Kya Aisa Maze?


Jo Yihan Aya, Ai Gore-Ghariban, Rah Gaya»


  1. Aram Hoon, Qabr Ke Andar Jo Band Boon.


Mam Bill To Admi Hoon, Faraghat-Pasand Hoon.


  1. Maut Qayani Rahe Dumya Men Hamebhay Yarabf

Ek Yahi Shall To Apne Liye Aiani Ki Hai.


K Apni Hasti Ko Gham-O-Dard-O-Museebat Samjho,


Maut Ki Qaid Laga Di Hai — Ghaneemat Samjho.


I Am Grateful Now For The Opportunity Of Saying


A Few Words On His Marsiyas.


Shad’s Poetical Career Began In 1865 And Ended

With His Death In 1927. During This Period His Literary

Production Was Enormous. Of The Marsiya, Anees

Has Prescribed The Following Characteristics :


“Lafz Bhi Chust Hon. Niazmoon Bid Ali Howe


Marsiya Dard Ki Baton Se Na Khali Howd .


According To This Definition, The Marsiya Must Have

The Tragic Note And Be Capable Of Moving Our Sense Of











Poets And Poetey



Pity, Sympathy, And Grief. A Careful Study Of The

Marsiyas Of Shad Will Amply Demonstrate How Faith-

Ful He Has Been To This Conception. He Has Drawn The

Distinction Between The Ghazal And The Marsiya In The

Following Lines:


“Hushiyar  Marsiyon Men Na Jhalke Ghazal Ka Rang,

Ghazalon Men Marnyon Ka Na Paida Hon Rang Dhang.


Mauzoon Ghazal Ke Waste Husne Azal Ka Naz


Aur Marsiyon Men Zihre Shaheedan E-Pakbaz,


Zeha Ghazal Men Shikwa-O-Naz Az Rahe Myaz,

Yiur Marsiyon Men Matame Ushaqe Sarfaraz,


I Shall Quote Only A Few Lines To Indicate How Suc-

Cessful Shad Has Been In Writing Marsiyas, Which,

While Giving An Account Of The Martyrdom Of The Bless-

Ed Husain, Also Point A Moral And Give Us Food For



‘Nikli Tarap Ke Woh Badan Ke Hijab Se,


/Is Tarah Chaunk Pnria Hai Insan Kfniab



”  Mam Hoon Jahan Men  Ya H Na Boon, Kibriya To Haiy

Bibi Ka Hal Dekhne Tuila Khuda To Hai/*


*”Saghar Jo Dagdaga Ke Piyoon, Jhoomne Lagoon,


Uth Uth Ke Maykashon Ke Qadam Choomne Lagoon

‘Azad Hoon Kisi Se Adawat Mujhe Na Bair,


Karta Hoon Apne Baghe Mazamin Ki Ap Sair


Sheesha Ho Jam Ho, Koi In Men Nahin Hai Gham

Fo Ham Hareef Apne Qadah Ki Manayen Khair.


Pahli Si Woh Nigah Na Pahle Se Taur Haim

Jfoh Din Gaye, Zamane Ki Ankhen Ab Aur Huin.





The Marsiyas Of Shad



” Uth Kar Kabhi Girt To Habhi Ho Gayi Nidhal,


Munh Ko Bikhar Bikliar He Chhupate The Sar Ke Bal

Purcham Se Ja Lipat Ti Thi Har Bar Tha Yih Hal,

Matha Ragar Ke Chop Se, Karti Tin Jih Maqal —

Ahab  Batayiye Ki Sawari Hdhar Gayi,


Chhut Kar Qadam Se Ap Ke Laundi To Mar Gayi


Batlao, Maut Ayi Ki Neend Agayi Tumhen,


Sahab, Bahare Baghe Adam Bha Gayi Tumhen,


Pardes Men Uroose Ajal Pa Gayi Tumhen,


Taqdeer Le Ke Janibe Darya Gayi Tumhen*


Kis Se Kahoon Jo Dil Ko Mere Izterab Hai,

Saheb Se Chhut Har Men Mitti Kharab Haip





The Diwan Of Saqib



A Frail Figure, Rapt In His Own Thoughts, Looking

With Questing Eyes At The World Around, A Smile Visit-

Ing His Lips Now And Then, A Hidden Energy Of Spirit

Revealing Itself Suddenly, Unmmdful Of Appearance And

Convention When Under The Influence Of His Poetic

Intoxication, Unexpectedly Rising From His Seat In

Acknowledgment Of Genuine Appreciation —  Such Is The

Person Whom One Recalls As One Thinks Of Mushairas

And Majhses. But One Recalls Too Quieter Moments Of

Repose, When Reminiscence And Comment And Criticism

Come Out In Gentle Tones, Without A Hint Of Malice, But

With Now And Then A Suggestion Of Conscious Pride.

Mirza Saqib Qizilbash Is One Of The Disappearing Race

Of Poets Whose Whole Life Was Dedicated To The Service

Of The Poetic Muse, And Who Disdained To Own Allegiance

To Any Other Divinity. He Has For The Past Many Years

— Almost For Half A Century Now — Devoted Himself To

Poetry, And While, It Will Be Partisanship To Claim For

Him A Place Among The Immortals, It May Justly Be

Maintained That Whether In Respect Of Originality Of

Thought Or Freshness Of Expression, He Is One Of The

More Eminent Writers Of The Generation That Is Nearing

Its Appomted End.


The Chief Defect That One Notices In His Work Is

Lack Of Melody. There Is No Technical Flaw Or Metrical

Mistake; But The Inner Harmony Of Poetry, The Singer’s

Gift, Is Denied To Him. One Feels Too, Now And Then,

That There Is Not Enough Intellectual Ballast, Nor Is He





The Diwan Of Saqib Lol


Among The Supreme Smgers Whose Words Find A Straight

Path To Our Hearts.


  • S>T *5: :4.


The Ghazal, Whether In Persian Or In Urdu, Has

Such A Long History, So Many Distinguished Poets Have

Employed It As Their Favourite Medium, The Human

Emotions Have Been So Exhaustively Described In It, The

Symbolism Employed In It Is All So Well Known, So

Fully Has The Sentiment Of Love In Particular Been De-

Picted In It, The Lover’s Desires And Hopes And The

Baffling Moods Of The Beloved Have Been So Exquisitely

Drawn By The Masters, That The Most Ambitious Poet

Might Well Pause Before Venturing To Compose A Ghazal.

And Yet, Partly Owing To The Institution Of The Mushaira,

And Partly Owing To The Popular Favour Which It Enjoys,

The Ghazal Continues To Be The Most Commonly Attempt-

Ed Of Forms The Poet, Who Imparts To It Freshness In

A Late Age, And Strikes New Notes, And Makes It Yield

Unheard Melodies, Achieves Real Distinction Intended

Primiirily To Be A Love-Poem, And Retaining Still All The

Aroma And Flavour Thereof, It Has Frequently Been Em-

Ployed For The Expression Of The Poet’s Philosophy Of

Life. The Metrical Stiucture Is Helpful To The Use Of The

Epigrammatic Form Interspersed Through Saqib’s

Ghazals We Have Many A ‘Rugged Maxim Hewn From

Lilel Here Are A Few Illustrations. One Must Recog-

Nise That The Particular Verse Is Determined By The

Mood Of The Moment And By The Exigencies Of The

Rhjnne. But The Cumulative Effect Of These Stray Lines

Is Suggestive Of A Consistent View Of Life.


  1. Chhupao Etpk/Y Jis Rang Ya Jh Bhes Men Ehaho —


Magur Chashme Haqiqat Been $E Panic Ho Nahm Salta.








Poets And Poetey



2 – Jo Kuchh Hiia Alam Men  Koto Na To Kya Hota?

Behtar Tha Bigarne Ko Yth Dil Na Bana Hota,


3 . Jahaji Tha Tang Ji 6 Wole Amal Ke Phail Jane Se,

Imhad Me A Gaya Sara Woh Qusa Mukhtasar Ho Kau


4 . Afsos Hai Ki Umre Fctni Ne Khatm Ho Kar,


Mujhk Y Tvahi Bataya Jis Ko Mam Janta Tha


5 . Apne Hi Dil Ki Ag Men Akkir Pighal Gat.


Shame Hay At Maut Ke Sanche Men Dhal Gau


6 . Yih Hai Bahte Hue Darya Ki Atoaz,


Wahin Jana Hai Aye The Jahan Se.


7 . Hans Ke Hhi To Ke Bin Kaha. Idem

Matlabe Dil Kabhi Ada Na Hua*


8 . Dll Ke Qisse Kahan Nahin Hot E


Han! Woh Sabse Bay An Nalun Hote,


9 . Maut Woh Achhi Ki Jiske Baad Mil Jaye Hayaty

Jo Sabab Ho Maut Ka Woh Zindgi Bekar Hal


10 . Tanha Hai Dua Shab Woh Darani Hat, Ki Tauba,

Baitha Hai Kisi Ar Ke Goshe Men Asar Bhi,


11 . Ya Mere Rone Se Ya Tasweere Alam Thi Yahi.


Jab Khulin Ankhen To Alam Deeda-E-Pur Ab Tha


12 Ham To Hor Zarre Se Rone Ki Sada Siinte Hain

Hog Weerane Ko Kahte Ham Ki Abad Nahin,


13 . Main Kah Raha Hun  Bagh Ho  Gul Ho  Bahar Hot

Taqdir Kah Rahi Hai, Ke  Gham Ke Shikar Hoj


14 . Rasme Duniya Hai Koi Khush Ho, Koi Nashad Ho,


Jab Ujar Jae Nasheman T 0 Qafas Abad Ho.


Bant Len Duniya Ko Ham Turn Mil Ke Aishoranj Men

Ek Jamb Qahqahe Hon, Ik Taraf F Ary Ad Ho,


15 . C Human Na Dekh  Nasheman Iw Dekh, Ai Bulbul!

Bahar Hi Men Kabhi Ag Bin Barasti Hai.





The Diwan Of Saqib






36 . Men Pm Se Hyon Taajjub Hat?


Ranj Wale Jauan Nahin Hole.


The Total Effect Of These Typical Lines Is One Of

Wistful Melancholy, A Sense Of Tears, A Conviction That

The World Is A Vale Of Grief Effort Is Meaningless. The

End Is Predestined — The Way Lies Through Sobs And

Sighs And A Broken Heart. The Spring Comes To Glad-

Den Us For A Moment, And We Forget Ourselves In The

]Oy Of The Springtide; Then Comes The Thunder, And

The Lightning-Flash, And Our Homes Are A Heap Of Ashes.

Loneliness And Separation Are Decreed It Is Vain Liftmg

Up Hands In Prayer To Heaven, Heaven Is Only Another

Name For Cruelty And Indifference. Iiow Far Is All This

Mere Convention, And To What Extent Does The Poet

Express His Own View About The Sorry Scheme Of Things

Entire? It Is Not Easy To Tell Perhaps, Judging From

The Almost Complete Absence Of Happiness And Bliss In

His Verse, One May Not Be Far Wrong In Thinking That

Maulana Saqib Sees Little In Life That Can Brmg Com-

Fort And Much That Makes Him Chng Passionately To

The World Of His Own Thoughts And Fancies As Affordmg

An Escape From Reality. Thoughts And Fancies Assume

Thus A Reality Of Tbeir Own Here He Prefers To Dwell,

Turning To His Visions As To His Compamons, And Extract-

Ing From Them The Joys And Delights That He Misses In

Life. “Ranj Wale Jawan Nahin Hote”.


Quite Naturally Most Of The Verses Have A Love-

Interest, And Equally Naturally Most Of The Themes Are

Well-Worn. But Even Here, Saqib Has Succeeded In

Attaining A Refreshing Variety Of Style And Vividness Of

Imagery. The Cup-Bearer, The Preacher, The Moth And








Poets And Poetry



The Candle, The Temple And The Mosque, Repentance, The

Nightingale And The Spring, The Hunter And The Noose

‘—All These Familiar Images Are Employed, But Without

Any Effect Of Monotony.


  1. Gulchin! Hura Kiya Jo Jih Unke Jala Diye


Tha Mhiyan  Magar Tere Phoolon Se Door Fha

2 Aye Ho Gore Ghanban Men To Oaten Na Karoy

Zane Kuchh Lahte Haui  Jjiamosh Zara Ho Jamn

3, Chal  Bayahan Li Laraf Ji Nahm Ghahrane La,

Riilhe-Majnoon Se Ghar Ahad Hai Veeranc Ka,


I Barhaye Haude Daryadili Ne Saqi Li —


Zara Se Jam Men Suu Bar Aftah Aya.


  1. F) Shabe Firaq Men Dil Se Bhi Bat Kar Na Sakfiy

W Oh Takhliya Tha Ki Koi Meie Siiva Na Raha,


6 Ek Jalii Shamda Uthva Di, Bahut Achcha Liya,

Sokhta-Dil Tha Main  Koi Raunaqe Mahfil Na Tha,


  1. Woh Lahud Pai Itnka Ma Woh Qadam Qadam Pm Mah-




Meri Neend Hyon Uchaitiy Agai Ek Bar Hota

  1. Ik Mera Ashiyan Hai Ki Jalknr Hal Beniskan,


Ik Loor Hai Ki Jab Se Jala Nam Iio Gay A,


  1. Ar Men Koi Chhupa Hoga Has Itna Yad Thm

Paita Patta Bagh Ka Mere Bye Sayyad Tha,


10 Jalwaye Husn Ik Ishare Men Bahut Kuchh Lah Gaya.

Main Nahin Samjha, Magar Han  Dil Tarap Kar Rah Gaya,


Ii Chhutate Na  Par Ummid-E- Rehay I To Na Jali


Khulte Hue Lekin Dare Ziridan Nahm Dekha,


12* Kahne Ko, Mushte Par Ki Aseeri To Bhi, Rnagar

Khamosh Ho Gaja Hai Chaman Holla Hua,


  1. Guzregi Yon Hi Shamo Sahar Dekhte Rnhna,


Jo Hai Woh Na Ayega Nazar, Dekhte Rahna.





The Diwan Of Saqib






  1. Day Are Dil Men Kahin Dost Ka Pata Na Mila


Woh Badnaseeb Hun Kaabe Men Bhi Khuda Na Mila,


15, Nashemari Ag Se Hachta, To Khauf Barq Ka Tha,


Jo Baghban Bhi Na Hota, To Asman Hota,


16 Booe Gul Phoolon Men Rahti Thi  Magar Rah Na ‘Iakh

Main To Kanton Men Raha Aur Parishan Na Hua.


  1. Matn Woh Hun Jiska Zamane Ne Sabaq Yad

Gkam Ne Shagird Aia, Phr Mujhe Ustad Jdya

Ll] Shabe Gham Hi Taiihai\On Ho Na Puchko


Jidhar Dekhta Tlia Khuda Hi Khwda Tha»


  1. Imliar Zakhmon Men Hai Ya Ho Gayi Taseere Bajmr,


Jfah Re Dil   Ki Khizan Ho He Hai Tasweerebahar.


20 Muddaton He Band Ki Tin Kal Qafas Men Fiqre Aisju

Sonchne Par Bhi Na Ayi Dil Men Tasweere Bahar,


21 Zamana Bare Shauq Se Sun Raha Tha


Ilamin So Gaje Daslan Kahte Kahte,


  1. Jfoh Nazaa Ki Khamoshi Fame Jahannuma Thu


Ik Zmr Ki Kahani Dam Hhar Men Hah Gay A Main.


2″>. Apne Hansne Ki Khahar Le  Mere Rone Ko Na Dekh,


Main To Is Nala-O-Faryad Se Badnam Nahin,


  1. Lajiad Par Chain E 7 I)Ale Tham. Ki Ham Kuchh Kah Nahn




Znmin Rakhtx Hai Mnnh Par Hath Jab Faryad Karfe Hain.


  1. Ghanlmat Hai Qafas Fibre Rihai Kya Karen Hawdamm

Nahin Maalum Ab Laisi Hawa Chalti Hai Gulshan Men.


26 Kkud Asnvm Ko Nag She Wafa Se Hai Imhmani


Turn Kyon Miia Rahe Ho Nishane Mazar Ko?


27 Kahun Hasraton La Hujoom Kya  Dare Dil Tak Ake Woti




Miijhe Woh Sunale Palat Gaya Id Yalian Fa Majmaye


Am Hal








Poets And Poetry



2<X Na Rnatlah Sun Ne Tvalon Se, Na Parwa Range Mahfd Ki\

Jahan Baithe Wohui Ham Ne Kaham Chher Di Dil Ki.


  1. Dil La Mahwe Lazzate Azar Rafine Dijiye


Khush Rahe Jis Hal Men Bimar, Rahne Dijiye.


30, Hijr Ki Shab Nalaye Dil Wok Sada Dene Lage.


Sun Ne Wale Rat Latne Ki Dua Dene Lage.


Baghban Nc Ag Di Jab Askiyanon Ko Mere


Jin Pai Takiya Tha Wohi Pane Haua Dene Iagi\

Mutthiyon Men Kliak Le Lar Dost A)E Waqte Dafn

Zindgi Bhar Hi Niuhabbal Ica Sila Dene Lage.


3l Yi/I Hukme Rnuhabbat Hai Ki Dil Us Pm Fida Haiy

Saqib Jise Dekha Na Labhi Ek Nazar Bhu


32 Qafui, Ke Raste Par Khud Dd Ka Kam Ata Hai,


Udhar Ko Paon Harhate Hain Jidhar Se Dam Ata Hai

Bhala Saaqi Se Kya Mangoon ? Ki Maikash Rah Take Ham

Na Jail Hai Sada Us Tak Na Mujh Tak Jam Ata Hai.


33 V Lahad H Gosha Nosheeni Se Fayada Na Hua


Nahin Hun Mam To Kahani Hai Ja Baja Men.


34 Dil Jo Rahla To Samajhte Ki Qaza Ayegi,


Ab Jo Hash La Mshan Gum Hai To Kya Ayegi?


Turn Na Aye Sare Balm To Qaza Ayegi,


Dard Ke Hhes Men Ashiq Ki Daiva Ayegi.


Dare Zindan Ko Khuda Rahne De. Ji Bahle Ga,


Koi Hamdard Na Ay A To Bala Ayegi,


Jis Jagah Chaho Ghazal Hhej Do Apni  Saqib


Dastane Dile Betab Suna Ayegi.


C *


Persian And Urdu Love-Poetry Is Predominantly


Melancholy The Sense Of Frustration Rather Than Ful-

Filment Prevails Aspiration Rather Than Achievement;


Separation Rather Than Union; Indifference And Cruelty





The Diwan Of Saqib






Rather Than Sympathy — These Impart A Poignancy To’

Much Of This Poetry, But They Produce Too An Impies-

Sion Of Incompleteness And At Times Of Monotony.

Even On The Day Of Judgment There Are To Be Charges,

Complaints, Recriminations, Or Perhaps Awestruck Hush-

Ed Silence With The Grievance Unexpressed And The

Longing Unuttered It Is Rare Indeed To Hear The Note

Of Ecstasy Or Rapture Or Of Future Bliss Such As We Find

M Browning’s “Prospice”. But The Lover, M Spite Of

U All, Persists In His Love, Whether Willingly Or Under

The Compulsion Of An Urge That He Cannot Control. And

He Delights M His Torture He Hopes Against Hope That

His Beloved Will Relent There Are Rivals, More Favour-

Ed Rivals, Numerous Rivals But He Trusts That His Fide-

Lity Will Ultimately Triumph His Depression And De-

Jection Have An Undercurrent Of Faith That Success Will

Come To Him As He Has Staked His All On His Love. Such

Complete Self-Surrender Cannot Be In Vain. His Home,

His Friends, His Avocations, His God —  He Has Sacrificed

Them All, Surely, Not For Nothmg


Saqib’s Diwan, From Which I Have Culled A Few

Verses, Is A Testimony To His Single-Minded Devotion To

Poetry, His Technical Skill, His Command Over The

Thoughtful As Well As The Passionate Notes, And The

Ability With Which He States An Individual Point Of

View. Much Of What He Has Written Will Be Forgotten;

Someday It Will Be Studied As A Specimen Of Verse In

The Acknowledged Tradition; But There Are Also Some

Lines Which Posterity Will Not Willingly Let Die








Braj Narain Chakbast Was Recognised To Be One

Of The Major Urdu Poets Of Lucknow In The First

Quarter Of This Century. The Collected Edition Of His

Poems, “Subah Watan” Was Received With General

Acclamation He Had Figured Also In A Rather Furious

Literary Controversy On The Merits Of “Gulzar-E-

Naseem”. I Had The Privilege Of Knowing Him And,

Like All Those Who Knew Him, I Admired Him For His

Modesty And His Greatness As A Gentleman. He Died

While He Was Still Comparatively Young And By His

Death Urdu Literature Sustained A Grievous Loss.


Chakbast Belonged To The Bright Lucknow Galaxy

Which Included Safi, Saqib, Azeez, Mahshar, And Among

The Younger Poets, Asar, Arzoo, And Josh. But, While

In His Ghazals He Shared The Merits And Defects Of The

Lucknow School, He Struck An Entirely New Note In His

Nationahstic And Patriotic Poems And Specially In His

Memorial Verses.


I Should Like To Quote A Few Lines From Safi, Whose

Diwan Has Unfortunately Not So Far Been Published

I Myself Made Several Requests To Him During His Life-

Time To Get It Published, But For Som.E Inexplicable

Reason He Put Off The Matter And One Wonders If It Will

Ever Come Out. That Is A Great Pity, For His Was One

Of The Dominant Voices M That Nest Of Singmg Birds.

To Me Personally He Was Extremely Generous; He Add-

Ressed A Poem To Me On My First Election As Vice-

Chancellor. I May Be Pardoned For My Partiality.


1 Wohan Pai Ja Ke Jo Dekha Kuchh Suna Na Sake,

Rtthe Ttdam Ke Mvsafir Palat Ke A Na Sake.











2 Abhi Hai Buton Ko Khudayi La Dawa


Khuda Jane Kya Aur Ham Karne Wale,


  1. Phir Bill Rahe Adam Men Ham Tan Ha,


Sath Go Qafila Rawana Hai.


Ashiqi Zindgi Ka Hai Ik Nam,


Zindgi Maut Ka Bahana Hal

Zikre Jannat Bahut Suna  Wayazy

Shakh Dar Shakh Ik Fisana Hai,


K Na Sharar The Ham, Na Shabnam, Magar Iltejaq Ylh Bhiy

Ki Is Anjunian Men Lekar Dile Beqarar Aye,


  1. Dekhiye Kyon Koi Turbat Hogi,


Dekh Kar Aur Nadamat Hogu

Zang Alooda Ik Ayina Saki,


Dll Ki A Kill R Koi Qeemat Hogu

Khiiah Dekha Hai Ki Mar Mar He Jije,


Kisi Kafir Se Muhahbat Hogi,


Na To Wayaz Ko Khabar Hai, Na Mujhef

Kise Dozakh, Kise Jannat Hogi.


Dll Men Rakhen To Kudoorat Kahlaye,


\Lunh Se Nikle To Shikayat Hogi.


  1. Badal Garja, Bijli Chamki, Royi Shabnam Phool Hanse

Murghe Sahar Lo Hijr Ki Shah Ip Afwnp Duhrane Do.

Rahe Miihabhat Kc Kuchh Zarre Chun Chun Kar, Ai




Dll Ke Tukre Jor Laha Hoon, In Ka Jor Milane Do.


Husn Ki Garmagarmi Ne Kya Lean Men Inke Phoonk Diya,

Shama A Se Kahte Ham Parwane,   Ab Hamko Jal Jane




Joshe Bahar To Awe,, Phir Jo She Junoon Ki Qahat Nahin,

‘ Kookegi Loyal Baghon Men, Baiir Amon Me Ane Dor








Poets And Poetry



7 . Kal Ktiiri Ayeene Men Ruhh Ki J Hurray Cm Dekha Ktye

Karvane Umre Rafta He Nishan Dekha Kiye,


Zor Hi Kya Tha   Jafaye Baghban Dekha Kiye


Ashiyan Iijra Kiya, Ham Natawan Dekha Kiye,


Sadgi Ki Intaha Kar Di Azeezane Chaman,


Muddaton Range Mizaje Baghban Dekha Kiye.


Jab Aseeredam Ho Kar Ham Chale Sooye Qafas.


Door Tak  Nur Mur Ke Apna Ashiyan Dekha Kiye.


Many Of His Verses Have Not Been Printed; Some Of Them

I Took Down To His Dictation. But The Specimens Quoted

Above Will Indicate That Safi Was Not A Mere Mechanical

Repeater Of The Traditional Note, But Could Say Some-

Thing New, Something Fresh, Without Departing From

Technical Perfection


While Belonging To The Group Led By Safi, Chakbast

Distinguished Himself By His Style, His Command Over

Words, His Deft Use Of Simile And Metaphor, His Burn-

Ing Patriotism, His Eloquent Tributes To Leaders Of Pub-

Lic Opinion, His Sympathy For Indians Overseas, And His

Beautiful Descriptions Of Natural Scenes His Work May

Be Conveniently Divided Into Four Sections* Poems Of

Love And Affection; Didactic Poems; Patriotic Poems;

Memorial Verses.


Here Are A Few Lines In Which Are Expressed The

Many Emotions Summed Up In The Word ‘‘Taghazzuf :


1 , Kaifeeyat-E-Gulshan Hai Mera Nasha Ka Alam,


Koyal Ki Soda Naraye Mastana Hai Mera.


Ashiq Bhi Hoouj Maashuq Bhi, Yih Turfa Maza Hai

Deewana Hoon Main Jiska Woh Deewana Hai Mera,


2 Ek Saghar Bhi Inayat Na Hua,  Yad Rahe


Saqiya  Jate Hain, Mahfil Teri Abad Rahe.











Hukm Mall Ka Hm, Yih Phool Na Hanme Payen,


Chup Raha Bagh Me Koyal, Magar Azad Rahe.


3 , May Jawam Hat Men, Dil Mera May Khana Haiy

Yan Surahi Hau Na Sheesha Hai, Na Paymana Hai

Le Chali Bazm Se Kis Tvaql Mujhe Marge Shabab


Lab Tak Aya Bhi Nahin. Hath Men Paymana Hai,


4 . Fikre Meena Kyon Hat, Saqi, Kyon Talaske Jam Hai?


Too Laga De Munh Se Khum, Peena Harnara Lam Hau

Subah Ko I>Habnam Ke Moti Bagh Men Chon Gaye,


Phool Kirnon Se Yih Kahte Hain   Tumhara Ham Haip!

Dekhna Hat Husn Ke Jalwe, To Butkhane Men A,


Tere Kaabe Men Toj Ff ‘Ayaz, Bas Khuda Ka Nam Hai.

Mere Mazhab Men Hai, Vcayaz  Tarke Mayppshi Haram

Chhot Kar Peeta Boon Phir, Tauha Isi Ka Nam Hai.

Didactic Verse Is Not Usually Attractive As Keats

Put It, We Hate Poetry That Has A Palpable Design Upon

Us Much Of Wordsworth’s Work Is Dull Because He

Cannot Put Off The Mantle Of A Prophet. *1 Wish To

Be Considered As A Teacher Or Nothing”, He Had Dec-

Lared; And It Is Precisely That Part Of His Verse Which

Seeks To Instruct That Has Fallen Into Neglect. Lord

Morley Summed Up His Criticism In The Following

Words : ‘‘He Is Apt To Wear A Somewhat Stiff-Cut Gar-

Ment Of Solemnity, When Not Solemnity, But Either

Sternness Or Sadness, Which Are So Different Things,

Would Seem The Fitter Mood In Truth, Wordsworth Hard-

Ly Knows How To Be Stern, As Dante Or Milton Was Stern;

Nor Has He The Note Of Plangent Sadness Which Strikes

The Ear In Men As Morally Inferior To Him As Eousseau,

Keats, Shelley, Or Coleridge; Nor Has He The Olympian

Air With Which Goethe Delivered Sage Oracles”. Chak-

Bast’s Didactic Verse, However, Is Far Removed From








Poets And Poetby



Sermonising; It Is Genial And Sympathetic. This Is Part

Of One Poem :


‘ Rainshe Kham Pal Rnardon Ki Na Fana Hargiz


Dagh Taalim Men A Pm Na Lagana Haigiz.


Rang Hai Jin Men  Magar Booye Wafa Kuchh Bid Nahim

Aise Phoolon Se Na Ghar Apna Sajana Hargiz.


Ppojne He Liye Mandir Jo Hai Azadi Ka,


Usko Tafnh Ka Maikaz Na Banana Hargiz,


Kagazi Phool Vilayat Ice Dikha Kar Inko.


Desk Ke Hagh Se Nafrat Na Dilana Hargiz.


Go Buzorgon Men Turn Hare Na Ho Is Waqt Ka Rang.


In Zayeefon Ko Na Haiis Hans Ke Rulana Haigiz*


Some Of Chakbast’s Best Efforts Are The Poems

Written On Some Leaders. The Present Generation Has

Perhaps Forgotten Bishan Narayan Dar, Who Presided

Over The Calcutta Session Of The Congress And Delivered

An Address Written In Excellent Enghsh. He Was A

Great Scholar Whose Learning Was Hidden By A Raie

Modesty. On His Death, Chakbast Wrote :


‘Sadmaye Am Hai, Wuh Qaum Ka Pyara Na Raha

Bezabanon Ki Zaban  Dil Ka Sahara Na Raha»

Gulsliame-Ilm-O-Adab Ka Chaman Ara Na Raha,


Matlaye Danishoheemsh Ka Siiara Na Raha.


Sab Yih Gham Ck Taraf, Ek Taraf Gkam Apna,


Jis Se Dumya Nahni Waqif Woh Hai Matam Apna ”


And This From His Elegy On Gokhale :


*‘Laraz Raha Tha Ivatan Jis Khyal Ke Dar Se,


Woh Aj Khoon Rulata Hai Deedaye Tar Se,


Sada Yih Ati Hai Phal Phool Gut P Rilur Se,


Zamin Pai Taj Gira Qaume Hind Ke Sar Se,


Habeeb Qaum Ka Duniya Se Yon Rawana Hua

Zamin Ulat Gayi Kya Munqalib Zamana Himl’











The Most Moving Of All Is The Poem On Tilah :


Marka Sard Hai  Soya Hai Waton Ha Sardar


Tantana Sher Ha Baqi Nahin, Sooni Hai Kachchan

Bekasi Chhayi Haij Taqdir Phiri Jati Hai,


Qaum Ke Hath Se Talwar Giri Jati Hal


Mout Maharashtra Id Thi, Ya Tera Marne Hi Khabar,


Murdani Chha Gayi, Insan To Kya Patthar Par.


Pattiyan Jhuk Gayin, Murjha Gaye Sahra Ke Shajr


Rah Gaye Josh Men Bahte Huye Darya Tham Kar.


Sard Shadab Hawa Ruk Gayi Kohsaron Ki,


Roshni Ghat Gayi Do Char Ghari Taron Kip


On The Theme Of Patriotism Chakbast Wrote With Zest

And Fervour :


L Agli Si Tazgi Hai Phoolon Men O Phalon Men,


Karte Ham Raks Ab Tak Taoos Jangalon Men.


Ab Tak Tvohi Karak Hai Bijli Hi Badalon Men.


Fasti Si Agayi Hai Par Dil Ke Hauslon Men.


Gul Shamaye Anjuman Hai, Go Anjuman Wohi Hai,

Hubbe Watan Nahin Hai, Khake Waton Wohi Haip


2, Shaidaye Bostan Ho Sarbosaman Mubardk,


Rangeen Tabeeyaton Ko Range Sukhan Mubarak.


Bulbul Ko Gul Mubarak, Gul Ko Chaman Mubarak,

Ham Bekason Ko Apna Pyara Watan Mubarak.

Ghunche Hamare Dil Ke Is Bagk Men Khilenge.


Is Khak Se Uthe Hain, Is Khak Men Milenge.


  1. Hukm Hakim Ka Hai, Faryade Zabani Ruk Jaye,


Dil Hi Bahti Hui Ganga Ki Rawani Ruk Jaye.


Qaum Kahti Hai Hawa Band Ho, Pani Ruk Jaye


Par Yih Mumkin Nahin Ab Joshe Jawani Ruk Jaye*


Hon Khabardar, Jinhon Ne Yih Azeeyat Di Hai,


Kuchh Tamasha Yih Nahin, Qaum Ne Karwat Li Hai.











Poets And Poetey



Finally I Shall Quote A Few Passages From Poems

In Which There Is A Note Of Sadness And Of Pathos. It

Is Not An Artificial Simulated Sentiment. No One Can

Mistake The Poet’s Smcerity.


  1. Yon To Duniya Men Hamesha Se Liai Marne Ka Chalan,

Apne Backchon Ko Nigcdti Hai Zameen Ki Nagan.


Dagh Deta Hai Magar Jab Koi Dil Soze Watan,


H Kc Sadme Se Larazta Hai Yih Aiwane Kuhan,


Chandm Rat Men Jis Waqt Hawa Ati Hai.


Qaum Ke Dil He Dharakne Ki Swla Ati Hai.


  1. Hans Ke Har Ik Bat Par Wok Jumhishe Abroo H:Hm?

Ik Nazer Dekh Ki Ab Ham Hahan Aur Tu Kalian.


  1. Ay Muhabbat Ke Fariskte! Ay Baqa Ke Aftabl

Tere Scene Men Safa Thi Jaisc Ayecne Men Ab.


Ivaste Dushman Ke Bhi Laya Na Tu Dil Men Atab,


Aj Kyon Ata Hai Lujhko Bhai Bahnon Se Hijah?


Aj Tu Sunta Kisi Ki Giriyayo Zari Nakin,


0 Adam Ke Jane Wale’ Yih Wafadari Nahin.


4 Phool Jab Gulzar Men Layenge Paighame Bahar,


Yad Kar Ke Tujhko Yon Royega Tera Sogwar.


Khil Ke Gul Kuchh To Bahare Janfiza Dikhla Gaye,

Ilasrat Un Gunchon Pai Hai Jo Bin Khile Murjha Gaye.


Chakbast Has Left Behind Only A Slender Volume Of

Verse. He Was A Busy Lawyer And He Found Little Leisure

For Literary Pursuits. But What He Wrote Was Of High

Quality. These Are His Best Memorial.


“Kis Waste Justjoo Kaioon Shohrat Ki

Ek Din Khud Doondh Legi Shohrat Mujhko.”





The Poetry Of Reyaz : Ob Changing Tastes

In Literature


One Of The Major Figures In The Urdu Poetry Of

Yesterday Was Reyaz Iqiairabadi. I Purposely Use The

Word ‘Yesterday’, For To The Readers Of Today Much Of

His Work Must Seem Modish, Artificial, And Out Of Date.

It Is A Pity That His Diwan Was Not Published Much

Earlier. Thirty Years Ago, It Would Have Proved To Be

A Best-Seller. He Had Many Admirers And Pupils. He

.Spoke To Them In Accents That Were Familiar To Them.

He Employed The Idiom That They Essayed To Adopt.

He Sang Of Themes That Were Yet Capable Of Arousing

Feeling. He Used Symbols That Had Not Yet Become

Effete. He Touched Gracefully The Surface Of A Life That

Had Not Been Outlived.


Though Deep, Yet Clear; Though Gentle, Yet Not Dull,


Strong Without Rage, Without O’er-Flowing, Full.


But To Live Is To Outlive, And By The Time Reyaz Reached

His Journey’s End A Change Had Come Over The Spirit Of

Men’s Dreams, Traditional Imagery Was Beginning To

Be Discarded, Nationalism Was Becoming The Common

Subject Of Verse, And A Prejudice Was Beginning To Grow

Against All Those Who Adhered To The Form And Spirit

Of The Earlier Period. One Wonders If The Reader Of

Urdu Poetry Today Will Care Much For Reyaz. In Many

Ways That Is A Pity, For There Can Be No Doubt That In

The Sphere To Which He Confined His Work He Was A

Master. Critics Must Be Content With The Conditions

Which The Poet Imposes On Himself And The Standards








Poets And Poetry



Which He Sets For Himself. It Is No Fault Of His That He

Is Not Somebody Else Nor That He Does Not Write Some-

Thing Else. What The Critics Have The Right To Ask Is,

What Elements Of Permanence Does The Work Possess?

Does It Speak To The Eternal Man? To What Extent Does

It Deal With The Vital, Elemental, Inseparable Parts Of

Human Nature, Man, And The Life Outside The Mind Of

Man? Or Does It Represent A Mere Freak Of The Age, A

Piece Of Literary Curiosity, Work That Will Be Preserved

As Not Being Intrinsically Worthy But Merely As Some-

Thing Of Antiquarian Interest? Every Writer Is A Crea-

Ture Of His Age, Just As Every Writer Is Himself.

But Every Great Writer Is Something More; The Creature

Both Of The Past And Of The Present And The Prophet

Of The Future: Himself, But Also Everyman. That Is The

Test. How Far Does Reyaz Satisfy It?


« M Jss ‘


Reyaz Belonged To Khairabad, In The Sitapur Dis-

Trict, And Began His Career As A Pohce Officer! But

Much Of His Time, After He Had Given Up This Unpoetical

Pursuit, Was Occupied In Journalism. His Prose Articles

Attracted Wide Notice And Were Read With Much In-

Terest. He Wrote Two Prose Novels. He Became The

Pupil Of Amir ‘Minai’; As He Says :


Maste-Mina Hun, Piya Hai Main Ne

Jam Ameer Ahmad-I-Minai Ka.


He Acknowledged As His Masters. Meer. Minai And

Maaabfi Here Are Some References To Them :


Ab Kahan Shusta Zaban Meet Ki  Afsos, Reyaz!


Meet Ka Ranse Taghazzid Bhi Gaya Meer Ke Sath.





The Poetey Op Eeyaz






Kuchk Kuchk Kaiy Reyaz,, Meer Ka Rang


Kuchk Shan Hai Ham Men Masakfi Ki.


«• * #


Uthii Hai Ab Jahan $E Meer Ki Tarz


Ki Reyaz Ab Jahan Se Uthta Hal


He Received Offers Of Help From The Nizam Of Hyder-

Abad And From Maharaja Kishan Prasad; But He Was

Content To Remain Under The Patronage Of The Maharaja

Of Mahmudabad. To The Maharaja There Are Numerous

Allusions In His Verses, Some In The Fulsome Fashion Of

The Dedications To Patrons M The Eighteenth Century.


Kahne Ko Hamare Bhi Hain Ashaar Bahut Khub


Sack Yih Hai Ki Formate Hain Sarkar Bahut Khub.


« « «


Zauf-E-Peeri Se, Reyaz, Ab Nahin Uttha Jata


Gahe Make Kahhi Ja Rahte Hain Sarkar He Pas


  • » «


Meri-Afsoontarazi Ki, Reyaz, Itni Jo Shubrat Hai,


Sabab Yih Hai Ki Sahir Sa Mila Hai Qadrdan Mujh Ka*


Sahir* Was The Pen-Name Of The Late Maharaja Of Mah-



% >68 Jd


There Is Hardly A Writer Who Does Not Gain In Re-

Putation And Recognition By A Judicious Excision And

Omission. Whether It Is True Or Not That The Greatest

Art Is To Omit, It Caimot Be Denied That No Writer Is

Always At His Best, That Even Homer Nods, That Flabbi*-

Ness. Verbiage, Mere Padding Disfigure Sometimes The,

Work Of The Greatest Artists. Carlyle Might Praise The








Poets And Poetry



Mere O Of Giotto, But The Unconsidered Trifies Of An

Idle Hour, ‘Abjects Orts And Imitations’ Necessarily De-

Tract From The Value Of A Writer’s Work. They Have No

Artistic Merit, Though They May Possess A Personal And

Historical Significance. Tastes Alter. Social Inhibitions!,

Change Name As They Change Character. Taboos Appear

And Disappear. What Is Condemned As Low And Obscene

Today May Be Praised As Valuable Realism Tomorrow.

The History Of Literature Throws Very Interesting Light

On The Shifting Attitude Of The People Towards What

May And May Not Be Spoken Of Openly. Poor Dr.

Bowdler Has Won An Imenviable Notoriety For Having

Edited The Family Shakespeare; But Every Generation

Has Its Literary And Artistic Dr. Bowdler The Papal

Index Expurgatoris And The British Censor’s Lists Serve

The Same Purpose. Modernist Poetry, Fiction, And Art

Have Combined To Pull Down Some Of The Old Barriers

And Destroyed Most Of The Old Reticences. But While

Victor Hugo Said That There Are In Poetry No Good And

No Bad Subjects, Yet It Is True That The Manners Of

Speech That Are Current In One Generation Become Obso-

Lete And Even Unpleasant In Another. It Is Not Merely

A Question Of Style, Nor Of Mechanical Rules. What

Could Bo Recited Openly In Mushairas Thirty Or Forty

Years Ago Wrill Now Make Listeners Shut Their Ears.

!|Fany Passages From Even Such A Poet As Akbar Have

To Be Discarded As Being Offensive To Modem Taste. In

Reyaz Too There Are Lines That Must Be Condemned As

Being Iq Questionable Taste. When He Was Young —

Bout Seventy-Five Years Ago —  The Select Circles In

Yhich Urdu Poetry Was Read And Heard Relished Them.

They Cannot Please The Reader Of Today.





The Poetry Of Bmyaz






Nmih Ke Sar Par Ck L Igayi Taraq Se


Pmr Hath Mal Rake Ham Ki Achhi Pan Nahhu


Sham-E’-Shab’e-Wisal Meri Beqaranyan,


Vn Ka Dabi Zaban Se Kahna Abhi Nahiju


A «


Hum Lakh Pwrmon Ke Ek Parse Saht


Mauqe Se Turn Jlv? Payen To Batlao Kya


* Ii.


Lo Hehijab Kahiri Seena Tane  Jate Hain,


Khiilo Hhazane Ivoh Jobun Lutane Jate Kain.


‘ «


Since The Day Of Meer, Urdu Has Departed Far.

The Language Employed By The Early Poets Like Bahri

Tod Meer Had A Large Mixture Of Hindi Words. Under

The Influence Of Later Poets, Especially Ghalib And

Nasikh. The Tendency Has Been Tov/Ards Greater And

Greater Persianization, Until It Is Perhaps No Exaggera-

Tion To Say That Barring Adverbs And Verbs, Hardly Any

Part Of A Sentence In Much Of Modem Urdu Has Any

Connexion With India Or Any Indian Language. That I

Am Not Indulging In The Fashionable Pastime Of Over-

Statement Will Be Evident From Some Passages, Selected

At Random From Two Leading Urdu Journals Of The Month

Of May Which I Happen To Have On My Table At The

Moment. The Very First Sentence In The First Article

Of The Nigar Runs Thus :


Doctor Zakir Husain Committee Ne Jo Msab Taalim

*Hind Jadeed’ Ke Liye Tajweez Kiya Hoi Woh Apne Maqasid

Ke Lehaz Se Itna Baland Hai Ki Is Ki Mukhalifal Ka Qis Had

Tak Aghraz-O-Maqasid Ka Sawal Hai) Kisi Taraf Se Imkan

Nahin, Lekin Husool Maqasid Ke Zaraye Ke Mutalliq








Poets And Poetry



Heshak Ikhtalaf-I-Rai Ho Sakla Hai  Aur Is Liye Is Iiaqt Aham

Tureen Sawal Yih Kai Ki Ham Is Nashuvain Tak Jo Wardka

Scheme Ke Peshemzar Hai Kyonkar Asani Pahunch Sakie



The Jsrst Sentence In The Second Article Is :


Guzashta Jange-Azim Do Zahurdast Inqilah Par Hhatm

Hui Ek Inqilab-E-Germany  Dusra Inqilabd-Roos ; Lekin Yih

His Qadar Ajeeb Bat Hai Ki Ek Ki Zariye Se Do Paida Horn

Wali Theezen Upas Men Qutbam La Sa Hudood Ikhtelaf

Rakhti Haim


Here Is The Opening Sentence Of The First Article In

The Zamana :


Is Men Koi Kalam Nahin Ki Iqbal Bahut Haland Paya

Shaer Aur Azimul Martabat Mufakkar The. . Baaz Hazrat

Ko Shayed Is Bat Ke Tasleem Karne Men Pas-O-Pe%H Ho Ki

Woh Uloom-E-Ruhani Ke, Mud Alum Aur Israr-E-Batini Ke

Hakeem Bhi The. Aur Unhen Ruhaniyat Ki Gahraijan Nm-

Alum Aur Ramooz E-Makhfi Se Bhakhoobi Agahi Thu


Or The First Stanza Of A Poem In The Same Magazine:

Ai Sarapa Soz  Tasweer Equnoon  Ashufia Sar

Paikar-Edshk O Muhabbal Taftayedilf Khasta Jigat

Ishq Ka Shola Nihan Hai Qalb-E-Sozan Men. Tere


Shama A Yih Woh  Hai Hi Jalti Hai Shahistan Men Tere .


This Is Unfortunately The Language Which Urdu Has

Become —  Just As, Since The Eclipse Of Braj Bhasha,,

Hindi Has Been Corresponding More And More To Sans-

Krit Simple Common  Expressions Have Been Rejected

In Favour Of Abstruse, Unfamiliar Sanskrit Words. It Is

No Use Apportioning Blame. The Writers Both Of Hindi

And Of Urdu Are Equally Responsible For The Wide And

Evergrowing Gulf Between The Two. The Cleavage Is





The Poetry Of Eeyaz






M Real And Broad That It Is The Piiresic Midsummer

Madness Of Nationalistic Fanaticism To Say That The Two

Following Passages Are In The Same Language :


1* Shilibhut Saundarya, Jnan  Ananda Amashwar


Shabd Shabd Men Tere Ujjwal Jarit Himshikhar,


Shubhra Kulpana Hi Urauy Bhava-Bhasvara Kalaram

Hansy Ansh Vani Ae, Teri Pratibha Nit Nava


Jiwan He Kardam Se Amalin Manas Sarasij


Shobhit Teruf Varad Sharada Ka Man Mj,


Amrit Putra Kavi, Yashah-Kaya Lava Jaramaranajitn

Svayam Bharati Se Teri Hrittantri Jhankrit,


(The Rupabha Of April)


  1. Khuda Jane Teri May Kis Qadar Kaif Afareen Hog\


Nazar Men Teri Jab Rangeeniye Sad Jam Hai Sagi

Samajhte Ham Yih Harbad-E-Khirad Teri Adaon Kof

Bhan Mahfil Men Tera Raz Tasht-Az Bam Hai Saqu

Nigahe Lutf Ah To Rashdee-Ye Diwana Par Apne


Ki Muddat Se Yih Nazr-E-Gardish-E-Aiyyam Hai Saqu


(The Zamana Of May)


Reyaz Belonged To The Group Of Urdu Poets Who

Did Not Hesitate To Use A Hindi Word When It Suggested

Itself As The Most Appropriate. He Was Not Like The

Lucknow Poet Azeez Who Thought It Necessary To

Apologise For The Use Of The Hindi Word Laj’ In One Of

The Ghazals Printed In His Diwan Entitled ‘Gulkadal

In Reyaz We Have Quite A Large Number Of Hindi Words*

The Exclusion Of Which Has Really Left Urdu Poor. Thus

We Have Such Expressions As


Kdaba Sunte Hain Ki Ghar Hai Bare Data Ka Reyaz

Zindgi Hai To Faqiron Ka Bhi Phera Hoga.








Poets And Poetry



< Yen Mcri Bazm-E-Matam Men Woh Kya?


Hath Men Mehndi Rachi Achhi Nahin.


  • Het •U’-


Ham Len Balayen Zulf Hi, Woh Rat Bhi To

Aye Maze Hi Rut, Kahin Harsat Hhi To Ko


Vdoo Hi Shahe Wad Sau Bar Sadqe,


Shab-E-’Gham Jiai Kitni Suhani Hamarl




Bari Natkhat Bari Chanchal Hai Tabiyat Merl


Barsat Hi Lutf Hi, Hai Rat Maze Hi,


Pilwa De Mujhe, Pir4-Kharabat, Maze Ku

  •   »


Shama E Lahad Hansmukk Hari Lial


9 \I <>R


Mujhko Arman, Manaye Koi Mere Dil Ko,


Unko Yih Hath Ki Khafa Hai To Khafa Rahne Do,


Hawae Garm Khizan Men Woh Rang O Rup Kahan?


«• *


Jb Dil Half Reyaz, Aur Na Wok Dil Ki, Tamanm

Manjdhar Men Ham Ka$Hti-E-Ummed Duba Aye


0 :5t 3»


While On The Subject Of Language A Word M«Il:

Be Said Of The Wonderfully Chaste And Elegant Style

Of Which Reyaz Was Ruaster. Opinion Will Differ Oh

The Merit Of His Poetry; On’ The Merit Of His

Verse There Can Be Only One Verdict —  That His

Technique Was Above Reproach, His Command

And Range Of Vocabulary Remarkable, His Ability To





The Poetry Op Reyaz






Harness Colloquialisms To Poetic Use Unique. He Was A

Lord Of Idiom. His Muse Did Not Stand In Need Of

Mere Taffeta Phrases Or Silken Words Precise. Again

And Again One Is Struck With An Unexpected Turn Of

Phrase, A Fresh Combination Of Words, A Surprisingly Apt

Set Of Adverbs And Epithets. Perhaps It Is One Of The

Misfortunes Of Urdu Verse That So Much Emphasis Is

Placed On Mere Verbal Finesse. One Listens, In Mushai-

Ras, To Poetic Appreciation And What Is The Nature Of

This Appreciation? Hardly Ever Is Attention Drawn To

The Thought Or The Imagery; The Use Of A New Rhyme Or

The Fresh Use Of An Old Rhyme; The Skill With Which

The Radeef Is Employed; The Ability To Avoid Forbidden

Expressions —  This Is The Kind Of Praise That A Poet

Receives. But While This Means A Loss To Poetry, It Is

An Undoubted Gain To Language, For Everyone Takes

Special Pains To Excel In Expression. Of This Excel-

Lence It Will Not Be Easy To Find A Better Exponent Than

Reyaz. The Same Thought Is Repeated In A .Score Of

Ways. The Same Imagery Recurs A Hundred Tiirtes. But

There Is A Newness In The Form Which Redeems Them

From Monotony. And On Metre Reyaz Can Work Mira-

Cles. Whether It Be A Long Metre Or A  Ort Metre,

Liowever Hard The Metrical Arrangement, Reyaz Main-

Tains His Ease And Grace And Never Seems To Feel Arty

Difficulty. Does He Not Say With Pardonable Pride :


Wah Hya Rang Hai, Kya Kkub Tabeeyat Hai, Reyaz!


Ho Zamin Koi, Tumhen Phulte Phalte Dekha.


Through Intuition And Through Long Practice He Makes

Bis Colloquial Expressions Achieve The Effect Which

Ojib©Rs Win By Use Of Precious, Exotic, ■ ‘Poetic’ Words.








Poets And Poetry



Here Are A Few Instances :


Khuda Jane Hua Kya, Kuchaye Janan Men Dil Jakar

Mera Bhula Hua, Bhatka Hua, Ab Tah Nahin Aya*


Mar He Ham Dad-E Wafa Den, To Bhi Kuchk Purshi$H




Yun Hi Si Hai Husn Hi Sarkar, Kuchh Yun Hi Si Hal


Or Another :


Zauf-E-Piri Jo Barha, Maut He Paigham Chale,


Agaya Waqt-E-Safar, Subah Chale, Sham Chale,


Peene Ha Yih Asar Hai, Woh Kausar Ki Ho Na Ho,


  • « «•


At One Place He Truly Says:


Paheeza, Shusta, Saf, Hantari Zaban Hai.


Tliose Three Expressions —  Pure, Elegant, Clear — Vetj

Justly Sum Up The Characteristics Of His Style.


Mere Kalam Men Hai Maza Bol Chal Ha.


Partly Owing To The Traditions Of The Poetic School

To Which He Was Affiliated, Partly Owing To His Own

Temperament, Reyaz’s Work Is Elegant And Refined

Rather Than Austere Or Thoughtful. It Is Of Course No

Part Of A Poet’s Function To Lay Down A System Of

Philosophy Any More Than It Is His Duty To Supplant The

Theologian. But In Order To Live, Poetry Must Be Some-

Thing More Than Mere Elegant Trifling. Keats Was

Right When He Said That Philosophy Will Clip An Angel’s

Wings. Another Aesthete Said :


Vex Not Thy Soul With Dead Philosophy:


Have We Not Lips To Kiss With, Hearts To Love, And


Eyes To See.





Ihe Poetry Op Reyaz






But The Real Poet Is Also A Seer. Coleridge Gazed

On Mont Blanc.


Till Thou, Still Present To The Bodily Sense.


Didst Vanish From My Thought: Entranced In Prayer.


I Worshipped The Invisible Alone.


He Must Have Insight. He Cannot Subsist On Mere

Sensation. In Reyaz The Substance Of Thought Is Thin,

Though Now And Again He Is Inspired Into Saying A Pro-

Found Truth. It Does Not Seem, However, In The Greater

Part Of His Work, That He Has Learnt In Suffering What

He Teaches In .Song. He Seems To Touch Merely The

Surface Of Life, Though On That Surface He Walks With

Rare Grace. Here Are A Few Lines In Which He Scales The

Heights And Touches The Depths, Where He Has Aroused

Pathos And Trodden The Path Of Sorrow Which Alone

Leads To The Land Where Sorrow Is Unknown.


  • 386 $


Kafas Men Ham The, Gkiri Budalon Men Hijli Thi,


Tarap Tarap He Take Donon Ashiyan He Liye*




Woh Haun Hai Duniya Men Jise Gham Nahin Hota?


Kis Ghar Men Khushi Hoti Hai  Matam Nahin Hota?




Ham Thak He Gire, Git Kar Uthe  Uth He Chale Bhi,


Tujh Par Asar, Ai Doori-E-Manzil Nahin Hota*



Bhatka Hi A Hhyal Hai, Tiqba Kahen Jise,


Bhula Him Sa Khwab Hai, Duniya Kahen Jise








Poets And Poetry



Kune Kdabe Mile Raste Men, Kai Toor Mile.


In Muqamat Se Ham Ko Woh Bahut Dur Mile,




Saiyad! Ghar Tera Mujhe Jannat Sahi  Magar,


Jannat Se Bhi Siwa Mujhe Rahat Chaman Men Thl




Ajau Kkuda Ke Liye  Raham Kar Haseenon Par,

Milahe Khak Men Husn-O-Jamal Kya Hoga?


  • *


Mam Kaun Hurt? Kya Hun? Nahin Mdalum Kahan

Mujh Sa Koi Be Nam Omishan Ho Nahin Sahta.




Kahin Bhi Jayen, Kahan Asman Nahin Milta?


Lakad, Hi Eh ]Agah Hai Jahan Nahin Milta,


    • »


Ai Jawanil Na Ja Bahar Ke Sath,


Woh To Ayegi Ek Sal Ke Ba’ad,




Khak Men Chhupna Hai To Kaisa Gharooff


Khak Men Milna Hai To Kaisa Ghamand?


« * »


Aye Ane Ko Fashe-Gul Sau Bar.


Mere Dil Ki Kali Kkili Hi Nahin.


« «


Fasurda Dil Hun, Mujhe Kya Hai? Hoi Mausamk Ho?


Bhari Bahar Men Kya Iha, Jo Ab Khizan Men Nahin?




Jin Ke Dil Men Hai Dard Duniya Ka,


Wohi Duniya Men Zinda Rahte Hain,


Jo Mitate Hain Khud Ko Jeete Ji,


Wohi Mar Kar Bhi Zinda Rahte Hain,







The Poetry Op Beya2






Bari Koi Nathhat Half Yarab, Qaza Bhi,


Chune Banke Tirchhe Jawan Kaise Kaise.


There Are Also Some Verses In Which There Is Sly,

Playful, Light-Hearted Banter And Raillery, Indeed, There

Are Many Winch Express A Mood Of Gaiety And Laughter.

Beyaz Rarely Adopts The Plaintive, Half-Dead Attitude

Which Is So Often Characteristic Of Love Poetry In Urdu

He Never Degrades The Lover To The Level Of The Pathe-

Tic Beggar, Thirsting For A Look Of Favour, Hungry For

A Crumb Of Consolation, Ready To Be Trodden On And



Ham Guzre Jis Taraf Se Udkar Ungliyan Uthin,


Diwana Haseenon Ne Ham Ko Bana Diva.



Dekkiyega Sambhal Ke Ayina,


Samna Aj Kai Muqabil Ka.


A Similar Couplet Is To Be Found In A Ghazal By

Jura’at :


Kyon Ho Hairan Se? Kya Ayina Dekha, Pyare?


Kuchh To Bolo Hi Yih Kisne Tumhen Khampsh Kiya?


♦ « *


Buna Loon Khuda, To Bhi Mere Na Hongog

Buton Men Koi Bhi Hua Kai Kisi Ka?


Kya Qayamm Hait Shabe Wasl Khamoski Usm


Jis Ki Tmweer K0 Bhi Naz Hai Goyayi Ka,


I((Ii *& *■


Kabhi Qai$ Diwana Ata Jo Mujh Ta%


Mere Pas Se Ban Ke Insan Jata.








Poets And Poetry



Na Dejchte The Kabhi Jo Nazar Utha He Mujhe,


Woh Dekhte Hain Dame Hashr Muskira He Mujhe,




Haseenon Ka Alam Nay A Ho Raha Hai

Ki Jis But Ho Dekho Khuda Ho Raha Hai.


Here Is A Verse From Dagh ;


Jis Men Lakhon Baras Ki Hnorm Hon,


Aisi Jannat Ko Kya Hare Koi?


And This From Reyaz :


Hai Farishton Ki Barabar ’Umr~E~Hoor,


Kya Tamanna Aisi Kamsin He Liye?


One From Meer :


Is Ke Kuche Men Nakar Shore Qayamat Ka Zikr,


Sheikh Yan Aise To Hangamen Hua Karte Hain.


Another From Reyaz :


Darata Hai Hamen Mahshar $E Too Wa’az! Are, Ja Bhil

Yih Hangame To Ham Ne Roz Koo-E-Yar Men Dekha.


Some Of Reyaz’s Finest Lines Are On Old Age. He

Grew Old Gracefully. There Was No Forced Attempt At

Youthfulness. Coleridge, As He Advanced In Years,

Said :


Life Is But Thought: So Think I Will


That Youth And I Are House-Mates Still


Similarly While Reyaz Looked Back Wistfully On

The Blossoms Of Springtide, He Lived Till Like Ripe Fruit

He Was With Ease Gathered, Not Harshly Plucked. The

Pleasures Of Age Are Not Like The Raptures Of Youth,

But In Retrospect And Reminiscence He Feels That All That





The Poetry Of Eeyaz






Has Happened Is That The Vibrations Of The Harp Of Life

Are Only Silenced Not Deadened.


Wohi Shabab Ki Baten, Wohi Shabab Ka Rang,


Tujhe, Reyaz, Burhape Men Bhi Jawan Demia.




Yik Kam Nahirt Kai Burhape Men Ham Ne Tauba

Tamam *Umr Men Ham Ne Yik Ek Kam Kiya,


A Jor


Kyon Jawani Ayi Do Din Ke Liye?,


Din Gine Jate The Is Sin Ke Liye*


■A- •£/ 1*’


Jawani Ke Nashe Men Kuchh Sujhta Hai,


Burhape Men Achchi Bun Soojhti Hai.


♦ 111 *


Bare Lutf Se Din Guzar Jate Yih Bhi,


Burhape Men Ham Kp Jawani Jo Miltu

Reyaz, Ab Kahan Woh Jawani Ka  Alan%


Gale Se Lagate Jawani Jo Miltu


It Is Natural That In The Diwan Of Keyaz There

Should Be Many Verses On Traditional Subjects And

Traditional Manner. But Even On These Themes He

Able To Write With Freshness. The Cruelty And Indiffer-

Ence Of Fate Are Represented Usually As Being Reflected

In The Sky.


Zara Jo Ham Ne Unhen Aj Mehrban Dekhuf

Na Ham Se Puchhiye Kya Range-Asman Dekha.


Here Is Another On A Well-Worn Subject :


Kahta Hai  Aks Husn Ko Ruswa Na Kijiye,


Har Waqt Up Ayina Dekha Na Kijiye.














Poets And Poetry



I Have Left To The Last What Was Undoubtedly The

Chief Distinction Of Keyaz’s Poetry — His Praise, Glorifi-

Cation, Yes, Even Deification Of Wine. It Was A Wonder

That He Who Never Touched Wine Should Yet Have Writ-

Ten On It Some Of The Finest Verse In The Rich Treasury

Of Urdu Lyrics. The Enthusiasm And The Rapture Of His

Tone When Speaking Of Wine Not Unnaturally Made

Many Persons Imagine That All This Could Not Be Merely

An Effort Of The Imagination And That The Poet Must

Have Had An Intimate Acquaintance With The Drop Tnat

Smooths Away All Wrinkles From The Brow Of Care.

There Are, According To Careful Computation, No Fewer

Than 1366 Verses In His Diwan On Wine. An Old Latin

Epigram Says:


There Are Five Reasons Why Men Drink

Good Wine, A Friend, Or Being Dry.


Or Lest You Should Be By And By.


Or Any Other Reason Why?


Urdu Poetry, Following The Tradition Of Persian,

Is Of Course Full Of The Cup-Bearer, Wine, Repentance,

The Tavern, The Preacher, And All The Other Symbols That

Represent To Some The Physical Daughter Of The Vine And

To Others Divine Love And Bliss. We Have On This Sub-

Ject Such Fine Lines As ;


» *


Na Ham Hosh Men May’ Parctsti $E Giizre,


Huye Jab Ki Behosh Masti Se Guzre*


{Meer Hctsan),


Dur Se Aye The, Saqi Sun He May Khane Ho Ham


Ba$ Taraste Hi Chale, Afsos, Paimane Ho Ham.





The Poetey Of Reyaz






May Bhi Hai  Mina Bhi Hai, Saghir Bhi Hai, Saqi Nahiriy

Du Men Ata Kai, Laga Den Ag Maykhane Ko Ham*




Bah Gaye Hain  Vodaza  Girdabe Daur E-Jam Men,


Zist Bkar Honge Na Is Daryaye May Se Par Ham.




Zahid  Sharab Pine Se Kafir Bona Main Kyon?


Kya Derh Chulloo Men Iman Bah Gay A?


Zauq  Jo Madarse Ke Bigre Hue Hain Mullah,


Unko Maikhane Men Le Ao, Sanwar Jaenge.




Masjid Men Bulata Hai Hamen Zahid-E-Nafaham,

Liota Agar Kuchh Hosh To Maikhane Na Jate.


(Amir ) .


Lutfe-May Tujh Se Kya Kahun, Zahid!


Hai Kambakht! Tu Ne Pi Hi Nahin,




Zahid-Sharabe Nab Ki Taseer Kuchh Na Puchh,


Aksir Hai, Jo Halq Ke Niche Utar Gayi,


Jalwaye Saqi Wo Mai Jan Liye Lete Hain,


Sheikhji Zabt Karen Ham To Piye Lete Hain,




Mere Mazhab Men Hai, Wdaz, Tarke Mai Noshi Haram

Chhot Kar Pita Hun Phir  Tauba Isi Ka Nam Hai,




Sack Kaha Tha Tu Ne, Zahid, Zahre Qatil Hai Sharab.


Ham Bhi Kahte The Yahi, Jab Tak Bahar Ayi Na Thu




Main, Aur Bazme May Se Yun Tishna Kam Doon.


Gar Main Ne Ki Thi Tauba, Saqi Ko Kya Hua Tha?










Poets And Poetry



Muztarib Ruh Koi Agayi Maikhane Men,


Khud Bakhud May Ko Hai Gardisk Mere Paimane Men.


{Nasiri) .


But I Think It Will Be Admitted That In Dealing With

The Subject Of Wine, Reyaz Has Attained A Distinction

Not Shared By Any Other Poet. His Imagery Is Sensuous;

His Cup-Bearer Has Physical Charm; His Wine Is The

Juice Of The Grape. His Cup Is Potent And Brings To Him

Visions Of Glory And Loveliness. But, Passing Beyond

The Present And Now, He Gleans A Vintage More Potent

And Perfect, His Saki Becomes Ethereal, And There Is

Nothing Vulgar Or Revolting Or Unclean About The Drink-

Ing Bouts And Boon Companionship That He Celebrates.

Desire And Longing; Ecstasy And Blissful Oblivion; Con-

Quest Of Pain And Sorrow; The Path To The Tavern Lead-

Ing Ultimately To The Throne Of God; Ridicule Of The

Abstemious Puritan; And Yet An Underlying Austerity —

All This Is The Content And Spirit And Aroma Of His Wine



Tauba Karte Hue Ata Hai Yih Rah Rah Ke Khyal,


Munh Mera Dekh Ke Rah Jaega Saghar Mera.




Maikhane Men Kyon Yad-E-Khuda Hoti Hai Aksarc

Masjid Men To Zihr-E-May O Mina Nahin Hotal



Rahmat Ko Yih Ada Meri Shayad Pasand Aye,

Dar Dar Ke, Kamp Kamp Ke, Pina Sharab Ha*





The Poetry Of Eeyaz






Koi Mast Maihada Agaya, Mm-E-Bekhudi Wok Pila

Na Sadaye Naghmaye Dair Utku Na Haram Se Shore Azm




Ai Sheikh! Wo Kchahu Ho, Ya Ho Dar-E-Maikknna,


Tu Ne Mujjie Jab Dekha, Sajde Hi Men Sar Dekha,


Ka’abe Men Nazar Aye, Jo Subah Uzan Dele,


Maikhane Men Raton Ko  In Ha Bhi Guzar Dekha.

Maikhane Men Mazar Hamara Agar Bana,


Duniya Bhi Kahegi Ki Jannat Men Ghar Bana,


Dekh  Wdaz, Muj Ko Main Kya Ho Gaya,


Admi Tha; Pi; Farishta Ho Gaya.




Tujhe Yih May Hai Azab, Wa Yez  Mujhe Yih Mai Hoi


Satoab, Wdyez


Ajeeb Shai Hai Sharab, Wdyez., Mile Ye Mujh Ko Azab






Tujhe Dunga Ek Ke Das, Das,

Tbe Mujhe Karz, Ai Sharab Farosh.


-It »


Sheikh, Jana Hai Tujhko Jannat Mere.


Dekhta Ja Meri Sharab Ha Rang.


  • 3 – *


Kuchh Maze Men Ham Agaye Aise,


Tauba Pine Se Ham Ne Ki Hi Nahin.




Kisi Se  Hai, Saqi Ka Yih Kahna,


Zahoo Mera Piyen, Jo Be Piye Jayen.


Ghata Uthte Hi Bauchharen Yih Ham Par.


Are, Wa Yez, Kahan Tak Ham Piye Jayen?








Poets And Poetky



Maikade Walo! Idhar Bhi M Ahe Lutf

Dur Se Ka  Ahanashm Turn Ko Duwa Dete Hain


«• A,


Na Loon Rahe Maikhana Kis Taraji, Wdyez,


Yih Badal Jo Sar Par Mere Chka Rahe Hain.


Kamur Seedhi Karlen Zara Maikade Men


Asa Tekte Kya Reyaz Arahe Hain?


Janabe Sheikh Ulajhte Hain Ki$ Ta Uluq Se?


Yih Dukhtaraz Ke Hoi Rishtadar Bhi To Nahin*


Uthte Kabhi Ghabra Ke To Maikhane Ko Ho Aye


Pi Aye To Pkir Baith Rahe Yad-E-Khuda Men


» S


Munh Banata Hai Bura Kyon Waqt-E-Wdaz?


Hj Wdyaz Tu Ne Pi Achhi Nakin?


Butkade $E Maikada Achha Mera.


Bekhiidi Achhi Khudi Achhi Nahm

Kam Maikhane Ka Ho Jaega Band,


Chashme Saqi Ki Haya Achhi Nahin.


Sheikh Yih Kahta Gaya  Pita Gaya,


Ilai Bahut Hi Badmaza, Achhi Nahin.


  • S-


Dharke Makskar Ke Mitane Ko Mere Saqi Ne


Marte Marte Bhi Pilayi Hai Kai Khum Mujhko*

Torna Hai Mujhe Tauba Sare Mahfil Saqi,


Dekhna Hai Lah-E-Saghir Ka Tabas-Sum Mujhko.


Qadr Mujh Rindki Tujhho Nahin, Ai Peere Mughanf


Tauba Kar Loon To Kabhi Maikada Abad Na Ho.


« * *■


Kkuda Ke Bande Kuchh Aise Nidar Hain, Ai Saqi-

Bazar Bar Piyen Tauba Ek Bar Na Ho.



  • X*





The Poetry Of Reyaz






Tauba Lab Par Wa Az Se Be Akhtiyar Arte Ko Thif

Wok To Kahiye Bach Gaye, Fasle Bahar Ane Ko Thl


V3- * >


Sheikh Maikada Woh Jannat Hat.


Turn Bhi Ja Kar Jawan Ho Jate.


■ 33 *


Sau Rind Piyen To Na Ho Khali Kabhi Saqiy

Aisa Bhi Tere Maikade Men Jam Hai Koi?




Hashr Id Itni Haqiqat Hogi

Pas Maikhane Ke Jannat Hogi.


3 . «


Itni Pi Hai Ki Ba Ad-E-Tauba Bhi.


Be Piye Bekhudi Si Rahti Hai,


  • »


Achhi Pi Li, Kharab Pi Lij

Jaisi Pai, Sharab Pi Il

Pi Li, Ham Ne Sharab Pi H,


Ag Thi, Misl-E-Ab Pi Li.


A’adat Si Hai, Nasha Hai, Na Ab Kaif,


Pani Na Piya, Sharab Pi Il

Chhore Kai Din Guzar Gaye The,


Ayi Shabemahtab, Pi Li>


Sher Tar Mere Chhalakte Hue Saghar Haifij Reyas,


Phir Bhi Sab Puchhte Hain, Ap Ne May Pi Ki Nahin?


In This Xinconscionably Long Survey Of The Poetry

Of Eeyaz, I Have Attempted To Mention The Qualities

Which Distinguish It, The Exquisite Phraseology, The Use

Of  Current Chestnuts’, The Elegance And Charm Of His

Imagery, His Command Over The Subject Of Wine. I Have








Poets And Poetry



Drawn Attention Also To Certain Phases Of His Work

Which Will Find No Favour With The Present Generation.

There Are Some Features That Cannot Satisfy His Most

Undiscriminating Admirer. A Good Many Verses Can

Be Omitted From His Works Without Doing Any Damage

And Indeed To The Advantage Of His Reputation. In

Spite Of All This, One Will Be Justified In Claiming For

Reyaz A Position Of Eminence Among The Writers Of The

Ghazal :


Yih Khas Rang Hameska Se Ter A Hissa Hai,


Reyaz, Mante Hain Sab Tujke Taghazzul Men.








In 1924 I Wrote For A Hindi Magazine An Article On

Some Contemporary Urdu Poets. I Smgled Out For

Special Praise The Work Of Azeez Of Lucknow. My

Friend, The Late Maulvi Nasiri Sent A Copy Of This Maga-

Zine To Azeez, Who Wrote To Me A Letter Of Apprecia-

Tion Together With A Copy Of His Diwan, Entitled

“Gulkada.” I Have, After A Lapse Of Thirty Years, Just

Finished Re-Reading It, And Feel Impelled To Write A Few

Lines Expressing My Great Admiration In The Hope That

The Present Generation Will Give Due Recognition To The

Work Of One Who, Not Without Justification, Claimed :

“Zindgi Hai To Dikha Denge, Farogh-E-Jjrdu,


Ham Bhi Is Bazm Men Ik Shamaa Jala Hi Denge”


Jl I”- I


Mirza Mohammad Hadi “Azeez” Belonged To A Family

That Came To Lucknow From Shiraz By Way Of Kash-

Mir, And Settled There In Muhalla Ashrafabad. Bom

Years Old. He Received The Traditional Education In

In 1882, He Lost His Father While He Was Barely Seven

Persian And Arabic, Having Become The Pupil Of Learned

Scholars Like Maulvi Abdul Hamid, Syed Aulad Husain,

And Agha Syed Muhammad Haziq. Afterwards He

Was In The Personal Employ Of A Lucknow Rais, And

Then Became A Teacher In The Aminabad High School,

Where He Continued To Serve For The Rest Of His Life.

He Died About Twenty Years Ago. Apart From Gulkada,

I Have Seen No Other Work Of His, But Understand That

A Collection Of His Qasaid Has Also Been Published.








Poets And Poetry



Much Has Been Written About Urdu Poetry In Gene-

Ral And About The Ghazal In Particular. The Hst Of

Defects Is Long; And One Must Take Them Into Account.

To Begin With, One Has To Observe The Radif And Qafia;

But This Is So With All Rhymed Verse, Which Milton

Criticised As “The Jingling Sound Of Like Ending”, Tenny-

Son Has A Plausible Defence For It :


“But, For The Unquiet Heart And Brain,


A Use In Measured Language Lies;


The Sad Mechanic Exercise.


Like Dull Narcotics, Numbing Pain.”


Then, It Is Argued, The Range Of The Ghazal Is Narrow

And Circumscribed. It Is Too Much Restricted By Tradi-

Tion. Symbols That Have Become Time-Wom, Trite, And

Effete, Abound. Hardly Any Ghazal, It Is Said, Is A Com-

Plete Poem Containing A Sustained Idea Or Poetic Image,

Or Consistent Emotion. Inordinate Importance Is Attach-

Ed To Mere Verbal Finesse. All This And More Is True.

The Writer Of The Ghazal Has To Proceed Imder Severe

Limitations. If He Succeeds M Producing A Memorable

Composition, His Achievement Is Praiseworthy. If He

Transcends The Rigid Forms And Conventions And Ex-

Presses A Beautiful Thought Or Image, A New Simile, A

Fresh Point Of View, Au Glory To Him. What Is To Be

Remembered Is That The Ghazal Is Not The Unit Of

Thought, But Rather The Couplet Which Is “A Moment’s

Monument”, —


“Memorial From The Soul’s Eternity

To One Dead Deathless Hour.”


It Is Frequently Complained Also That The Prevailing

Note Of The Ghazal Is One Of Unrelieved Melancholy,








13 $



“The Sense Of Tears In Things Human.” That Is True To A

Large Extent Of The Verses That Deal With The Sentiment

Of Love. But The Ghazal Also Contains Lines On The

Tavern, The Cup-Bearer, The Preacher — Which Are Far

From Mournful And Which Are Not Unoften Tinged With

Humour And Satire.


Urdu Poetry Has Had A Curiously Chequered Career.

In Many Ways Its Progress Reminds One Of The Stages

Through Which English Poetry Had Passed. It Is Of

Course Possible To Push Parellelism Too Far; But Does

Not Wall Represent Chaucer, And Does Not Meer Cor-

Respond To The Free And Generous Elizbethans? Ghalib-

May Stand For Milton, And The Augustan Poets Bear A

Resemblance To The Mechanical, Correct, And Formal

School Of Atish And Nasikh. As A Revolt Against Tradi-

Tion A Number Of Poets Sought Inspiration From Nature

And Familiar Matter Of Today. Simplicity Was Their

Keynote, And They Set Before Themselves The Ideal Of

Plain Language, Contact With Reality, Absence Of Hyper-

Bole, And Freedom From The Shackles Of Artificial Rules.

They Decided To Follow The One And Only Valid Law —

That Which Directly Moves The Heart And Worthily

Animates It Is Good Poetry. A Change Was Thus In-

Evitable. The Old Scholars Shook Their Heads. Gone

Was The Glory Of Urdu, They Said. Its Charm, Its Me-

Lody, Its Symbohsm — All Was Disappearing, And Urdu

Would Become Bald And Base. Now, Change Of Form

Is A Sign Of Progress. But The Glory Of Urdu Poetry

Has By No Means Departed. There Are Several Poets

Who Even In This Generation Preserve Its Continuity.

Even The Iconoclast, Akbar, Could Break Forth Into








Poets And Poetry



Lyrical And Emotional Fervour In Verses Like The Fol-

Lowing :


“/O Zibah Karta Hai, Par Hhol De  Mere Saiyad!


Ki Rah Na Jaye Tarapne Hi Arzoo Bagf*


Haya Se Sar Jhuka Lena  Ada Se Muskara Denor

Haseenon He Liye Kya Sahal Hai  Bijli Gira Dena, *


.A Scholar, So Deeply Steeped In Dull And Crabbed Philo-

Sophy As Iqbal, Was Also Capable Of Producing The

Following Lines Which Are In The Genuine Tradition Of

Urdu Ghazal:


] Uthaye Kuchh Waraq Lale Ne  Kuchh Nargis Tie, Kuchh


Gul Ne,


Chaman Men Hear Taraf Bikhri Hui Hai Dastan Meru

Urali Qumriyon Tie, Tutiyon Ne, Andalibon Ne,


Chaman Walon Ne Milkar Loot Li Tarze Fughan Meru


  1. Yik Khamoshi Kahan Tak? Lazzate Faryad Paida Kar

Zamin Par Tu Ho  Aur Teri Soda Ho Asmanon Men-


  1. Na Ate Hamen Is Men Takrar Kya Thi?


Magar Wada Karte Huye Ar Kya Thi?


  1. Laoon Woh Tinke Kahin Se Ashiyane He Liye,


Bijliyan Betab Hon Jinko Jalane He Liye-


  1. Vmmide Hoor Ne Sab Kuchh Sikha Rakkha Hai Wayaz Ko

Yih Hazrat Dekhne Men Seedhe Sude Hjwle Hhale Hain-


  1. Tere Ishq Ki Intaha Chahta Hoon—


Mari Sadgi Dekh  Kya Chahta Hoon-


Kali Is Generally Recognised As The Leader Of The New

Movement In Urdu. He Did Indeed Do Much To Bring

Urdu Poetry Down From The Ivory Tower Nearer To

Men S Business And Bosoms. But Note These Lines

Written By Him, Which Are Hardly Distinguishable From











The Normal Ghazal Verses Written By Ms Predecessors*

He Had Protested :


Ghazal Likhiye To Kya Likhiye Ghazal Men Akhir?,

Na Rahi Ckeez Took Mazmoon Sujhane Wall

Apbiti Na Ho Jo, Hai Woh Kahani Belutf,


Garche Hon Lafz Faseeh Aur Zaban Taksali**


But Even He Has Said :


  1. Aqil Hain Shahr Men Kam, Nadan Bahut Hain, Wayaz ,,

Hai Maslihat Ki Aksar Bharte Hain Dam Tumhara*


  1. Li Hash Men Ane Ki Jo Saqi Se Ijazat


Farmaya,  ‘Khabardar  Ki Nazuk Hai Zamana


  1. Dost Ka Aya Hi Samjho Ab Payam,


Aj Agar Aya Nahin  Kdl ( Ega.


4* Yahi Anjam Tha, Ai Fasue-Khizan!


Guuo-Bulbul Ki Skanasayi Ka.


The Fact Remains That The Ghazal, In Spite Of Its Many

Obvious Defects, Continues To Exert A Fascination Alike

On Poets And Readers, And One Cannot Imagine That Any

Change In Literary Taste Will Affect Its Popularity.


Azeez Was Steeped In The Tradition Of Lucknow,

And His Writings Have Most Of Its Defects And Merits.

They Have Elegance And Polish, But They Have Also The

Characteristic References To Gruesome Details Of Wound,

Decay, And Death. Ordy A Lucknow Poet Could Write

The Following :


“Rakha Hai Numayish He Liye, Charagaron Ne,


Utra Hua Phaha Mere Zakhme Jigari Ne.”


The Grave Constantly Figures In Lucknow Poetry,

And In Azeez There Are Innumerable Verses, Some Of








Poets Am Poetry



Them Merely Mechanical, But A Few That Are Memo-

Rable :


1 . Suam Hai Lash Par U$ B Wafa Ka Yih Kahna,


Ane Ka Bhi Kisi Ke Na Mtizar Kiya


2 . Skauq Ne Kah Kah Ke Pahunchaya Akkir Qabr Tak,


‘Do Qadam Ba  Aur Age Kooye Dilbar Rah Gayaj”

Dekhli Duniya, Chalo Shahre Khamoshan  Ab, Azeez,

Qabil-E-Deed Ik Yahi Dilchasp Manzar Rah Gay A.


3 . Yih Kah Kar Qabr Par Phir Yad Apai Lar Gaye Taza,

*‘Are O Rruirne Walei Ab Mujhe Dil Se Bhula Dena


4 Yih Lahke Lagayi Hai Kisi Shokh Ne Tholcar,


**Dekhoon To Koi Qabr Se Kyon Kar Na Uthega’


5 . Phool Ake Kya Charhaoge Turn Meri Qabr Par,


Tumse Chiragjv-E-Dagh Bhi To Gul Na Ho Saka,


6 . Ap Dam Bhar Ko Agar Ake Chale Bhi Jatc


Ek Beemar Ko Marne Ha Sahara Hota.


7 . Wada Kiya Tha, Phir Bhi Na Aye Mazar Par.


Ham Ne To Jan Di Thi Isi Etbar Par.


8 . Ai Meri Qabr Pai Chalne Walo


Neend Bhar Kar Mujhe So Lene Dp,


9 . Jab Ro Ke Meri Qabr Se Ahbab Uth Gaye,


Afsos! Aise Waqt Men Tumko Khabar Gayi,


10 . Yih Kakke Khatm Skamaa Ne Hi Muddat-E-Hayat,


Kab Tak Akela Qabr Pai Roya Hare Koi  ?


%   :|C


The Symbolism Of The Tavern, The Cup-Bearer, The

Preacher Has Been Used So Frequently And So Widely

That It Might Appear There Was Nothing New Or Fresh

To Say About It All. It Has, However, Continued To

Exercise An Irresistible Fascination On All Urdu Poets.

As Ghalib Put It, One Cannot Do Without Referring To











The Goblet And The Cup. There Are, In The Ghazals Of

Azeez, Numerous Verses On This Theme.


1 . Be Piye Wayaz Ko Meri Ray Men,


Masjid-E-Jamaa Men Jana Hi Na Tha.


  1. Saqiya! Kaun Sune Jake Hadeese-Wayaz,


Qissaye Jam Chkira Hai Tere Maykhivaron Men.


3 . Wayaz! Unko Na Kabhi Khuld Ka Lalach Dena,


Dil Ke Har Zakhm Men Jo Baghe Aram Dekhte Hain.


4 . Mere Maykhane Men Kuchh Wayaz Se Hoga Mashwira.

Short Lekin Yih Hai, Ai Peere Mughan, Koi Na Ho.


* 1! Hi


The Sentiment Of Love Is Of Course The Prime Theme Of

The Ghazal. All Its Phases, The Desire Of The Moth For

The Star, Favours Bestowed On The Rival, Indifference,

Scorn, Sly Looks, Angry Looks, Looks Of Disdain And Of

Scorn, —  For The Most Part Lacking In Vigour, Sickly, Woe-

Begone, Not Sprightly, Not Merry, Rarely A Shout Of De-

Light, Generally A Whimper, Hardly Ever Rising To Heights

Of Rapture Or Ecstasy. All This Has Sometimes Been

Explained As Being The Result Of The Enervating Climate

Of The Tropics, And Italian Love Poetry Is Cited As Pro-

Viding A Parallel. Some Bengali Lyrics Share Too This

Characteristic. But By And Large, Sanskrit Love Poetry

Has More Variety, And Virility, And So Also Hindi Poetry.

But We Have To Accept The Established Convention Of

Urdu And Examine To What Extent Within Its Narrow

Range A Poet Is Able To Be Original And Express Himself

With Newness And Freshness. Azeez Is Particularly

Effective In Delineating The Sentiment Of Love, And It Is

Quite Easy To Select Notable Verges From His Diwan ;


1 . Apne Markaz Ki Taraf Maycd-I-Parwaz Tha Husn.


Bkoolta Hi Nahin Alam Teri Angrayi Ka.








Poets And Poetey



  1. Jge Khuda Ko Urn Hai, Hya Jane Kya Hm.


Bos Unke Rukh Se Yad Hai Uthna Naqab Kcu


  1. Museebat Ka Zamana Hi Hamen Dinrat Yik Sau Hau

Jo Sham Ati To Kya Hota, Sakar Hoti To Kya Iwta?


  1. Kya Apne Bhi Hijr Ke Bimar Ko Dekha?


Sunte Hain Dua Mangle Aghiyar Ko Dekha


  1. Azeez, Ab Kaun Sa Waqt Agaya? Kya Honewala Hai?


Ki Woh Khud Puckhte Hain Hai Akar Dam Ba Dam Mera..


  1. Shamaa Bhi Bujhne Ko Hai Bimar Bhi Ab Khatm Hai,


Jo Shab E-Furqat Ka Matlab Tha Woh Hasil Ho Gaya.


  1. Diya Hai Soda Ivaraq Lake Mujhko Qasid Ne,


Kabhi Jawab Bhi Aya, To Yih Jawab Aya.


  1. Hans Diye Woh Dekhkar Hal-E-Azeez


Hausla Ab Aur Dil Ka Bark Gaya.


  1. Hamare Chehre Se Kya Kuchh Ayan Nahin Hota


Nigah Se Dekh Lo  Ham Se Bayan Nahin Hota.


Bataoy Aise Mareezon Ka Hai Ilaj Hoi?


Ki Jinse Hai Bhi Apna Bayan Nahin Hota,


  1. Aisi Beemari Na De Allah Dushman Ko, Azeez


Jo Km Uttha Meri Baleen Se Woh Ro Kar Utha*


11* Yih Apna Apna Muqaddar, Yih Apna Apna Naseeb

Zamane Bhar Ko Hansaye, Hamen Rulaye Bakar


12 Be Sabab Tere Lab Nahin Khamosk


Kar Rahi Hai Teri Nazar Baten.


  1. Kya Kahoon Ap Se Hal-E-Diue- Beemar Azeez,


Waqt Ab Woh Hai Ki Dushman Bhi Dua Karte Kaim


  1. Wok Din Gaya, Azeez, Ki Hanste The Rat Din


Milta Hai Chain Dil Ko Ab Ansoo Bahane Men.


  1. Hamko Hairat Ne, Unhen Husn Ne, Ayina Kiya,


Woh Hamen Dekhte Hain. Aur Unhen Ham Dekhte Hain.


  1. Na Ana, Aur Phir Ilzam Dena,


Ki Itne Beasar Note Kiye Kyon?











17 . Milne Se Nigalioji Ke Kya Fayada Hota Hai


Yih Bat Main Samjha Doon, Turn Meri Taraf Dekko.


18 . Pasheman Ho Raha Hoon Bhejkar Khat


Nazar Milti Nahin Hai Namabar Ku


19 . Al Asman! Satale Jitna Mizaj Chahe


Hoti Jo Kuchh Bhi Taqaty Ham Bhi Ik Ah Karte.


20 . Yon Aye Rula Ke Jane Wale,


Jaise Ki Hamen Hansa Hi Denge,


21 . Tumken Hanste Hue Dehha Hai Jab Se,


Mujhe Tone Hi Adat Ho Gayi Hai,


4- Jjt 4.


The Work Of Azeez Had Been Received With Warm

Appreciation By Iqbal, By Maulana Azad, And By Akbar.

The Last Wrote :


‘‘Ek Hi Kar Diya Muhabbat Ne

Khud Ko Unho Kabhi Na Do Samjhe.


Log Kahte Hain Zindgi Ko Azeez


Zindgi Ham Azeez Ko Samjhe. *


Azeez Occupies A Notable Place Among Writers Of The

Urdu Ghazal, And His Diwan Will Amply Repay Perusal.





Hasrat Mohani


Of Hasrat Mohani It May Truthfully Be Said That

He Has Given To Politics What Was Meant For Hterature.

His Catholicity And The Width Of His Sympathies, The

Brilliance Of His Wit, His Sensitiveness To All Shapes

Of Beauty, His Familiarity With All That Is Noble And

Elevating In Literature, His Capacity For Fine Feeling,

Marked Hun Out As One Destined To Be Facile Princeps

Among Contemporary Men Of Letters. His Intimate

Knowledge Of Urdu Poetry And His Freedom From Con-

Vention Early Indicated That He Would Distinguish Him-

Self In Literature And That One Region In Particular —

That Of The Ghazal —  Lie Would Rule As His Demesne. The

Work That He Did In His Early Years Was Of Great Im-

Portance He Rescued From Oblivion And Edited The

Works Of Earher Writers The Several Volumes Of

Urdu-E-Mualla; The Annotated Edition Of Ghalib’s

Diwan; The Selection From The Works Of Several Poets

Such As Hatim, Zauk, Momin, Meer, Dard, Mashafi, And

Others; Showed How Vast, Deep And Comprehensive His

Knowledge Of Urdu Was And His Taste How Sure, Un-

Erring And Refined. These Publications Established

Hasrat’s Reputation As A Scholar Whose Judgment In

Literature Could Safely Be Relied On. Taste And Feeling,

Vision, Imagination And Judgment, Boldness Of Inven-

Tion, These Made Hasrat A Poet Of The First Order. He

Was Capable Of Making Experiments, Without Altoge-

Ther Breaking Away From Tradition.











Syed Faizul Hasan Took His Ba. Degree From The

Allahabad University As A Student Of The Aligarh

  1. A O. College In The Year 1903. He Evidently Began

Writing His Ghazals In The Year 1895, And The Last Part

Of His Diwan — At Any Rate, The Latest That I Have Been

Able To Get — The Tenth, Appeared In The Year 1924.

These Ten Parts Extend To About 260 Pages. In A Pre-

Fatory Note, Begum Hasrat Mohani States That The First

Part Of The Diwan Contains The Ghazals Written Between

1903 And 1914 And That For A Time He Was Imprisoned

Durmg The Period. The Second Part Of The Diwan Is

Concerned With The Years 1914-1916, During Which He

Was In The Aigarh, Lalitpur, Jhansi And Alahabad

Prisons. Most Of The Other Ghazals Were Also Written

In The Prisons Of Fyzabad, Lucknow, Meerut And Ah-

Medabad. Tlie Preface Of The Fifth Part Was Written

By The Poet Himself At The Yervada Jail In 1923, And

He States In It That Some Poems Which Had Been Sent

By Him For Publication To The Leading Lights Of The

Central Khilafat Committee Had Been Lost By Them.

Some Valuable Matter Of Biographical Importance Is

To Be Found In The Preface To The Sixth Part. Thus We

Learn That Hasrat Began His Poetic Career In The Year

1895, And Several Of His Early Efforts Appeared In Antho-

Logies And That He Thinks Little Of The Verses Produced

Between 1898 And 1902 And Will Not Repubhsh Them.

These And Other Prefaces Record, With Loving Precision,

The Numerous Occasions On Which He Has Been In

Prison. Perhaps Prison Life Gave To Him The Leisure

And The Quiet So Beloved Of The Poetic Muse; But It

Gave Also The Political Tinge That Colours So Many Of

His Poems.








Poets And Poetry



For A Bold Innovator Like Hasrat It Is Remarkable

Bow Meticulous He Is In Observing The Laws Of Poetic

Technique. He Realises The Great Value Of The Artistic

Restrictions Imposed By Convention. In Some Of The

Prefaces He States, With Evident Satisfaction, That The

Diwan Contains Ghazals With Every Letter Of The Alpha-

Bet As Radeef, And That Even The Verses With Such Un-

Promismg Radeef As Zoe, Khe, Kaf, Fe, Toe, Zuad, Suad, Se

Have Not Proved To Be Without Merit. Only A Skilled

Craftsman, With Becoming Pride In The Use Of His Tools,

Can Speak Like This. One Other Point Connected With

Technique Deserves To Be Noticed. It Was Ben Jonson’s

Complaint Against Spenser That In Affecting The Ancients

He Writ No Language. One Of The Unmistakable Signs Of

Poetic Decadence Is The Excess Of Attention On Words And

The Growth Of A Conventional Poetic Diction Which Soon

Becomes Mechanical, Wooden And Inane. Wordsworth’s

Spirited Protest Was Much Needed, And Coleridge Re-

Vived The Use Of Early Words Which Poetic Convention

Had Discarded And Put Out Of Use. A Revolution Is

Frequently A Revival. The Burning Passion For Liberty

Which Makes Hasrat’s Work Unique In Modern Urdu

Literature Is Also Responsible For His Impatience With

The Unnatural Restrictions In Regard To The Choice Of

Words. A Prominent Lucknow Poet Who Died A Few

Years Ago Thought It Necessary To Apologise In His

Diwan For The Use In One Verse Of The Hindi Word ‘Laj’.

This Point Of View Can Never Appeal To Hasrat. We

Notice In Consequence The Presence Of A Large Number

Of Words Not Commonly Used By The Urdu Poets Of To-

Day. I Do Not Refer To The Poems With A Predominantly

Hindi Vocabulary, Such As The Thumri In Which He











Celebrated Shri Krishna And His Exploits, But Even In

His Ghazals This Can Be Seen. Words Like ‘Na Dijiyo’;

‘Pujan’; ‘Pagrf; ‘Jayiyo’ And Others Reminiscent Of The

Early Years Of Urdu Are Used By Him In Profusion.


It May Be Mentioned In Passing That Smce Nazir

Aetbarabadi, Hardly Any Other Urdu Poet Has Made So

Many References In His Poems To Shri Krishna As Hasrat

Has. And These References Are Not Merely As To A

Poetic Stock-In-Trade. Whether As A Divine Incarnation,

Or As The Flute-Player To Whose Tunes All Created Beings

Danced In Ecstasy, Or As The Ideal Lover Who Could

Combine The Dalliances Of Love With The Grayest Affairs

Of State. Shri Krishna Is One Of The Most Romantic

Figures In Indian Legend, And It Is Surprising That More

Indian Poets, Using The Urdu Medium Of Expression,

Have Not Taken Advantage Of This Heritage. In The

Prefaces To The Seventh And Eighth Parts Of The Diwan,

Hasrat Says That He Has Mentioned The Name Of Shri

Krishna, In Addition To The Names Of Those ‘Elders’ Who

Have Brought Grace To Him, And Expresses Special

Attachment To The Personality Of Shri Khishna.


1 . Hasrat Ki Bhi Qabool Ho Mathura Men Hazri,


Sunte Hain Ashiqon Pai Tumhara Karam Hai Khas.


2 Manmohan Sham Se Min Lag,


Nis Din Sulag Raid Ag.


” Tan Man Dhan Sab War He Hasrat,


Mathura Nagar Dial Dkuni Ramayi



A Short-Statured Man, With Shaggy Hair, Careless

Attire, A Rapid Gait, Hasrat Does Not By His Appearance

Give Any Indication That He Is A Poet. There Is No








Poets And Poetry



Aura’ Round Him. He Has No Crowd Of Professional

Followers Or Admirers To Praise And Boom Him. His

Poetry Does Not Stand In Need Of The Artificial Support

Of Good Type, Fine Paper, Attractive Get-Up In His Books;

They Are Printed So Badly On Such Wretched Paper That

The Aim Seems To Be A Repel The Prospective Buyer

But Once A Reader Has Triumphed Over This Repulsion

What A Vast Prospect Opens Out Before Him, What Pro-

Fusion, What Richnessl God S Own Plenty Is Here: Much

Thought, Many Phases Of Love, The Zest Of Life, The Note

Of Sadness Which Brings A Shade Of Melancholy Without

Disturbing One’s Faith That All One Beholds Is Full Of

Bliss. There Is No Sickness Or Morbidity, No Cringing

Appeal For Pity And Compassion; But A Sturdy Optimism,

A Light Playfulness, A Well-Considered And Reasoned

Trust In The Larger Hope.


Interspersed Here And There We Got Hasrat’s Own

Views In Regard To Poets And Poetry. Again And Agaui

He Pays His Tribute To Meer And Momin,


  1. Hasrat Ylh Woh Ghazal Kai Jise Sunke Sab Kahen ;

Momin Se Apne Rang Ho Tu Ne Mila Diya.


  1. Sher Mere Bhi Hain Purdard, Wa Lejdn, Hasrai,


Meer Ka Shewaye Guftar Kahan Se Laoon?


  1. Guzre Hdfiut Ustad, Magar Range (T%Ar Men


Bemisl Hai, Hasrat  Sukhane Meer Ahhi Tak


On The Theme Of Poetry We Have Several Utterances,

As Also On The Stupid Quarrel Between The Delhi And

Lucknow Schools. On The Spontaneous And Direct

Appeal Of Poetry Hasrat Says:


Sher Dar Asl Hain Wohi Easrat


Sunte Hi Dil Mert Jo Utar Jmn.











0£ His Fondness For The Ghazal He Says :


Ishq Has Rat Iiai Ghazal Kc Siwcf

Na Qasida Na Mansavi Ki Harass


On The Lucknow-Delhi Controversy

Ralhte Ham Asluqane Sukhan


Lucknove Se Na Iehlavi Se Gimaz.


On The Ghazal Again:


Likhta Hoon Marsiya, Na Qasida, Na Mmnavir

Hasrat Ghazal Hai Sirf Men Jane Ashiqan.


With Pardonable Pride He Says .


Hasrat! Urdu Men Iiai Ghazal Teri


Partue Naqshe Saadi 0 Jami.


What Exactly Is Hasrafs Contribution To The Ghazah

Where Does His Originality Lie? He Does Not Discard

The Useful Symbolism Of The Wine And The Cupbearer

The Preacher; The Candle; The Moth; The Spring And The

Hunter’s Noose. But He Does Express An Individual

View-Point, I Notice With Immense Satisfaction An

Energy, A Masculine Attitude, A Determination To

Triumph. The Normal Note Struck By The Writer Of The

Ghazal Is That Of Tender Melancholy, Of Tears Over Days

That Are No More, Of Vain Endeavour, Of Ultimate Frus-

Tration, From All This Hasrat Is Far-Removed. But

His Elemental Force Is Modified And Beautified By An

Element Of Grace And Sweetness And Light. Only He

Does Not *Pile Up Honey Upon Sugar, And Sugar Upon

Honey, To An Interminable Tedious Sweetness.’ Do Not

The Scriptures Tell Us That He Deserves Not The Sweet

That Will Not Taste Of The Sour?








Poets And Poetry



Let Us Turn To The Lines Where The Main Idea Is

That Of Pain And Suffering.


]. Sab Ne Chhora Tujhe  Magar, Uasral

Dard Hi Ghamgusariyan Na Gayin»


  1. W Oh Turn Hof Ya Tumhara Dard Ho Koi /Lo, Dumya Men

Kiya ]Is Se Taaluq Hamne Paida Umr Bhar Rakkha,


  1. Unse Kuchh To Mxla, Woh Gham Hi $Ahu

Abroo Kuchh To Rah Gayi Dil Kl


  1. Har Hal Men Raha Jo Ter A Asra Ntujhe,


Mayoos Kar Saka Na Hujpome Bala Mujhc,


  1. Kyon Itni Jald Ho Gaye Ghabrct Le Ham Fana?


Ai Darde-Yar? Kuchh Teri Khidmat Na Ho Saki


6 Ayi Bujjme Ko Apni Shamaa-E-Hayau

Shabe Gham Hi Magar Sahar Na Hul


These Specimens Will Demonstrate That While

Sorrow And Pain Are No More Conventional Pose, They

Are Yet Sweet In Their Sadness. But It Is No Lady Of

Pain At Whose Shrine He Worships. Delight And Desire

Return: The Raptures And The Dreams; ‘The Old Dew Still

Falls On The Old Sweet Flowers; The Old Summer Rears

The New-Born Roses.  And Beyond These Looms The

Certainty Of The Infinite Grace And Glory And Goodness


Of God :


  1. Pahle Ik Zarra-E-Zaleel Tha Niain


Teri Nisbat Se Aftab Hua*


  1. Hawase Deed Miti Hai Na Mitegi, Hauai,


Dekhne He Uye Chaho Unhen Jitna Dekho.


But It Is Not Through The Professional Purveyor Of

Consolation And Moral Good That He Will Reach His Jour-

Ney S End. The Preacher Is Preoccupied With The

Thought Of Evil And Sin And Misdeed. How Can One Who











;:O Constantly Dwells In The Company Of Evil Be Other

Than Evil Himself? How Can He Know Charity?


Ajah Hya  ]0 Hai Bad Guman Sab Se Tiaaz’>


Bura Sunte Sunle  Bura Kahte Halite.


Even Where Hasrat Adopts The Usual Symbols Of

Urdu Poetry, He Is Yet Original And The Old Images Have

An Added Freshness :


Main Giraftar Ulfate Saiyadj

Darn Se Ckhut Le Bhi Rilm Na Hua.


Here Is A Fine Verse On The Candle *


Ay I Jo Tere Rue Munauwar He Qareen Shamaeif

Harn Log Yahi Samjhe Ki Makfil Men Nahin Simmaa.


On The Spring And Its Associations With Love And

Romance, And The Impatience And Intoxication Produced

By The Spring, Hasrat Is Equally Refreshing .


  1. Sabr Mushkil Hai Zabt Hui Duskwar,


Dile U Uhshi Hai Aur Junoone Bahar.


  1. Hai Junoon-E-Shauq Ubhi Se Beqarar Ahki Bara6,


Kya Ghazab Dhaega Too Fane Hahar Abki Haras?


  1. Hangamaye Hahar Ha Dekha Kabhi Na Rang,


Ilamne  Id Muhtalae Balae Khizan Rahe.


  1. Kuckh Dil Hi Bujh Gay A Hai Mera Ivarnu Aj Kal,

Kaifml-E-Hahar Ki Shiddat Chaman Men Thi»


  1. Sab Hans Pare Khilkhila Ke Ghuncko —


Chhera Jo Lateefa Saba Ne Eh,


(K Phala Phula Rahe Gidzar Yarab! Husne Kkuban Ka

Mujke Is Bagh Ke Har Phool Se Khushbooye Jar Ayu


The Cup-Bearer, With A Goblet In Ms Hand, Holding

The Prospect Of Bliss, But Reluctant To Fulfil That Pro-

Mise; Tempting And Tantalising; Flattered By A Large








Poets And Poethy



Crowd, Each Person Begging On Bended Knees For The

Saqfs Favour, Professing Love And Admiration And Life-

Long Devotion; The Saki Condescending To Pour But A

Few Drops Out Of His Goblet And Thus Encouraging Peti-

Tions For More; The Preacher Looking On From A Dis-

Tance, Uttering Words Of Solemn Warning And Advice,

And Threatening The Vials Of The Wrath Of God, — These

Are Familiar To All Readers Of Urdu Poetry. The Themes

Are All Well-Worn, But On These Well-Worn Themes, Too


Hasrat Has Some Excellent Lines.


1 . Jab Dija Turn Ne Roqibon Ko Diya Lame-Jiu/Ub


Bhool Kar Hhi Men Jamb Ko Ishara Na Liya,


2 Khum Laga Dc Ham Balanpshon Le Munk Se, Saqiyi ‘

Kam Aega Na Saghar Aj Ne Paimana Aj*


3 . Yarab! Hamate Ba Ad Bhi Bazm-E-Sharah Men,


Saqi Kc Dam Se Daur-E-Maye Arghvan Rake.


1 Bazme Saqi Men Chalcn Bhi To Kahin, Hazrate Sheil <

Shari Ham Karte Hain Rah Jae Jo Iman Ka Hosh.


5 . Bare Azab Men Hai Jane-Mykashan  Saqi!


Nakin Sharab, To Zikr-E-Sharab Rahne De


() Mar Jaoonga Maykhane Sc Nikla Jo Kabhi Maiiiy

Nazzara-E-May Rooh Fiza Mere Liye Hal

7 . Nahin Panif To Maykhane Men  Ai Sheikh !


Jo Kuchh Maujud Hau Laoon Wazoo Ko?


3 . Saqi! Na Puchh Kitni  Jahan Tak Piymi, Pi! A,


A Adcu Nahin Hai Mujhko Sawal-Oqawah Li>


9, Aj To Munk Labe Saghar Se Bhira De Mera,


Saqiya  Tujh Ko Meri Sustiye Putman Kt Qasm.


10 . Mashwire De Jo Taihe May Ke Hamen,


Aue Ghamkhar <Ie Khuda Ki Panah.








15 &



A Word Must Be Said Of The Poems With A Deiimtely

Political Import, And A Tribute Must Be Paid To The

Ability And Skill With Which, While Retaining The F Ormws

And Symbols And Phrases Of Love Poetry, He Conveys His

Political Meaning. The Shades Of The Prison-House Are

Neither Deep Nor Dark Enough To Drive Away His Faith

In The Essential Goodness Of The World. He Satisfies The

Lest Of Horace: He Seeks Not To Produce Smoke From

Light, But Light From Smoke V


1 . Rasme- Jafa Hamyab  Dekhiye Kab Tak Rahe


Hubbe-Watan Maste Khwab  Dekhiye Kab Tak Rafie,


Nam Se Qanooii Ke Jwte Hain Kya Kya Slfam


Jabr Bazeremaqab Dekhiye Kab Tak Rake.


Daulate Hindostan, Qabzaye Aghyar Men


Behad O Behisab, Dekhiye Kab Tak Rahc.


Ilai To Kuchh Ukhra Hua Bazme Harifan Ka Rang,


Ab Yih Sharab -Kabab Dekhiye Kab Tak Rahe,


2 Main Mubtila-E-Ranj-E-Watan Hoon Watan Se Dur


Bulbul Ke Dil Men Yad’-E-Chaman Hai Chaman Se Dun

3 . Sab Hamari Zindgi Fu Tak Hain Unhe Hauslcy

Warna Yih Naz’-O-Gharoor-E-Dilrubai Phir Kahan


4 Us But Ke Pujari Hain Musalman Hazaroiiy

Bigre Hain Isi Kufr Men Iman Huzarort.


And Now Let Us Look At The Manner In Which

Hasrat Treats Of The Main Theme Of The Ghazal —  Iove;

In Other Words, The Form Of Taghazzul In His Poetry.

This Has Been The Eternal Theme Of The Lyric, In All

Languages. One May Well Hesitate To Write At Length

On It In A Late Age. It Has All Been Said And Sung. But

As A Forgotten Nineteenth Century Poet, Sir Lewis








Poets And Poetry



Morris, Said: ‘Yet How Of Life To Smg, And Yet Not Tell

Of Love’? It Is The Source Of Song; It Moves Our Hearts;

It Is The Spirit That Animates. Even So Sour A Philoso-

Pher As Carlyle, Writing Of Burns, Said: ‘A Poet With-

Out Love Were A Physical And Metaphysical Impossihi-

Hty’. Ihe Hebrew Poet, In The Song Of Sou Which Is

Solomon’s, Grows Ecstatic In Praise Of Love — ‘Many

Waters Cannot Quench It, Neither Can The Floods Drown

It’. On The Other Hand, A Sixteenth Century English

Poet, Thomas Watson, In His ‘Passionate Century Of

Love’, Complains •


Love Is A Sour Delight, A Sugared Grief.


A Hving Death, An Ever-Dying Life,


A Breach Of Reason’s Law.


It Is Mostly A Matter Of Temperament. It Is Also One

  • Of Mood. But Peihaps It Is Chiefly A Matter Of Luck.

Not All Are Destined To Realise Love’s Young Hopes;

Many Cannot Even Cherish It As A Far-Off Adorable Dream

Hope, Desire, Fulfilment; Shock, Disappointment, A Grief

Without A Pang, Frustration, Divine Despair —  Through

These One Passes On The Journey To Love. A Little While

The Gleam, The Dawn, The Gathering Of Light, And Then

The Twilight, And Then Dead Lonely Night. That Is The

Tale Of Love. The French Maxim-Writer. La Rochefou-

Cauld Said: ‘True Love Is Like Ghosts, Which Everybody

Talks About And Few Have Seen.’


The Main Note Of Urdu Love Poetry May Be Said To

Have Been Determined By Meer And Ghalib; The Minor

Notes Were Struck By Several Notable Poets, Both Of

Delhi And Of Lucknow. Hasrat Mohani Is In The Tradi-

Tion In So Far As He Regards The Beloved As Wa3rward

And Difficult To Please. But There Is A Playfulness, A











Sl3niess, Which Makes His Verse Refreshingly New. He

Cannot Normally Take A Solemn And Serious View Of The

Heedless Cruelty Of The Beloved: It Is Not Intentional, It

Is But An Expression Of Ebullition Of Spirit, It Is Indeed

Evidence Of Real Affection. Here Or Elsewhere, Sooner

Or Later, Union And Reconciliation Will Come. Mean-

While, If The Beloved Chooses To Be Harsh And Severe,

Disagreeable And Harassing; Provoking, Caustic, And

Heart-Wounding, What Does It Matter? The Course Of

True Love Never Runs Smooth. Love Is A Process Of

Anxious Fear. There Are In Love As Many Pangs As Shells

On The Shore. But Does Not Wise Ovid Say, ‘The Love

Which Is Fostered By Despair Is Long-Lasting’? All This

And Much More The Poet Knows And Realises, But Love

Is Love For Evermore. That Is Why We See In Hasrat’s

Poetry Such A Charming Mixture Of Gaiety And Gravity,

Such A Willingness To Turn Serious Matters To Sport.


  1. Manoos Ho Chala Tha Tasallee Se Hal-E-Dil,


Phir Too Ne Yad Ake Badastoor Kar Diya.


  1. Gar Josh-E-Arzoo Ki Hain Haifiyaten Yahi

Main Bhool Jaoonga Ki Mera Muddaa Hai Kya.


  1. Ishq Ki Rooh-E-Pak Ko Tuhfa-E-Gham Se Shad Kar,


Apni Jafa Ko Yad Kar Meri Wafa Ko Yad Kar.


‘I. Haqiqat Khul G Yi, Hasrat, Iere Tark-E-Rnuhabbat Ki,

Tujke To Ab Vooh Pahle Se Bhi Bark Kar Yad Ate Hain.


  1. Mazhahe Ashiqi Men Hai, Ai Aql-

Bakhudi Intihai Danai.


  1. Barq Ko Abr Ke Daman Men Chhupa Dekha Hai,


Ham Ne Us Shokh Ko Majboor-E-Haya Dekha Hai.


  1. Zahir Men Jafa Karte Batin Men Wafa Hoti,


Sau Dhab Se Karam Hota Manzoor Agar Hota.








Poets And Poethy



5, Half Hai Uskl Badskahi Par

Tcre Kuche Ka Jo Gada Na Kua»


  1. Hhq Ya Husrty Kaun Hai Ghalih


A] Tak Iska Faisla Na Kua*


10* Mar Mite Ham Ki Den Woh Dad-E-Wafa


Aur Jo Iska Bhi Kuchh Osar Na Hua?


1 1 . Pahle Ik Zarra-E-Zaleel Tha Main


Teri Nisbat Se Aftub Hua,


  1. Yih Kya Munsifi Hai? Ki Trmhfil Men Fen,


Kisi Ka Bhi Ho Jurm Payen Saza Ham,


  1. Gfmm Ka Na Dil Men Ho Ghuzar Wasl Li Shab Ho Yon




Sab Yih Qabool Hai Magar, Klmif C-Sahar Ko Kya




  1. Kahin Ivoh Ake Mita Den Na Intazar Ka Lutf


Kahin Qabool Na Ho Jai Iltaja Merl


  1. W Oh Bigare Baithe Ham Is Par Ki Hamko Lyon Chaha

Em Bhi Gar To Ye Sabit Hui Khata Meri,


  1. Usi Se Chhipte Hain Hoti Hai Jispar Unki Nazar


Agar Yahi Hai To Ummidiiar Ham Bhi Hain,


  1. Bushman Ke Mitane Se Mita Hoon, Na Mitoonga


Aur Yon To Main Fani Hoon, Fana Mere Liye Hm,


  1. Hal Sunte Woh Kya Mera, Hasral

Woh To Kahiye Suna Gay In Ankhen


  1. Shikwayeqaur; Takaza-E-Karam: Arz-E-Wafa»


Turn Jo Mil Jao Kahin Hamko, To Kya Kya Na Karen*


  1. Khaksaron Men Apne Deke Jagah.


Turn Ne Maghroor Kar Diya Hamhom


  1. Rahmat Ne Ham Se Pher Uya Munh Jo Hashr Men,

Soorat Nazar Men Phir Gayi Tere Hijab Ki,


  1. Sahr Mushkil Hai, Arzoo Bekar


Kya Karen Ashiqi Men, Kya Na Karen?











Goya Uoh Kab Kuna Hi To De I Tvofian 4a Hul,


Kya Hya Satval Harle Hain Bad-E-Saba Se Ham!


2 1 . Har Dam Hai Yih Dar Phir Na Bigar Jayen Woh, Hasrat,

Pahwn Jmhcn To To Ke Hansane Men Lage Hain.


The Last Voliime Of Hasrat’s Poems Appeared About

Lourteen Years Ago. Who Can Help Lamentmg That So

Many Years Of His Maturity Have Been Spent Not In The

Service Of The Muses, But In The Rough And Tumble Of

The Political Arena? How Ardently One Wishes That

Even The Years —  Many, We Hope —  That Are Left To Him

May Be Devoted To Wisdom Married To Immortal Verse!

Tu Ne, Hasrat, Yih Mkala Hai Ajab Range Ghazal,


Ab Bhi Kya Ham Teri Yejctai Ka Dan A Na Karen





The Poetry Of Fam



Among Contemporary Urdu Poets Fani Occupies A

High Place. He Has The Advantage— Denied To Many

Of Those Belonging To An Earlier Generation— -Of Being

Ffltmliar With English Literature. It Is Not Easy To State

Exactly How It Has Affected His Work; This Sort Of Analy-

Sis Is Not Possible. But The Difference Can Be Perhaps

Best Noted In The Absence Of Mere Bombast, In An

Artistic Reticence, In A Self-Critical Compression And

Omission, In Subtle Suggestiveness, In Persuasiveness.

His Collected Poems, Baqiat-E-Fani, Now In Its Second

Edition, Is A Slim Volume Of A Hundred And Twenty

Pages. Since It Appeared, About A Dozen More Poems

Have Been Published In Magazines And Journals. This

Self-Restraint Is Very Rare Indeed In A Literature With A

Tradition Au In Favour Of Fecundity. The Urdu Poet

Does Not Say Like Horace: Brevis Esse Labors. We

Might Weu Ask, ‘Why Then A Final Note Prolong?’ Pro-

Lixity Is, However, The Besetting Sin Of Much Of Urdu

Poetry. From This Fani Is Free.




Heading Through The Diwan Of Fani One Is Impress-

Ed Most By The Note Of Melancholy, Which Reaches At

Tttnpg The Point Of Morbidity. Again And Again The

Thought Of Death Comes To Him, Not The Death Which

Lovers Love To Die, But Cold, Comfortless Annihilation.

Once In A Way, Disappointment And Depression May

Suggest A Means Of Escape Through Death; But Fani

Relishes Death As A Luxury. It Is Not Merely A Debt Wa





F Vjn’i






Must Ail Pay. He Seems To Have A Settled Conviction,

Like Aeschylus Of Old, That To Die Is, To Mortals, Deliver-

Ance From All Misery. The Choice Of ‘Fani’ As His

Takhailus Is Full Of Significance.


A Grave Harmony And The Eternal Note Of Sadness;

The Skill To Use Idiomatic Phrases; A Daintmess Of Touch;

A Large Discontent; — These Strike One As The Main Qua-

Hties Of Fani’s Verse. It May Be Said That He Touches

No Vital Issues; That Man’s Greatness Is Not His Theme,

Nor The Solemn Aspects Of Eternal Nature, That His Range

Is Limited And Even Within That Range He Does Not See

Either The Unruffled Deep Or The Slimy Bottom That

Mocks The Dead Bones That Lie Scattered By. From The

Charge Of Self-Centred Egotism Too It Is Not Easy To

Defend Him The Absorption In Love That Transcends

Self Is Missing From His Work. The Renounce-

Ment Of Self In The Joy Of Surrender To The

Spirit Of Love, To The God Within His Breast, So That No

Room Is Left For Storm And Trouble And Death; The Rest

That Ends Sighs And Groans And Sobs; The Rapture That

Makes Roses Hear The Flute And The Violin, And The

Jessamine Stir To The Dancer’s Dancing In Tune —  These

Are Beyond Fani’s Reach. In Brief, It Is Not The Poetry

Of Health. We Look In Vain For Any Attempt Even To

Say T Am The Captain Of My Soul’. It Is Not Robust; It

Is Weak-Willed, Weak-Kneed, Nerveless. Its Sweetness

Redeems It. But It Lacks The Accent Of Grandeur.


Ht 0 T


There Are Some Good Verses Where We Find General

Observations Pithily Expressed, With A Terseness And

Expressiveness Truly Admirable. That These Also ‘Seeme










Poets And Poetry



Too Solemne Sad* Cannot Be Helped. For Fani All Things

Are Touched With Melancholy :


  1. Y/Mr Bhar ’Aql Se Seekha Kiye Nadan Hona,


  1. Shaubde Ankhm Ke Humne Ai$E Mine Dekhe /Tain —


Ankh Khuu To Duniya Thi  Band Hui  Afsana Tha.


  1. Na Ibtida Ki Khabar Hai Na Iatiha Maalum


Raha Yih Waham Ki Ham Hain, $O Woh Bhi Kya Maalum?


H Ishq Ne Dil Men Jagah To Qaza Bhi Ayi


Dard Duniya Men Jab Aya To Dawa Bhi Ayu


5 . Zmdgi Khud Kya Hai  Fani! Yih To Kya Kahiye, Magur

Maut Kahte Hain Jise Woh Zindgi Ka Hash Hul


Urdu Poets Have An Insatiable Thirst For Wine.

The Urdu Lover Wants To Get Drunk; He Longs For

Drmk; He Begs The Cup-Bearer To Relent, To Shed The

Light Of Favour On Him, To Approach Him Gently And

With Compassion M His Eyes. Of This Variety Of Com-

Position There Are Not Many Examples In Fani; But

Some There Are, And These Deserve To Be Noted:


1 . Woh Jam Kufr Parwar Bhar De Ki Mast Karde


Maston Ke Dil Men  Saqi  Iman Rah Na Jae.


2 . Mu]H Tak Us Mahfil Men Phir Fame Sharah Ane Ko Hai

Umre Rajta Palti Ati Kai Shabab Ane Ko Hal


3 . Hijre Saqi Men Hamare Ghur Ki Kaifiyat Na Puchk


Band Dar. Har Sheesha Khali, Dil Bhara, Saghar Khulom


4 . Dll Ab Dll Hai, Khuda Rakhhe Saqi Ko  Maykkane Ho,

Warna Kise Maalum Nahin Tuta Sa Puimana Tha?


& :!E T ♦


I Have Mentioned Above That Melancholy Has Claim-

Ed Fani For Her Own. All Through His Collected Works

One Finds Verses With A Melancholy Tinge. No Effort Is

Needed To Cull Them. The Poet Seems Overwhelmed By











Sadness. He Protests, But Mildly, Gently, Almost As If

Be Were In Love With Sorrow He Has Not The Desire

To Strike Or To Wound Or To Find Comfort M Forgetfulness

Or Furious Activity. Nor Is He Like Some Rock Which

Stretches, In Virgil’s Vivid Passage, Into The Vast Sea,

And Which, Exposed To The Fury Of The Winds And Beaten

Against By The Waves, Endures All The Violence And

Threats Of Heaven And Sea, Himself Standing Unmoved.


  1. Say A Bhi Jlspe Nu Re Nasheman Ka Par Gaya


Ajow, Asman ! Tvok Hagh Hi Sara Ujar Gay A?


2 Bharak Sholaye Guv Too Hi Ah Laga Je

Ki Bijhym Ho Rnera Ashuan Nahin Milta


  1. Kisi Ki Gham Ki Kahani Hat, Zindgi Fard!


Zamana Eh Fisana Hai Marne Tvalon Ka,


  1. Zindgi Se Ho Bezar, Fani, Is Se Kya Hasil?


Maut Ko Mana Loge Jaa Se Lkafa Ho Lar?


  1. Chale Bhi Ao, Woh Hai Qahre Fanu Delhte Jao,


Turn Apne Marne Tiale Hi Nishanx Dekhte Jao.


Abhi Kya Hai? Kisi Dm Khun Rulawegi Yih Khamoshi

Zabane Hai Hi Jadoobayam Dekhte Jao.


Sune Rate Na The Turn Se Mere Dm Rat He Shikwe


Kafan Sarkao, Men Bezabani Dekhte Ja/>,


  1. Ro To He Ek Ek Qadam Barh Raha Hurt Main,


Hansti Hai Mujh Pai Doori-E-Manzil Jagah Jagah.


  1. Meri Ankhon Men Ansoo Tujh Se Hamdahi Kya Lahun


1 10, Imk


Thahar Jae To Angara Hai  Hah Jae To Darya Hal


  1. Abadi Bhi Dekhi Hai, Weerane Bhi Dej He Hain.,


Jo Ujre Aur Phir Na Base Dil Wok Nirali Basti Hal

Du Ka Ujarna Sahal Sahi, Basna Sahal Nahin, Zalim

Basti Basnu Khel Nahin, Baste Baste Basti Hd.








Poets And- Poetry



  1. Duniya Ki Balofn Ko Jab Jarma Kiya Mam «T,


Dhundli Si Mujhe Dil U Tasweer Nazar Ayi.


These Verses Indicate A Deep-Rooted Dejection.

Life, The Poet Says, Is A Long Drawn Story Of Sorrow,

And A Tale Of Those Who Die. Every Step M The Journey

Of Life Is Taken With Pain And Toil And Travail; But We

Never Reach The Journey’s End; The Goal Laughs At Our

Endeavours To Attain It.


A I. Ijt


The Spring Is A Favourite Theme In All Poetry. The

Urdu Poet Sees In It A Return Of Loveliness In Nature

And Of Hope In His Breast. It Reminds Him Of His Be-

Loved And Accentuates His Sense Of Loneliness. There

Are Flowers In The Garden; And The Birds Hop And Smg;

There Is Joy Everywhere But, In The Lover’s Heart There

Is The Bare Leaflessness Of Autumn And The Bleak Despair

Of Winter. The Spring Is Au Pervading; It Strikes Terror

Into The Heart Of The Day Of Judgment, At The Fear Lest

The Dead Should Be Prematurely Restored To Life.


]. Shayai Ki Sham-E-Hijr Ke Mare Bhi Ji Uthe,


Subahe Bahar Haskr Ka Chehra Utar Gaya.


  1. Boo-E-Khizan Se Mast Hain, Yad Hamen Bahar Kya?

Hamto Chaman Parast Hain; Phool Kahan Ke? Khar Kya?


(This Is Perhaps The Solitary Expression Of Content-

Ment, Bordering On Delight In Fani.)


  1. Chaman. Men Dil Hai To Meri Nigah Men Hai Chaman,

Chaman Se Too Mujhe Le Jaega Kahan, Saiyad?


  1. Ghariyaa Apni Umr Ki Hamne Ghunchon Men Chal Phir


Ke Guzareen


Aye. The, Fani, Bagke Jahan Men Goya Misle-Naseem-E


Sahar Hnrn.











\A Aya Mausajn-E-Gul Jab Dd-E-Dmarta Jeela

Jo Ab Aye To Yarab! Ag Lag Jae Gulsitan H)*


The Spiingtide Enhances The Lover’s Misery. He

Tears His Dress And Acts Lite One Demented.


  1. Fmh Gull Khair To Luii Daskt Mm Draanon Li


Damanon Ki Khabar Ayi Na Garehmon Il


38t A{* V.


Finally, One Is Attracted By The Many Lines In Which

The Sentiment Of Love Finds Expression,


1, Hum Hai Zat Meri Ishq Si Fat Hai Merl


Hun To Main Shama’ U  Magar Bhes Hai Parwane Lom


There Is Complete Identity Between The Lover And

The Beloved; The Difference Is Merely One Of Form.


  1. Ahad Jauani Khatm Hm, Ab Marte Hain Na Jecte

Ham Bhi Jeete The Jab Tah Mar Jane Ha Zamana Tha


3 Sunke Tera Nam Ankhen Khol Deta Tha Kol

Aj Tera Nam Lekar Lot Ghafil Ho Gay A*


Maut Ane Tak Na Aye, Ab Jo Aye Ho, To  Hai!


Zindgi Mushkil Hi Tki, Mama Bhi Muskkil Ho Gay A*


  1. Khuda Gharat Kare Dzl Ko Bari Mushkil Men Data Hai

Na Samjha Umr Bhar Nadan Farebe Ishq Asan Ko,


  1. Ab Jafa Hai Na Wafa, Jad-E-Wafa Baqi Hai,


Tm Jahan Shamda Wahan Kkak Hai Parwanon Kl


  1. Shabe Furqat Men Ham. Har Sans $E Yih Puchh Lete Hain,

*Jigar To Khairiyat $E Hai? Mizajedil To Achha Hai?


  1. Aur Fani Bark Gayi Hetabiye Dil Baad-E-Marz,


Kya Kahen Mar Kar Giraftare Bala Hyon Ho Gaye?


Jan Si Shai Bik Jati Ek Nazar Ke Badle Mea.


Age Marzi Gakak Ki In Damon To Sasti Hui.


Ansoo The So Khusk Hue, Jee Hai Ki Umda Ata Hai,,


Dll Pai Ghata Si Ehhaji Hai, Khidti Hai Na Barasti Hai.








Poets And Poemy



  1. Dil Hai Jo Dard Mand Nahin?


Kya Tore Dard Ki Khudai Hai?

Io. Us More Mujassim Ke A F Bane Ko Kya Kalye?


Hai Sham A* A Bhi Parwana  Parwane Ko Kya Kahiye?

Kuchh Kkel Na Tka Yun Bhi Parwane Ka Jal Bujhna,


Jal Kar Na Bujhe  Aise Parwane Ko Kya Kahiye?


Vjri Hui Ankkon Men Raunaq Tere Dam Se Thi,


Weeran Hai Kar Basti  Weerane Ko Kya Kahiye?


M   Tfa


It Has Been Stated That Fani Is Supreme Even In

The Line That Ghalib Had Specialised In; And One Fre-

Quently Comes Across Similar Observations Made By

Even Scholars Of Repute. Apart From The Fact That

Comparisons Are Odious, One May “Well Ask Whether

The Younger Poet Has Either The Depth Of Feeling Or

The Ability To Pass From The Individual To The Universal

Which Are Ghalib’s Chief Titles To Fame? Ghalib Was

Not Merely Able To Express Philosophical Ideas In Poeti-

Cal Garb; He Sounded The Varied Notes Of Human Emo-

Tion, All Its Phases, All Its Stages, All Its Degrees.


Yik Na Thi Hamari Qismat Ki Uuisale Yar Hota.


Agar Our Jeete Rahte, Yahi Intizar Koto.


The Sly Humour Of


Jamaa Karte Ho Kyun Raqibon Ko?


Ik Tamaska Hua, Gila Na Hua;


The Vivid Lesson From Nature Drawn M


Bulbul Ke Karobar Pai Ham Khandahai Gul,


Kakte Hain Jisko Ishq Khalal Hai Dimagh Ka;


Or The Inevitableness Of


Rat Din Gardish Men Hain Sat Asman.


Ho Rahega Kuchh Na Kuchh Ghahrayen Kya?











Or The Pensive Beauty Of


Naghmahae Gkam Ko Bhi, Ai Dxl! Ghunecmat Janiye,


Be Sada Ho Jacga Yili Saze Hasti Ek Din.


Or The Settled Gloom Of


Age Ati Thi Haledil Pal Hunsi,


Ab Khi Hat Par Nahiu All


Are Beyond Fani’s Reach. This Is No Discredit Or Di’?-

Paragoment, For Ghalib Is Peerless.


Others Have Compared Fani To Meer. Here Too It

Has To Be Admitted That The Skill With Which Meer De-

Picts The Feelings And The Simplicity Of His Utterance

Have Not Been Approached By Any Later Poet But In

One Re.Spect Fani’s Greatne.Ss Is Undoubted — The Sug-

Gestive Quality Of His Verse Altogether He Deserves

To Be Praised For The Many Niceties Of Eiqjression, The

Melody Of His Lines, And The Special Note Which Is Asso-

Ciated Now With His Name — That Sorrow To Which Ho

Tunes His Song, And The Woe To Which His Harp Is Set.





Nasiri: A Memoir



Mahdi Husain Nasiri Was Born In Lucknow M The

Year 1885. At The Age Of Fourteen He Passed The Middle

English Examination From The Husainabad High School;

In 1901 The Entrance Examination Of The Punjab Uni-

Versity. Financial Circumstances Made Him Give Up

His Studies As A Regular College Under-Graduate, But He

Appeared Privately At The Intermediate Examination

Of The Allahabad University In 1910, In The Same Year

In Which He Passed The Mulla Test. He Passed The

Fazil Exammation The Next Year. In 1907 He Joined

The Staff Of The Isabella Thoburn College As Persian

Teacher. He Appeared Privately At The B. A. Examina-

Tion Of The Allahabad University In 1913, With Arabic

And Hebrew As His Optional Subjects, And Passed In

The Second Division In 1914 He Joined The Persian-

Arabic Staff Of The Muir Central College. In 1916, He

Completed His University Education By Taking The Mas-

Ter’s Degree. In July, 1922. He Was Appointed To The

Provincial Education Service And Transferred As Head-

Master To The Government High School, Bijnor. From

1924 To 1929 He Was Headmaster Of The Barabanm

School, And From 1929 To 1931 Of The Aligarh Govern-

Ment High School.


In The Year 1915 He Became A Fellow Of The Allah-

Abad University, And Till The End He Was Closely Asso-

Ciated With It, As A Member Of The Court, Faculty Of

Arts, And Several Committees Of Courses. He Had Been

Since Its Institution, A Valued Member Of The Board

Of Intermediate And High School Education, And Of

Its Persian, Curriculum, And Examination Committees.











He Was One Of The First Members Of The Council Of The

Hindustani Academy; Of The Vernacular Scientific

Society; Of The Shia College Board Of Trustees; Of The

Courts Of The Lucknow And Aligarh Universities. He

Had Been A Member Of The Committees Of The Allah-

Abad Public Library And University Library.


He Learnt The Holy Quran At The Feet Of Qazi Ali

Jan And Qazi Muhammad Mahdi; Khuihnawisi (Beauti-

Ful Handwriting) He Learnt From Munshi Mir Masoom

Ali, And Ashraf Ali Sahib; Culture And Refinement He

Acquired From Maulana Nasir Husain Sahib Mujtahid

Mauivi Zahurul Hasan Taught Him Arabic, But For His

Tvide Scholarship And Catholic Leanings He Was Indebted

To The Hon Justice Syed Karamat Husain. He Knew

German And Hebrew In Addition To English, Persian

And Arabic.


His Earliest Literary Work, Entitled Sarware Ambia,

Was A Urdu Rendering Of Carlyle’s, “The Hero As Pro-

Phet”. Among His Other Works Were : Makhzanul


Fau,Aid, A Persian Grammar; Hararat, A Urdu Text-

Book On Heat; Zeemte Wahsho Tair, A Urdu Treatise

On Sexual Life Among Animals; Sanadeede Ajam, A His-

Tory Of Persian Literature; Mansur Ki Sarguzasht, A

Story Translated From German. These Have All Been

Published. His Qasaid Will Shortly Come Out.


On March 23, 1931, He Had A Stroke Of Paralysis On

The Right Side. He Was Recovering From It, When On

May 11 He Had A Second Attack, This Time On The Left

Side. This Proved Fatal, And He Died On May 13 (24

Zilhejah 1349 A.H.). His Body Was Brought To Fateh-

Pur, Barabanki, Where It Was Buried M The Imambara


Iti: Asc








Poets And Poetry



I Was A Student Of The Muir College When Maulv !

Nasiri Came On Its Staff, And Though I Was Not A Mem-

Ber Of Any Of His Classes, He Was Good Enough To Evince

An Interest In My Studies. When Three Years Later, En-

Tirely Unforeseen And Only Half-Welcome Accident Took

Me Also To The Teaching Staff, Nasiri Continued His Old

Kindness And, Before Many Months Were Over, Allowed

Me The Privileges Of An Equal. The Years As They

Passed Strengthened Our Friendship: My Esteem And

Admiration Kept Increasing, And His Generous Appre-

Ciation Continued Unabated. Long Absence Made No

Difference. Only A Few Days After His First Attack I

Visited Him On Official Business. Though Ill And Ordered

To Be In Bed, He Was Ready To Receive Me, Most Solici-

Tous Of My Comfort, Considerate As Ever Of My Scruples,

Gay And Genial And Ho.Spi Table. And Now I Attempt

To Tell What He Was And What He Did; Of His Services

To Learning And Education; Of His Literary Achieve-

Ments; Of His Genius For Friendship. If In The Telling

I Seem To Indulge In The Language Of O-‘Rravcgar.Ce, My

Abiding Respect For His Memory Must Be Ihe Excuse.


It. # I’ «


Whether In The Class-Room, Expounding The Intri-

Cacies Of Arabic Grammar Or Enlarging On The Beautiei>

Of Persian Poetry; Whether In Mushairas Charming

Everybody By His Exquisite Verses: Whether In A Majlis

Discoursing On Some Religious Topic; Or Whether In A

Small Circle Bubbling Over With Wit And Good Nature

And Knowledge —  Wherever He Was And In Whatever

Work He Was Engaged, Nasiri Was Remarkable And Out

Of The Common. At Academic Gatherings He Was Always

Fearless And Independent; On All Communal Matters











He Was Liberal; In Committees His Advice Was Practical

And Constructive. Karely Did He Lose His Temper;

Once Or Twice He Did Show Impatience With Too Persis-

Tent An Obstructionist, And Now And Then He Allowed

Himself The Relief Of Good-Natured Sarcasm. But Never

Have I Heard Him Ascribe Base Motives To An Opponent.

I Have Attended Religious Gatherings Addressed By Him.

He Was One Of The Most Attractive And Persuasive Urdu

Speakers I Have Ever Heard He Held Sovereign Sway

Over The Emotions Of His Listeners, Now Moving Them

To A Mood Of Exaltation, Again Melting Their Thoughts

Into Tecrs Nor Did He Use Any Of The False Tricks Of

The Rhetorician; Never Did He Depart From The Recorded

Facts, Ror Did Any One Over Hear From His Lips An Unkind

Word About Other Faiths No Student Ever Willingly

Absented Himself From His Lectures; Illustration, Expo-

Sition, Criticism Were All So Cleverly Interwoven With

Anecdote, Fun And Drollery That His Pupils Acquired

Knowledge And Learning Without Realising The Fact And

Without Having To Endure The Painful Process Insisted

On By Many A Dry-As-Dust Teacher. But The Memories

That Will Endure Longest Are Those Of Quiet Afternoon

Talks, Surveying The Entire Field Of Human Interests,

Revealing The Depth Of His Scholarship And His Real

Character. His Sweet Reasonableness And Persuasive-

Ness Were All His Own. On Many Topics He Spoke With

Knowledge And Insight. And He Was A Good Listener;

He Never Monopolised Talk; He Could Relish A

Joke Against Himself; His Laugh Was Ge’snrne And Hearty.

Little Did I Realise, When I Met Him In April, 1931, That

I Was Seeing Him For The Last Time. In The Normal

Course He Had Before Him Many More Years Of Useful








Poets And Poetry



Activity. That Was Not To Be. The Fates, In Their Wis-

Dom. Willed Otherwise. And They Know Best.


It <T Us


Urdu Lyric Seemed During The Last Half Of The Nine-

Teenth Century To Have Reached Its Highest Flights And

Sounded Its Subtlest Depths. It Seemed Evident That

In Order To Enjoy A Continuity Of Healthy Growth It

Must Seek Fresh Woods And New Channels. Mir, Ghalib,

Atish, Nasikh. Dagh, Seemed To Have Explored All Its

Possibilities. Every Turn Of Idiom, Every Source Of

Allusion, Every Nicety Of Emotion, Every Shade And

Hue And Depth Of Sentiment, Seemed To Have Been

Used Up. The Ghazal Seemed To Have Before It Only An

Inane, Tired, Straggling Course Before Losing Itself In

Desert Sand. Reformers Prophesied Its End In No Un-

Certain Terms. Other Verse-Forms Were Recommended.

But The Ghazal Has Persisted; It Continues To Be Prac-

Tised More Than Any Other Form. There Are Living Poets

Who Have Succeeded In Imparting Freshness And Charm

And Beauty To The Ghazal, Who Practise It With As Much

Skill As The Old Masters, And Who Have The Authentic

Note Of The Genuine Singer. Not Yet Is The Fount Of Ins-

Piration Dry: Some Day The Effect Will Be Strained, The

Words Mechanical, The Feelings Affected. “But Ah! Not

Yet, Not Yet!”


Nasiri Sat At The Feet Of The Well-Known Lucknow

Poet, Pyare Sahib Tlashid’; And He Wrote His First Verses

At The Age Of Fourteen; “He Lisp’d In Numbers For The

Numbers Came.” It Was Ja. Happy Chance That Took Him

To Rashid, For The Old Poet Was Remarkable For The

Ease And Flow Of His Verse And For The Spontaneity Of











His Expression. Here Are A Few Of His Lines:


  1. Khake Hasrat Le Gaye Dil-Haye Weeran Le Gsje

Ap Ke Diwane Salh Apne Biyahan Le Gaye.


  1. Kabki Bi]Li Bhi Gire Yan To Ajab Se Puchen

Aa; Kya Tha Jo Suye Gore Ganban Aai.


  1. Dll Hi Dubc Bhi Dubooye Bhi Backai Bhi Raskid

1 Chi Kishti Yehi Darya Kai Y Ehi Ian Gar Kai.


  1. Kya Sabab Hai Kyun Larapti Hain Qafas Main Bulhulrn

Dekh Ai Sayyad Guhhan Ki Hawa Aai Na Ho.


Li’rom Rashid He Learnt Clarity And Directness; But

All The Graces Of His Poetry Are His Own. A Careful

Study Of Bis Diwan Will Show That The Qualities In.

Which He Excels Are Deep Pathos, A Sense Of Longing

And Striving And Despair; A Sensitiveness To The Voice

Of Nature; A Gift Of Word-Painting; And A Firm Convic-

Tion Of ‘The Sense Of Tears In Things Human.’ There

Seems A Curious Contradiction Between The Buoyancy

Of His Own Nature And The Sad Tone Of His Verse, Who

That Saw Him In His Moods Of Gay Irresponsibility

Could Detect The Undercurrent Of Despondency And

Deiection? He Had Striven Successfully To Carve Out A

Career For Himself; He Was Prosperous; He Was Widely

Esteemed; He Was The Head Of A Happy Family. Who

Can Plumb The Deep Recesses Of The Human Heart? Only

When He Read His Verses Aloud Could One Listen, As

Coming From A Distance, To A Faint Sound, A Vibration,

A Break Indicative Of Pain, Of Langour, Of Yearning For

One Knew Not What, An Aspiring After Something Far-

Off, Something Divine, Some Forgotten Dream Or Some

Tempting Illusion. The Themes Are Old But Eternal.

Rarely Does Nasiri Strain After Effect, And Rarely Is He









Poets And Poetey



Scenic Effect Is Cleverly Produced In Several Of His

Verses. This Is A Comparatively Rare Achievement In

Urdu Ghazals, And It Is Difficult. Frequently, Too, He

Succeeds — To Use Fox’s Phrase About Scott —  In Doing By

Means Of Words What The Painter Does By Means Of

Colour. The Vivid Delineation Of A Scene Or The Pictorial

Representation Of A Mood Is Nasiri’s Especial Forte.


  1. Uf Yeh Ghanghor Ghatain Yeh Umangen Dil Hi

Hai Yeh Joshejwam Yeh Taqazai Bahar,


  1. Asman Par Abr Jab Chane Lage

Ham Qafas Se Sar Ko Takrane Lage.


  1. Barsat Kkatam Ho Gai Badal Baras Gaye

Ro Jae Jis Tarah Se Koi Dil Bhara Hua.


  1. Yeh Fdsle Gul Yeh Hijli Ka Karkna

Bachana Ashiyan Mera Khudaya.


  1. Jhilmilata Hua Tara Skabe Gam Ka Dooha


Dll Ke Matam Main Sahar Chak Greban Ho Jal


  1. Main Ne Chune Jo Gul Tere Bistar Ke Waste

Kja Jane Yar Gunche Ne Kyun Muskra Diya,


7 Nigahain Nichi Ham Ankhon Se Ashk Jari Hai

Kisi Garib Ho Tioh Qabr Main Utar Aaye.


  1. Kafan Kataya Hai Chere Se Qabr Main Ham Ne

Ke Shayed Ah To Nazar Surat Qarar Aaye.


I Draw Attention Next To His Love Lyrics. Here

Again The Subject Is As Old As Adam And In The Opinion

Of The Wise Moderns As Dead As Queen Anne. But

Even Touchstone Assures Us He Has Been A Lover; And

Hs Long As Man Has To Be Content With An Earthly Phy-

Sical Image Of His Dreams, So Long Will He Worship The

Rose Treasured Up Within His Heart And Give Himself

Up To Longing, Despair And Ecstasy, Not Necessarily For

That Which He Can Get But Always For That Which He











Aspires To Be United With. Love Of Human Beauty Or

Love Of Divine Grace — Who Can Tell? And It Is At Best

But A Faint Line That Divides The Two.  ‘And Yet I Love

A Kind Of Light, And Of Melody And Of Fragrance, A Kind

Of Food, And A Manner Of Embracement, When I Love

My God; The Embracement, Food, Fragrance, Melody,

And Light Of My Man; Where There Shineth Unto My

Soul What Space Containeth Not, And There Soundeth

What Time Snatcheth Not, And There Smelleth What

Breath Disperseth Not, And There Tasteth What Eating

Cloyeth Not And There Clingeth What Satiety Divorceth

Not. This Is It Which I Love When I Love My God.*’

Saint Augustine Utters Here A Word Of Sovereign Wis-

Dom. Let The Reader Decide, Each One For Himself,

Whether The Poet Longs For A Human Beloved Or For

The Divine Cup-Bearer. The Poet Keeps His Secret To



  1. Dastan Go Ne Sunaya Haue-Qais


Kya Kahooji Kya Kya Khayal Ane Lage.


2 Na Poochho Kh Ne Mara Bekhata Yaro Idhar Mo


Dikhain Turn Ko Ik Tasvir Apni Chashme Hair An Main,


3 . Dd Jab Se Mam Ne Apke Kabze Main De Diya

Mujbooriyun Main Shan Hai Har Ikhtiar Ka,


4 . Hijr Ki Shah Aik Mam Hoon Ik Dil Nakam Hai

Murdani Chhai Hui Hai Aur Khuda Ka Nam Hal


5 . Naz Tha Ya Sabr Tha Ta Too Qaribe Dil Na Tha

Kyun Na Dehha Dekhna Tera Agar Mushqil Na Tha,


6 Pharkie Hain Nichi Nigahoon Ke Ghayal

Uthu Le Nazar Ai Jiaya Karnewalc,


7 . Har Ik Ko Hale-Dil Ro Kar Sunaya

Na Pehckana Zara Apna Paraya.








Poets And Poetey



  1. Kmimkash Mum Umid-O*Yas Ki Mere Safma Hxn


Keh Iakrata Hai Sahil Se Ugur Bachla Hai Toofan $E.


9- Idkar Bhi Ik Nazar M Ser-E-Sekra Dekhne Wale

Yeh Tunhai Aur Itni Berukhi Gore-Gariban Se.


10* Tumhin Dekko Ke Dunya Kya Tamashu’gahedbrat Hai


Main Aur Butain Karoon Pahroon Chirage Sham-E- Hijran Sf.


  1. A Jab Andaz Se Ae Nusiri Dil Ne Bethaya Hai

Qayamat Tak Na Utthenge Zamine-Kue Janan Se.


  1. Wdh Bala Nasib Hai Dtl Mera Jise Kijr-A-Wasl Sab Mk Ham

Na Andheri Rat Main Neend Hai Na Hai Chuin Zulfe-Daraz




  1. Falak Se Tut Ke Tare Sure Mazar Aaye

-Andheri Rat Main Yeh Turn Kise Pukar Aau


14* Soda Lugane Tere Dar Pe To Gaye The Magar

Ham Apne Hi Dil-E-Betab Ko Pukar Aayc.


Then There Are Occasional Moods Of Depression And

Of Weariness, When Death Comes Lihe A Welcome Guest

And Obiivon Is Greeted With A Smile. Life’s Aches Prove

Too Heavy And Burdensome; Suspense And Disappoint-

Ment Come In Unchanging Succession; Tears And Sorrow

And Separation Make Existence A Sore Trial What Is

One To Wait For  The Cup Of Life Has Been Drained To

The Dregs: Bitterness Is The Main Taste In The Mouth

And Yet Memory Summons Sweet Scenes Of Long Ago


  1. Aik Alam Main Ba%Ar Karte Hain Ham Mr Bulbid

Koi Ruswae-Jahan Hai Koi Ruswae-Bahar.


  1. Maut Ki Neend Jab Aai Meri Msmat Jagi

Bal Hholc Koi Ata Hai Aza Khane Main.


  1. Ibrat Hai Shab-E*Gham Main Taroon Pe Nazar Karnu

Jal Jal Ke Fana Hona Mar Mar Ke Sahar Karnu.


Baitha Hai Thuk Ke Wadi-E-Ghurhat Main Dil Mera

Ai Maut Mil Le Mere Gurib Uddiyar Se.














1 .\Ale Ki Ah Hai Ai, Hm Na Hasrat Hai Aah Kl

Kesi Hava Chali Keh Mera Dil Bhuja Dia,


I* Je (Mraghe Kunje Furqat Aaj Tu Hi Sath Ie

Dil Mera Hujhne Laga Aur Iht Id Ay E-Sham Hai.


7 Ser-E–Darya Karne Wale Ham Bin Yad Aaye Kafun

Koi Takraya Mfina Kya Lab-E-Sahil Na Ika,


Jl Nasiri Qabr Pe Ihrat Ke Liye Likhtva Do


Tool Ihincha Hai Yahan Tak Shabe-Tanhai Ne.


Finally I Select Some Verses Which Express His

Criticism Of Life, Short Maxims That Compress A World

}F Meaning, Phases Of Mystic Thought And Mystic Rap-

Ture Beautifully Expressed —

J Bali Rahe Jo Ihosh To Josh’-E-Shabab Lay A

Dil Main Bahar Ho To Suhoo Kya Sharab L A.


2 Muztanb Rook Koi Aagayi Mekhane Main


Khud Bakhud Mai Ko Hai Gardish Mere Paimane Main,

H Kabhi Masjid Mam Pukara Kabhi Butkhane Main

Hash Id Batain Ham Sari Tere Dewane Main.


I Neend Kya Hai Mcut Ki Ik Lehr Woh Bin Be Salmi

Maut Kya Hai Mk Gahri Neend Jo Mashhoor Hai,


  1. Mar Ke Ankhen Hum Roshan Bare Jalve Dekhe

Zinjgi Nam Tha Shayed Shabetanhai Ka.


But The Most Satisfactory Means Of Getting To

Know The Poet Is A Careful Perusal Of His Work. My

Task Has Been A Melancholy One. As I Have Looked

Through His Manuscript And Seen The Work Through The

Press I Have Been Conscious Of My Unworthiness: Nasiri

Had Planned To Supervise The Publication Himself And

To Inscribe Each Copy With A Persian Rubai I Am

Pleased That I Am Enabled To Render This Service To

Ms Memory, So That As He Himself Would Say:


Khair Itni Meri Tazeem Kiye Jate Ham








Pandit Jagmohan Nath Raina, ‘Shauq’-



Quite A Number Of Hindus, Nourished On Hmdn

Legends And Traditions, Still Professing Their Ancestral

Faith, Used To Write Urdu And Acquired A Fair Measure

Of Proficiency In The Use Of A Literature That, M Its

Formal Aspects, Was A Faint Imitation Of A Foreign Litera-

Ture And That Derived All Its Spiritual Nourishment From

Persia And Arabia. Hundreds Of Hindus, Specially

Kashmiris, Khatris, And Kayasths, Dwelling In Cities

And Connected With The Administrative Machinery Of

The Country, Spent Wearisome Days And Nights In Pro-

Ducing Ghazals, Masnawis, Nazms, Even Marsiyas, And

Yet Not One Of Them Was Able To Attain The Rank Of An

Acknowledged Master. Even To This Day, In Histories

Of Urdu Literature, Not One Hindu Is To Be Found In

The List Of The Recognised Makers Of Urdu. Grudgingly,

A Word Of Appreciation Is Thrown At The Efforts Of

Naseem Or Nazar Or Chakbast Or Sarshar. But Imagme

Just Four Names In The Second Or Third Rank In A Period

Of Over Two And A Half Centuries! The Truth Of Course

Is That Urdu Never Came Anywhere Near The Spirit Of

India And Always Remained Alien To The Indian Genius.

It Has Ever Been A Marvel How Glibly A Hindu Has Des-

Cribed Himself As A ‘Kafir’ And His Gods As ‘But’, How

Constantly He Has Referred To Laila And Majnun, Shirin

And Farhad, Yusuf And Zuleikha, And Not To Nala And

Damayanti, Savitri And Satyavan; How He Has Called

Upon Khuda, And Spoken Of Isa And Musa, And Alluded

To Mansur And ‘Anauiaq’, And Never To The Names











Familiar To Him From His Cradle. It Is Surprising How

Completely Absorbed The Hindu Writer Ot Urdu Seems

In Ail The Symbols And Images That Are So Foreign To

Him — Wine And Repentance And The Taimm, The Rose

And The Nightingale, The Graveyard And The Day Of

Judgment, The Vision Of Moses —  And How Ignorant He

Seems Of The Literary Traditions Of His Own Land — The

Bees And Flowers, The Lotus And The Lily, The Cuckoo

And The Papeeha, The Mango-Blossom, The Numerous

Associations Of The Rainy Season. My Considered Opi-

Nion Is That Much Of The Work Of The Hindus In Urdu

Belongs Not To Literature But To The Region Of Literary

Curiosity, For No Writer Ever Attained Real Eminence

In A Language The Very Genius Of Which Is Foreign To

Him. I Do Not Forget Names That Will Readily Occur To

Any One; But I Still Maintain That Hindus Do Not Speak

Or Write Urdu ‘As To The Manner Born’, And Even The

Tallest Among Us Appeals To A Muslim As To A Final

Arbiter In The Matter Of Usage And Idiom.


Urdu Poetry As Written By A Hindu, Even Under

The Guidance Of A Muslim Ustad, Remains A Literary

Deforce. Subject To This Reservation, Praise Must Be

Given To Many Hindus Who Have Attained Proficiency

In The Use Of The Urdu Language, Of The Metres, None

Of Which Has Any Similarity With Indigenous Indian

Metres And Au Of Which Are Governed By Laws That Are

Foreign, Of The Religious And Literary Traditions All Of

Which Are Strange To Them.


Pandit Jagmohan Nath Raina Is A Klashmiri Brah-

Man And Like Many Others Of His Community Belongs

To A Family That Was Associated With The Muslim Court

And The Law Courts The Language Of Which Was Persian.








Poets And Poetry



He Was Thus Brought Up In An Exotic Tradition And He

Turned To Urdu For Literary Expression, Even As Many

Young Men Brought Up Under The System Of Anglo-

Indian Education Turn To English. He Came Under The

Influence Of Amir Minai, Who May Without Offence Be

Described As Representing The Decadent Period Of The



Lucknow School Of Poetry, Stilted, Effeminate, Rejoicing

In Fineries And Fopperies And Polish And Glitter, Maud-

Lin Sentimentality, Verbal Tricks, And Retaining None

Of The Vigour And Freshness And Open Acceptance Of

New Impression And Experiences That Had Characterised

The Earh’ar Writers Of Urdu. While Amir Minai’s In-

Fluence Circumscribed Young Jagmohan Nath’s Range



Of Interests And Limited His Intellectual Horizon, It Was

At The Same Time Responsible For Creating M Him A

Keenness For Correctness And Exactness In The Use Or

Language To This Day One Can Notice In His Verses

Traces Of Amh’s Influence In The Care With Which He

Chooses His Words And Coins His Phrases. But He Has

Outgrown The Manner In Which He Wrote Ins Earliest

Verses, And One May See A Distinct Individuahty M His



Later Work.



Mr. Rama Began His Poetic Career As Long Ago As

  1. And Is Still Writing In The Year 1940. It Is No

Surprising That During This Period Of Over Hah A Cen-

Toy His Style Should Have Developed And

His Thoughts And Views “Eeome Mate« But It

Possible To Find A Consistency Of Outlook All

Li The Recurrence Of -Some Questions And Problems

That Seem To Have Occupied The Poet S Min An P

Tll Some Of His Best Verses. But .S See


How In His Earliest Work He Has Reproduced The Note Of











Maudlin Sentimentality And The Pretty, Almost Petty,

Conceits That One Associates With The School Of Amir



L Mujhe Qatl Karle Hoy Co Jhagra Hi Mila Dena


Rahc Baqi Na Abhi Bar  Laichh Lasar  Dehha*


  1. Lakh Turn Ruthoy Manayenge Na Ham Hid Hargiz


Turn Kamen Jan Gaye, Ham Lamhen Pahchan Gaye.


Here Is A V Erse M The Style Of The Later Lucknow

School Of Writers: —


Giraya Butoii Nc Bhi Nazion Se Dtl Ko.


Aa Rakha Kahiri Ah Lagane Le Qahil


And Here Another: —


Tumhan Adayen Salamat Rahen.


Qaza Ho Qaza Agayi  Agayl


But Even As Early As 1889 One Can Hear The Accent

Of To-Day, As In The Verse: — •


!Iai Safar Dur Kay Aur Sath Men Hamdam Bhi Nahiuy

Tujhsa, Ai Shauq  Koi Be Sarosaman Bhi Na Ho.


I Have Said Above That Minai’s Influence Can Be

Seen In Mr. Raina’s Language. In Several Lines The

Charm Is Due To The Elegance Of Expression, And To The

Command Over Idiom.


1, Fare Bain Mast Matwale  Na Kahte Hainy Na Sunte Haku

Nayi Bastiy Naya Alam Liai Yih Shalire Khamosham


  1. Kkudai Ka Hai Dawa, In Baton Ko Dekhiye Kya Hoy

Lldhar Bhi Ek Sajda  Aoy Bahre Imtihan Kar Lem

Kuia But Khana-O-Kaaba ! Kuja Khum Khana-O–$Aqi !

Kahan Scj Shaug, Simuqd-Deed Lay A Hai Hahan Mu}H Kck


1 Rafta  Rajta  La Dared- Janan Baithte. Uihie , Ymi Palmn-




Thokaren Khate, Girte, Parte, Subah $E Leta Sham Chale.








Poets Akb Poetry



  1. Khufi Shuda Dil Ko Jalate Ham /Alane Wale


Ag Paid Men Lagate Hain Lagan E Wale.


(] Y As-Odiirman-O-Tamanna  Hasraw’ranj-O-Alam


Shaaq Se Siiniye La Sab Kuchh Dil He Afsane Men Hal

  1. Kis Qadar Dilckasp Thi Rudad- E-Skauq ,


Saie Alam Men Kahawal Ho Gayl


There Are Naturally A Good Many Verses Where

The Thought Is Conventional That Cannot Be Helped

Any One Who Is Bound By The Rhyme Arrangement

In The Ghazal’s Scanty Plot Of Ground; And With Each

Verse Having To Follow The Law Both Of The Radeef, And

Qafiya, It Is Inevitable That One Should Fall Back Upon

The Images And Thoughts Conjured Up By Certain Words

If One Is Forced To Confine One Self To Words Like

“Niuseebaf’, ‘Qayamaf, ‘Shika} !’, ‘Haqiqaf, Hbrat’,

‘Kasrat’, ‘Tabeeyat’, And Also To The Sentiment Of Love,

One Can Easily Sympathise With The Poet And Reahse

How Little Scope He Has For Originality And For Short Or

Long Swallow Flights Of Fancy. The Surprise Is That,

This Handicap Notwithstanding, The Ghazal Is Still So

Perennially Fresh And Charming. Conventional Symbols

Are Used Plentifully By Mr. Raina And Yet He Has Suc-

Ceeded In Making His Verse Attractive


]. Ko Ao, Ckalen  Ek Thil;Ana Hai Tvohi.


Mil Hi Iaega Wahin Koi To Rahbar Apml


2, Saotoe Shama Ne Uth Uth Ke J( L Y(  Akhir.


Shauqy Yih Hashr Him Bazm Men Parwane Hi.


  1. Aye Hain Taraste Hue Nmyumne Men Sagiy

Bhar De Tu Hi Tuta Hua Painmna Hamara.


4′. Butkadi  Chhorte To Chhor Diya


Ab Ihihana Nazar Nahin Ata.











  1. Ham Dhoondne Gaye To Sanam-Khana Md Gay A,


Tu}H Lo Talush Se Bhi, Ria Waiz, Khuda Mila,

H, Kaisa Butkhana  Kalian Ka Dair, Kaisi Khanqah!


Jis Jagah Sijda Hya Kamne Tvoh Kdaha Ho Gaya*


  1. Guzra Jo Lok-E-Tur Par, Malum Hai Woh Sal

Shayaq Hun Phir Hhi Jalivaye Barqe Jamal Ka.

Tl Main Dekhte Hi Slui He Men Lalcha He Pi Gaja


Zahid Bhi Tark-E-Inai Ki Qasam Kjm Ke Pi Gaju.

Jo Tujhko Kahna Ho Kahde, Woh Sab Isharon Meru

Samajh Men Kuchh Nahin Ati Tiri Zaban, Sai Yad.


Uk Zara Ji Bhar Ke Us Ho Dekh Leta Main Dame Akhu,

Nazar Ata Gafas Se Hash Apna Ashiyan Mufhlo.

Il Unki Bazme Naz Men Royi, A Ar,


Shnma Mahfil Se Nihali Jaegl

  1. Banaya Sijdagah-Ediusn Ham Tie Dair-O Kd Ahe Ko,


W Ohi Jalwa Hai Donon Ja, Idimr <Z, Dekhne Walel


13* Kui Ka Jahva Gahe Ndz Jab Nazar Aya,


Sare-Niyaz Wahin Par Jhuka Diya Mam Ne.


14 Hah Rah Ke Puchhte Ham Yahi Baghban Se Ham

‘’Lei A En Char Tinke Kahan Ashiyan Se Kam *


Those Who Know Mr. Kaina Are Aware Of His Wit

And His Zest For Life. He Has Lived A Full Life And His

Journey Toough It Has Been Agreeable. He Can Aiford

Therefore To Smile And Laugh And Jest. There Are Moods

O£ Playfulness In His Work. It Is Not The Laugh Of One

Who Laughs That He May Not Weep, But Of One Who Sees

The Light And Bright Side Of Life.


  1. Woh Daure Badaye Rangin, Woh Dilfareb Nazar,


Khuda Hi Hai ]O Mujhe Pukbaz Rahne De


  1. Jate Kdabe Men But-Parasti Fee,


Yih Bhi Ik Farz Tka  Ada Imrte»








Poets And Poetky



  1. Butkada Chorne Wale To Na Th<*J

Khair, Milli Hai To Jannat Hi Sahi,


  1. Butparasti Men Jis Hi Umr Katiy

Aise Kafir Ha Nami Are Tauba.


  1. Hashr Men Ham Bid Zaban Kholenge


Eehason Ki Wahan Sunwayi Hal


  1. Khud Hue Akar Aseer E-Dami-Ishq


Dushmane Jan Quwivat E-Parwaz Hau


As One Reads Through Mr. Raina’s Poems One

Realises That Inspite Of The Veneer Of Persian Culture

And Underneath All The Brilliant Wit And Gaiety That

Strikes One So Prominently On Meeting Him, The In-

Heritance Of The Hindu Asserts Itself And Philosophy

Keeps Peepmg In. He Is Puzzled, As What Thinlcer Is

Not. By The Problem Of Life And The Great Beyond.

Is It Life After Life Or A Blank Nothingness? Does The

Caravan Travel On And On Endlessly, Or Is There A Goal

Where All Must Pause? Is There Rest After Long Travail?

Who Is The Guide? Does He Know The Path? Is There

One Path Only? Do The Footsteps Of Those Who Have

Gone Ahead Help At Au? Pain And Suffering And The

Aches Of Life, Disillusionment, This Is The Stuff Of Which

Life On Earth Is Made. That Seems To Be The General

Trend Of Mr. Raina’s Thought. Vanity Of Vanities. Thi«

Is Specially The Trend Of His Latest Poetry.


] Rahat-E Zeest Yehi Dard Ka Hasil Hai Yehu

Rote Rote Gham-E-Furqat Men Fma Ho Jana’,


  1. Naqsh*E-Hasti Mua Raha Hai Koi


Par Mitana Nazar Nahin Ata.


  1. Dkoondne Par Bhi Nishan Milia Nakhi,


Mar Miion Ki Skm-E-Ghurbat Dekhm











I Batuyea Hja Li Aye Hain Kalian Se Hum Kahttn Hakaf

Nishan Ab Dhoondte Phirte Ham  Har Ka  Berdshan




5, Sab Puchhte Ham Shah R- E-Kham N Ska N Men,  Kaun Ho\

Ilairaa Hain Kya Haiayen Musafir Kalian Le Hain?


  • 5, Na Puchho Humsafiiran-Ochamaik Main Kaun Imn,




Gharaz Jo Kuchk Hun Ik Saz-E Shikista Ki Sada Main Him

1, Ralia Jab Muddaton Darr-Odiarajn Mon


Samajh Ayi Ki Hahkaya Gay A Hoort.


  1. Mulk-E-Adam Lo Qafih Jatc Ham Rat Dm


Zahir Magar Kisi Ka Nishan-E-Qadam Nahiri,


  1. Aye Hain Kis Muqam Se, Fate Ham Dekhiye Hdlmr,


Ki$ Ne Kiya Hai Ab Talab, Is Ki Bhi Kuchh Khabar Nahhi


  1. Raste To Udhar Ka Punchh Lete,


Ai Mulk-E-Adam Ke Fane Tvalo!


Jl. Jsi Ko Iniahayc Ishq Kya, Ai Shauq, Kahte Ham


Ki Mujh Ko Khud Nahin Mdalum Kya Km Arzoo Rneri.

J2. Apni Hi Khabar Nahin Hai Ham Ko


Bekar Kisi Ki Justofoo Hat

18 Ilape-Dard-Eqigary Charasaz, Lahne De!


Muza Isi Men Hai, Soz-O-Gadaz, Ralme De’


J’f. Yih Kise Md’alum Manzil Tak Woh Pahunchc }A Nahin,

Ja Buja Ham To Nishan E-Raftagan Dekha Mye,


Is. Na Puchhe Koi Yih Hamse. Milega Kya Hameu Ivnen ,


Ki Naqshe Hasti Ko Khud Ham Mitaye Fate Hain.


Jise Ho Dekhna-Aye-Woh Dekh Le Manzar,


Hayat-O-Maut Ke ]Hagre Chukaye Fate Hain.


16 Bichhre Hain Kab Se Qafila-E-Raftagan Se Ham.


Mil Faenge Kab Hi Na Kabhi Lara Van Se Ham.


17 Fata Kis Se Puchhen Ki Manzil Kakati Hai?


Kahan Tak Musafir Hhatakta Rahega?








Poets And Poetry



  1. Ku Hh Batate Hi Nahin Shahre Khamoshan


Kyon Pasand Unko Jih Ujra Adamabad Uya


19, Ah Uslo Justojoo Kya Hav” Na Jane Woh Jmhmi




Aisknn-Edcaraian Manzil Ba Manzil Deljme Tvale.


The Pieces That I Have Culled Will Amply Indicate

Ihe Wealth Of Poetry Contained In This Diwan. Mr.

Raina’s Work Shows An Admirable Command Of Voca-

Bulary, A Familiarity With The Poetic Material Of Urdu,

A Poetic Attitude And Temperament, A Melancholy Pen-

Siveness And A Quest Of The Ultimate Secret Of Life Which

Will Ensure For His Work A High Place Among Contem-

Porary Writers In The Traditional Manner. One Verse

More With Which To Conclude This Cursory Note* —


Umr Akhir Hui, Wok Josh-E-]Awani Na Raha


Yad Aya Bhi To His Waqt Khuda Yad Aya.


Foreword To -•Pa.Ya.Ia-E-Sliaaq,’’ Pubbshod Bj” Xizanii Press,

32odauii, 1940







Urdu Poetry Has Had A Very Curious History. It

May Be Said To Have Begun Its Career Seriously Only

About The Middle Of The Eighteenth Century By The

Third Quarter Of The Nineteenth Century It Had Passed

Through All The Phases Of Its Growth And Development;

It Had Attamed Perfection Within Certain Well-Recog-

Nised Limits: It Had Risen To Its Utmost Possible Height

Within That Range. It Had Created For Itself A Valuable

Set Of Images, A Highly Refined Vocabulary, A Remark-

Able Symbohsm. In One Lyric Form, Activity Had Been

Specially Prohfic, And The Ghazal Had Been Brought To

A Stage Beyond Which No Progress Seemed Possible

All The Heights Of Emotion Had Been Scaled, And The

Lowest Depths Soimded; Anger, Indignation And Ecstasy;

Hatred, Jealousy, Longing And Self-Effacement; Affec-

Tion That Transcends Death; Despair That Darkens And

Sours Life; — Every Shade And Hue And Form Of Love Had

Found Expression In Words That Seemed The Mot Juste

Meer, Ghalib, Dagh, Momin, Zauq, Dard, Atish, Nasikh

—What Had They Left Unsaid? What Could Ope Say

And What Better Expression Could One Employ’ The

Despair Caused By A Study Of The Ghazals Of These

Master-Poets Is Shown By The Endeavours Made During

The Last Years Of The Nineteenth Century To Wander To

Fresh Woods And To Attempt New Verse Forms. The

Long Poem, Satire, Humorous Verse —  These Were At-

Tempted, And The Ghazal Was Not Seriously Written,

Although Its Practitioners Were Still Numerous








Poets And Poetoy



The Ghazal Seems However To Have A Charmed

Life. The More It Is Written The Fresher Its Appeal

Continues To Be. The Explanation Of Course Is That Its

Mam Theme Is The Eternal One Of Love — One Of The

Great Primal Emotions That No Sophisticated Mechanisa-

Tion Has Been Able To Root Out. Shirin And Farhad,

Laila And Majnun, Are Not Dead; Their Tales Are Still

Enacted; Their Love Lives On; And Those Deathless Figure,

Together With The Imagery Of The Nightingale, And The

Himtsman And The Nest, The Bud And Autumn And The

Night Of Sepeiration, The Moth And The Candle; The Rival,

The Preacher, The Cup-Bearer, Have Gathered Round Them

Associations Which Are A Peculiar Source Of Joy To

Every Reader Of Urdu Poetry. The Delhi Poet, Hali,

Announcing His Abandonment Of Love Poetry, Still Em-

Ploys Some Of This Imagery:—


“Bulbul Ki Chaman Men Ham-Raham Chliuri ;


Jiazvne Shoara Men Shcr-Khwani Chhon.


Jab Se Dil-I-Zinda Tu. Ne Hamko Chhora

Ham Ne Bhi Ten Ram Kahani Chhori”


Among Later Poets Who Attained Success In The Ghazal

Were Amir, Shad, Taashuq And Reyaz. And In Our

Day There Are Such Ghazal-Writers As Hasrat Mohani.

Jaleel, Safi. Jigar, Faani, Azeez, And Asar. They All

Confine Themselves To This Old Yet Fresh Theme Of Love;

They Adhere To The Traditional Form Of The Matla And

The Maqta; They Employ The Familiar Symbols. Yet

Their Verses Continue To Charm. New Similes And Meta-

Phors, Ideas Borrowed From Modem Philosophy And

Science, A Less Frivolous Note ; These Are Some Of Their

Distinguishing Features.











I Have Not Mentioned Asghar Yet, For He Dwells

“.Part Both Literally And Figuratively He Is Solitary.

In So Far As He Follows Tradition, He May Be Said To Be

In The Line Of Direct Succession From The Earlier Poets,

But He Belongs To No School Or Group. He Has Exercised

Rigid Economy In The Production Of Poetry. His Total

Output Is Contained In Two Slender Volumes That Toge-

Ther Cover A Hundred And Fifty Pages. He Is Now Over

Fifty, And, When We Consider That Boys In Their Teens

Compose Ghazals In Urdu, We May Be Permitted To

Admire And Wonder At The Unerring Artistic Instinct

That Led Asghar To Say Little, But That Little As Good As

He Can Make It.


Asghar’s First Book, I Nhat-I-Ruh, Appeared In

December, 1925, And His Other Volume, Sawde Zindgi,

Early In 1935. When We Read The Two Volumes Together

We Notice Now A Firmer Touch, And Hear A Surer Note,

But We Miss The First Fine Careless Rapture. There Is

More Of Joyousness And Exuberance In The Earlier Verse;

Shades Of The Prison-House Have Darkened Much Of His

More Recent Work. But In The Increased Thoughtful-

Ness, In The Philosophic Outlook, In The Width And Depth

Of His Vision, We Find Abundant Recompense.


A Few Specimens Of His Work Will Illustrate What

I Mean. I Shall Not Attempt A Translation. None But

Lovers Of Urdu Will Read This Article, And They Will Be

Grateful If I Leave Them The Original Words Of The Poet,

Imspoilt By A Halting Prose Rendering. 1 Shall First

Quote Those Lines In Which He Deals With The All-

Sufficing Character Of Love, In Which Love Effaces Every-

Thing Else, And Is Best Fulfilled When All Distinction Of

“Thee” And “Me” Is Removed.








Poets And Poetry



Phb Mam Nazar Aya, Na Tamasha Nazar Ay A

Jab Iii Nazar Aya Mujhe Tanha Nazar Uyap


‘Masti Men Jaroghe Ruhhe Janan Nahin Dekha

Sunte Hain Baliar Ayi, Gulistan Nahin Dekhap


’ ‘’Kya Kya Hua Hangame Junoon  Yih Nahin Maloonn

Kuchh Hmh Jo Aya To Gareban Nahin Dekhaj*


Nigahe Ya  O Ahe Ashiqan O Nalaye-Bubul


Maazallah ! Kitni Suraten Hain Unke Paikan


  • Ham Ek Bar Jalwaye Jananana Dckhte


Phir Kaba Dekhte Na Sanam Khana Dekhtep


“”‘Sau Bar Tera Daman Hathon Men Mere Aya,


Jab Ankk Khuli Dekha Apna Hi Gareban Haij’


Jahan Hai Ki Nahin? Jismojan Bhi Hui Hi Nafiin


Woh Dekhtei Hai Mujhe J Usko Dehhta Him Mainp

” Yun Muskiraye Jan Si Kaliyon Men Par Gari,


Yun Labkusha Huye Ki Gulistan Bana Diya


“‘Raq’ie Masti Dekhte Joshe Tamasha Dekhu\


Samne Lakar Tujhe Apna Tamasha Dekhtej”


‘‘Hath Men Leke Jame May Aj Woh Muskara Diya,


Aql Ko Sard Kar Diya Ruh Ho Jagmaga Diyap


Then There Are Numerous Verses In Which Deep Truths

Are Expressed, And Philosophic Ideas Merge Into Artis-

Tic Expression. There Is Demand For A Life That Knows

No Longing. Life Is Spoken Of As Partly A Dream, In

Part Reality, And Partly An Attitude Long Years Of

Sufiering And Ecstasy And Varied Experience Have

Failed To Solve The Riddle Of Life. The Dust And The

Stars Are Essentially One. Wine-Biber, Cup-Bearer, Wine-

Cup — All These Are Merely Manifestations Of The One

Truth — Wine. In This World There Is No Peace, No











Quiet, No Happiness; The One True Happiness Lies In.

Living In A World Of Our Own Creation. T Ese And

Other Snatches Of Asghar’s Thought We Can Glean From

His Verses. In All This There Is A Sense Of Distress And

Dejection. The Cup Of Life Has Been Drained By Him

To The Dregs, And He Finds It No More Than Gall And

Wormwood. He Has Heard The Music Of Life But There

Is A Rift M The Lute And The Sound Is One Of Discord.

Such Happiness As Is Possible Is To Be Found Only Irt

Dreams And Fancies And Poetic Visions. If He Laughs

It Is That He May Not Weep. Death Is The Fruition Of



‘”Muskaraye Jata Hun, Ashk Ixihtc Jale Hain —


Cham Ka Kam Leta Hurt Aish Ke Tarane Se.”


‘”Maye-Berang Ka Sau Rang Se Mswa Hona,


Kabhi Maykash, Kabhi Saqi, Kabhi Mina Hona.”


“Main Yeh Kalita Hun Fana Ko Bhi Ata Kar Zindgi,


Tu, Kamale Zindgi, Icahta Hai, Mar Jane Men Hat.”


“Tamam Daftare Hikmat Ulat Gaya Hun Main,


Magar Khula Na Abki Tak Kalian Hun   Kya Him Main ■


“Rahi Hai Hhak Ke Zarrpn Men Bin Chamak Meri,


Kabhi Kabhi To Sitaron Men Mil Gaya Hun Main”


“Santa Hun Bare Ghaur Se Afsanaye Hasd.


Kuchh Khwab Hai, Kuchh Asl Hai, Kuchh Tarze Ada Hai.”


“Is Jahane-Ghair Men Aram Kya? Rahat Kahan


Lutf Jab Hai Apni Dunya Ap Paida Kijiye.”


Like The Day-Dreams Of Melancholy Men, Asghar Thinks

And Thinks On Things Impossible, Yet Loves To Wonder

In That Golden Maze. A Word Of Tribute Is Due To The

Unfailing Melody Of His Verse. His Single Lines Are








Poets And Poetry



‘Nemorable Altogether, The Authentic Note Of Poetry

Can Be Heard In His Ghazals And There Are Few Ghazals

Which Do Not Please And Surprise Us By Some Originality

Of Expression Or New Turn Of Thought Or An Arresting








Syed Majid Ali Was Government Pleader At Allah-

Abad; And He Died A Few Months Ago At An Early Age

He Was Bubbling With Life; He Seemed To Possess The

Secret Of Perpetual Youth. He Was Witty And His Fund

Of Anecdote Was Inexhaustible His Good Nature Dis-

Armed Every Form Of Criticism. No One Appealed To’

Him In Vain For Help In Any Good Cause He Had A

Genius For Friendship. Grave And Gay, Young And Old,

Hindu And Muslim — He Seemed To Be Part Of Every

Sort Of Company This Man, Whom Many Called Friend

And Whom I Had Known For About Twenty-Five Years,

Is Dead, Leaving Behmd A Slender Volume Of Verse, Re-

Cently Published Under The Title, Y Ad Gar-) -Majid


Majid Had A Very Special Place Among Contempo-

Rary Writers Of The Ghazal. He Did Not Soar High In

Search Of Mystic Wisdom; The Depths Of Philosophy Were

Not For Him, Not The Vague Vapourings Of The Moralist

He Knew That The Ghazal Is A Love Lyric, And In The

Delineation Of The Many Phases Of Love He Attamed

Supreme Skill. His Individuality Is Impressed Unmis-

Takably On His Poems, And As We Read Them We Recall

The Entrancing Melody Of His Voice, The Wistful Expres-

Sion Of His Face, The Eloquent Appeal Of His Eyes, As He

T..At In Muihairas, Winning The Applause Both Of The

Many And Of The Understanding Few.


The Editor Has Wisely Printed The Date Of The Com-

Position Of Each Ghazal. We See That In His Later Verse

There Is More Sureness Of Touch, Greater Confidence, A

Fuller Control Over Feeling, More Thought, Emotion,










Poilts And Poetry



Strong Indeed But Subdued, The Depth And Not The

Tumult Of The Soul What Further Point Of Excellence

He Would Have Touched Had He Lived Longer, Who Can

Say? For What He Has Achieved Let Us Be Grateful


Yad Ar4-Majid Does Not Contain All Majid’s Poems;

It Is A Selection. We Wish We Had Before Us All That

He Wrote; For Much That Has Been Omitted Is Of Value,

And We Should Have Preferred Posterity To Choose And

Select. Here Are Some Verses Treasured In The Memory,

But Not Included In This Book:


J Aa Rahe Hain Qahre Majid Par Ivp Yeh Lahte Hue.


Ham Jise Jhoolta Samajhte The Wahi Sachcha Hua.


2 Zindgi Bhar To Fasana Dil Ica Dil Hi Men Raha,


Ilashr Ke Din Bhi Bayan Hota Hai Kjonkar Dekhi E,


3 Maikade Ko Hazrate Majid Has Ah Apna Salam.


Door Baiihe Baithe Kah Tak Daiir Esaghar Delhi) E.


4>, Haqiqat Ka Pata Usko Mila Shorida Sar Hokar


Tere Wahshi Ne Khole Raze-Alam Dar-Ha-Dar Hokar.


But Let Us Turn To Some Of The Verses Printed In The

Volume. They Will Bear Evidence To The Great Lyrical

Gift Of The Poet, His Deep Sensitiveness, His Keen Emo-

Tion, And His Love Of Love :


1 Kya Bat Thi Maloom Nahin Unki Nazar Men,


Ik Phans Si Chuhhti Hai Usi Din Se Jigar Men.


  1. Easrut Liye Ay A Tha Hari As Lagae,


Hasrat He Liye A Phi Mahfil Se Utlia Main,


  1. Manziledshq Voo Manzil Hai Li Ismen Majid


Eh Has Dardeqigar Mhnuma Hota Hai,


  1. Kub Marize-Gham Ye Hahta Hai Hi Achcha Hijiye,


Han Magar Jita Rahe Bimar Itna Kijiye,


5 Kisi Ka Tir Pahlu Men Liye Mahshar Men Jayenge,


Yahi Apni Zaban Hogi Yahi Apna Bayan Hoga.











) Mila Lui Anlji Ji&Ho Il Nazar Turn Dekh Lefe Ho,


E O Lahta Hai Quyamat Tak Yahi Tasveer Dehhen R,

  1. Ye Sunte Rahe Iimr Hhar Hakre-Ghaip Men,


Zara Bark Chalo Aur  Sahil Yahi Iiai,


Ap Ne Hhi Tvahshiyon Ka Kya Bigare Hain Mizaj

Cal Imisa Koi Kakin Yan Chah Daman Hogaya,


0 Dekh Kar Ma/Id Ne Unlo Sar Jhulaya Hashr Men,

Aar Ik Ilzam Jeh Balae-Gardan Ho Aya


.Tf Bichhur Jana Hla Aprte Qafile Se Lya Qayamat Jwt,

Aazar <Ita Hai Begana Ghuharediariean Ham Se,


. !. Charnan Se Hat Le Apna Ashiyan Haiy

Magar Itna Hhi Duniya Ko Garan Hai.


2 Zara Thahre Hue Arman Tvalo,


Hamare Sath Hhi Ik Karuan Hal

. Higahe Naz Hhi Mujhpar Pari Tin.


Usi Par Ik Zamana Badguman Hai,


Z I Phir To Duniya Ye Khuda Jane Kahe Kya Mujiilo,

Kahdo Ik Bar Zahan Se Agar Apna Mujhko.


.5 Turn Jo Ajao To Is Dil Men Ujala Hojacn

Nazar Ata Hai Andhera Hi Andheru Mujfiko,


Ii Ai Ghazab Loot Liya  Loot Liya, Loot Liya,


Tere Hi Bandon Ne Dekar Tera Dhoka Mujhko.


  1. Jto Husn Husn Tha Jo Benaqab Ho Na Saka.


Wo Iskq Ishq Tha Jisse Hijab Ko Na Saka,


“U Le Husn Ka Dil Se Jawah Ho Na Sala.


Sitara Lakh Harha Ajtab Im Na Saka.


  1. Zabaneaiusn Ne Khud Ishq Ko Puhara Iha


Nmih Usle Jo Hazir Jawab Ho Na Saka.


  1. Zamin Lal Hui Khoon Se Skahidon Ke.


Nigahe Sholh Ka Tere Jaimb Ho Na Saha.


  1. Bari Umid Se Aye The Hashr Men Majids

Yahan Bin Iin C Safahoqauah Ho Na Sake*





‘Asar’ And His Poetry


Mirza Jafar Ali Khan, B.A, Khan Bahadur, Is A

Distinguished Member Of The Civil Service, And Occu-

Pies The Responsible Position Of A District Officer. He Is

A Gentleman Of Wide Culture, Well Read M English Lite-

Rature, And Deeply Interested In European Poetry Gene-

Rally. He Has Been Able Even In The Midst Of Heavy

Administrative Duties To Keep Up His Interest In The

Humanities, Not Merely By Reading Classical And Cur-

Rent Literature, But By Making Rich And Valuable Con-

Tributions Of His Own To Urdu Literature. He Occupies

A Position Of Great Eminence Among Contemporary

Critics; His Studies And Reviews Are Characterised By

Ripe Judgment, Fine Taste, And Freedom From Narrow

Partisanship. With Unerring Penetration He Sifts The

Valuable From The Worthless, And What Is Of Lasting

Interest From What Serves Merely To Please For A

Moment. His Prose Style Is Lucid And Graceful And Has

The Easy Flow Of Effortless Conversation. It Is Embel-

Lished By Echoes From Persian And English; It Is Free

Nevertheless From The Pedantry Of The Professed Scho-

Lar. His Conversation Has A Rare Charm On Occasions

When He Gets Rid Of His Shy Reserve And Has A Congenial

Set Of Persons To Talk To; He Does Not Talk Much, But

Whatever He Says Is Weu Worth Listening To, For It Is The

Result Of Long And Deep Tiiought, It Expresses Always

A Personal Point Of View And It Is Not Merely Repetition

Of What Others Have Said.











Distinctive Style


‘Asar’ Is Likely To Be Remembered For His Critical

Work Because There Is So Little Of Good Criticism In

Urdu; But He Is Certain Also To Be Regarded As One Of

The Leading Poets Of This Generation. He Has ’Written

Ghazais, Rubais, Nazms; He Has Translated Dramas; He

Has Rendered Dante Into Urdu Verse; He Has Composed

Niarsias. He Has Attempted These Verse Forms With

Unique Success He Has Produced Some Good Long

Poems Too And While He Has A Distinctive Style, He

Is Not A Bigoted Follower Of Any School Of Writers. Bom

In Lucknow, And Trained In The Tradition Of Lucknow,

He Has Yet Close Affinities With ‘Meer’ And The Poets Of

Delhi. He Has The Simplicity Of The Delhi Poets And

The Technical Perfection Of Those Of Lucknow; He Unites

The Best Features Of Both, And It Is Significant That His

Favourite Poet Is ‘Meer’. Indeed, ‘Meer’, ‘Atish’, And

‘Ghalib’ Are The Three Masters Who Seem To Have In-

Fluenced Him Most Deeply.


Life And Wcurks


Mirza Jafar Ah Khan Was Born In Lucknow In

July, 1885. He Was Educated At The Jubilee High

School, From Where He Passed Out In 1902 He Then

Joined The Canning College, Still Glorying In The Tradi-

Tions Left By Dr. White, And He Graduated From The

Allahabad University In 1906. In 1909 He Was Appoint-

Ed To The Provincial Civil Service, And He Is Now One

Of The Senior Officers Of That Service. Occupied In

Executive Work, Touring Over A District, Settling Crimi-

Nal Cases, Busy With The Necessary But Sordid Task Of

Ordeiing Prosecutions And Doing Settlement Work And








Poets And Poetry



Listening To Unending Legal Quiddits, Quillets, Cases,

Tenures And Tricks —  Mirza Jafar Ali Khan Has Yet

Managed To Woo And Win The Most Jealous, The Most

Attractive, And The Most Wayward Of The Muses. Nor

Has His Love Of Poetry Been A Mere Pastime To Amuse

An Idle Hour. He Has Practised It As An Art He Has

Scorned Dehghts And Lived Laborious Days. He Has Made

A Thorough Study Of The Masters And The Range Of His

Knowledge Is Encyclopaedic. He Has Assiduously Pur-

Sued The Craft Of Poetry And He Has The Craftsman’s

Pride In The Use Of His Material. The Love Of Fine

Phrases, The Desire To Experiment, The Care Which He

Exercises In The Choice Of Metre, The Pains That He

Takes To Make His Poetry Attractive, Prove That He Is

An Artist Of Rare Excellence. His Poetry, Like The Fair

Bride Of Giacopone Di Todi, Is Fair And On Its Front

Youth Glows Like A Star, And It Is Decked With Gay

Raiment; It Is Radiant. But Thought And Austerity Are

Both Present, In Ample Measure To Gladden The Soul

Of Matthew Arnold.


His Published Volume Is Not Large. Indeed, I Be-

Lieve That Only Two Books Of His Have Been Published

So Far. His Diwan. Asanstan, Appeared As Long Ago

As 1924, With An Elaborate Introduction By The Late

Maulana Azeez. The Second Publication Of His, A

Translation Of A Drama ‘Lady Azure’, Appeared In 1939.

I Am Not Aware Of Any Other Volume Of His Published

Work. But I Have Read Regularly His Poems As They

Have Appeared In Magazines And Journals, And I Have

Also Listened To Some Of Them At Mushairas. A Volume

Of His Collected Verse Has Long Been Overdue, And It Is

Hoped That It Will Soon Be Published A Definitive











Opinion M Regard To His Work Can Only Be Formed

After A Careful Study Of All That He Has Written. But A

Tentative Impression May Perhaps Also Not Be Entirely

Without Value. He Is By No Means Old, And Many

More Years Of Useful Activity And Poetic Effort Are

Before Him. His Work Cannot Therefore Be Valued In

Its Entirely. It Is Not Complete Yet.


Simplicity And Directness


I Have Said That ‘Meer’ Is One Of His Major Poetic

Heroes, And It Is Remarkable How In This Late Age ‘Asar’

Has Succeeded In Attaining The Simplicity And Direct-

Ness Of Language And Style So Distinctive Of Meer. One

Notices Too With Pleasure The Large Number Of Hindi

Words He Employs Without Any Hesitation. One Comes

Across Such Words As Madbhari Dnkhen; Ro : Papi,

Ralnari  Udasi  Amrit  Dhyan; Cliitian; Mad, Pgu Jalu

Man; Rasiya. This Is A Very Welcome Sign, And One

Would Wish More Urdu Poets Would Follow His Example.

A Tribute Is Due Also To The Lucidity Of His Style And

The Simple And Straightforward And Easy Manner In

Which *Asar’ Writes. It Is Of Course A Truism Of Critic-

Ism That Ease Of Style Comes Only To The Masters, And

That Words Of Thundering Sound, Abstruse, Obscure,,

Mark The Writings Of Those Who Are Still In Their Novi-



  1. * Dil Ishq Ki May $E Ahhalak Raha Kai,


Ik Pkool Hai Jo Malmk Raha Hau

Ankhen Kab Ki Baras Chuhi Ham


Kaunda Ab Tak Lapak Raha Kal

Ab Aye Bahar Ya Na Aye


Ankhon Se Lahoo Tapak Raha Hai








Poets And Poetry



Kis Ne Wahshiye “Asar Ko Chhera


Diwar Se Sar Patak Ralm Hai\


2 Na Sunana Tha Jisko  Aj Iisho,


Majra-E-Alam Suna Baithe


Dhyan Ms Se Laga Hua Hai  A&Ar?


Sochte Rahte Ho Yik Kya Hmthe


  1. Kpi Dll Per Hath Rakh Kar Uth Gaya.


Hath Ab Dil Se Uthaoon Kis Tar Ah?


Bhoolne Wale Se Koi Puckhta


Mam Tujhe Dil Se Bhuladoon Kis Tarah


Mere Kahne Men Nahm Hai Dil, Asar


Is Ko Samjhaoon Bujhaoon Kis Tarah?


  1. Idhar Iekh Lena, Udhar Dekh Leno


Phir Unki Taraf Ik Nazar Dekh Lena.


Iv Oh Mera Na Kahne Men Kah Jana Sab Huchlu

Woh Unka Achanak Idhar Dekh Lena

‘Asar\ Arz-E-Kal Us Se, Be Soche Samihe


Kaha Tha Ki Pahle Nazar Dekh Lena


  1. Jab Suna Yon Hi Suna Tumne Hi Goya Na Suna

Phir Ghalat Kya Hai Kabhi Hal Hamara Na Suna?


(H Pherm Hun Jo Udhar Se Dtl Ko

Dll Udhar Aur Chala Jala Hau


  1. Ijihrata Aur Lahra


Jharm Ha Woh Rasiya — Pank

Matka  Thirka Aur Gat Nacha


Albela, Matwala


Pet Ko Pakre Mare Hansi Ke

Baitha, Uttha, Lota, Pam\


Dali Doth Path P  K

Khub Hi Jhoola Jhoola Panl











Nature Poetry


Description Of Nature And Painting Of Landscape

Are To Be Found In Several Urdu Poets. But This Kind

Of Theme Is Attempted Usually In Verse Forms Other

Than The Ghazal. The Ghazal Is Rightly Regarded As

Having For Its Especial Theme The Subject Of Love. But

The Persian — And Urdu — Tradition Has Borrowed So

Many Images And Symbols From Nature For Use In

Love-Poetry That It Seems No Violent Departure From

Convention To Introduce Nature-Description Into The

Ghazal The Constancy And Patience Of The Stars; The

Devotion Of The Moth; The Heart Break M The Life Of

!The Singing Bird; The Cruelty Of The Lightning; The

Vigour Imparted By The Spring Breeze —  These And Many

Other Phenomena Of Nature Are The Oft-Recurring

Themes Of Love Poetry. But They Are Generally Used

Only For Purposes Of Illustration And As Pointing A

Moral. Real Enthusiasm For Nature, Delight In It For

Its Own Sake, Joy In It As A Mere Spectacle —  This Is

Hard To Find In The Ghazal. ‘Asar’ Has Succeeded In

Describing Nature In And Through The Ghazal Again

And Again We Light Upon Beautiful Word Pamtings Of

A Natural Scene. We Notice Also Several Instances Of

Ruskin’s ‘Pathetic Fallacy’.


  1. Bjian Barsat. Aur Yih F Hup Andkeraf

Andlusra Ap Sar Tahra Raha Hoi


2 Suhagin Rat Ka Dhalta Hat Kajal.


,J. It Oh ]0 Na Aye, Hadal Chhaye, Gaije. Hrirse, Khulbhi Gaye,

Like Siwa Ham Hijr Ice Mare Kya Janen Harsaton Ko?

Sunkc Pay Am. Sabah Ka Ghunche Laraz Laraz Gaye.


Jab Ho Yih !Ml-E~Nazuki, Hath Koi Lagaye Kyon?








Poets And Poetry



  1. Isaklmda Iie Jab Sunaya Miizdaye-Sahil Mujhc.


Bark Ice Hhnmat Nc Kaha,  Aghoshe-Lujan Chahiy


  1. Hat Sham La Waq% Dam Bakhud Hai Sahil


Kuhsar Pai Ehhaya Hai Sukoot-E-Kamil,


Fitrat Ki Khamoshiyon Men Goyayi Hai,


Mahfil Ko Hai Intazare-Mecr-C-Mahfil


7 Pardc Men Kali Le Muslarad Ayi

Aghi)Sh Men Gul He Lahlahuti Ayi>,


Angara} Iy An Leti Hut Jagi Har Shalji —


Albeit Hahar Gunganati Ayl


  1. Haul Phir Aisi Dil Men Samayi


Girta, Parta, Bhaga, Panu

Bhool Ke Pichhc Mur Ke Na Dekha.


Is Darja Tha Sahma Paul

Rafta, Rafta, Phir Tha Khilandra,


Naddi Se Chheente Kheta Panl

Soojki Samandar Se Jo Thathol,


Aisu Dooba Na Ubhra Panl


Excellent Similes


Before Dealing With The Thought— Content Of Asar S

Poetry Perhaps It Is Well To Advert For A Moment To The

Excellence Of His Similes.


  1. Hasraten Dil Se Yun Chaleen Jmse

Ghol Udasi Faqiron Ka Jaye


  1. Hasrat-E Arze-Tamanna Men Jo Lazzat Hai, M Pm Hh ,

Saz Men Itne Bhare Naghme M Khanmsh Hua.


  1. 7ih Shauq Deed Men Ankhon Ka Rang Hai Jaise

Achanak Ayine Men Aftah Dekh Liya>


4 Mast Ainkhon Pai Ghani Palkon Ka Saya Yun Tha,


Ki Ho Maykhane Pai Ghangho/ Glmta Chhayi Imi,











5 . Jluipki Zara ]0 Ankh, Jaivani Guzar Gayi,


Badh Ki Chhaon Thi, Idhar Ayi, Udhar Gayi-


The Freshness, Originality, And Aptness Of The?

Similes Are Very Striking.


What Shall I Sing, Asked A Poet Of ‘The Naughty

Nineties’, When All Is Sung And Every Tale Is Told?

Voices From The Old Dead Year Still Go On Singing; The

Dead Men Know The Tunes To Which The Live World

Dances Love And Dreams And Aspiration; The Rain-

Bow’s Glory, Music And Splendour, The Devotion To Some-

Thing Afar; The River’s Trembling Edge And The Serene

Lights Of Heaven; Rose Leaves, And Little Rills Of Crimson

Wine, And Veiled Melancholy, And Divine Melodious

Truth — Have These Not All Been Sung By Bards Of Pas-

Sion And Of Mirth? There Is An Influential Section Of

Thinkers Who Are Of Opinion That There Is Such A Thing

As ‘Progressive’ Literature. Modernist Literature We

Know: Every Age Has Its Own Modernist Creation; Every

Age Looks Upon The One Immediately Preceding It As

Having Been Reactionary. But ‘Progressive’ Literature

Is Intended To Be A Synonjnn For Literature As Propa-

Ganda For A Special Brand Of Politics And Economics. I£

Progress In Literature Means Innovation In Technique

Discovery Or Invention Of New Melodies And Harmonies,

New Literary Forms And Media, The Phrase Has Some

Meaning And Justification. It Is Meaningless If The

Implication Is Something Else. The Themes Of Literature

Cannot Be New. At Most There May Be A Shift Of

Emphasis, A New Sense Of Values, A Change Of Perspec-

Tive. Belief In Progress; Faith In Energy And Strength;

Glorification Of Hanger And Dirt And Rags — Even These

Are Not New. The Cult Of Ughness Is Not New Either,







Poets And Poetby



Nor The Sense Of Futility Or Frustration Which Seems To

Be The Epoch-Making Contribution Of The Philosophy Of

Today. Aspiration, Effort, Endeavour, Courage; Dissatis-

Faction With The Sorry Scheme Of Things Entire — At No

Period Have These Ceased To Be The Concern Of Men Of

Letters. What Has Differed And Is Bound To Continue

To Differ, In Any Country Where Individuality Is Not

Ruthlessly Suppressed And Where Opinion And Outlook

And Temperament Are Not Slate-Made, Is The Artist’s

Own Point Of View, His Philosophy. Burton Anatomised

Melancholy; H. G. Wells Anatomises Frustration. These

Are Merely Fashionable Poses, And In The Main The

Artist Preserves His Own Independence. Jaques, An-

Tonio, Hamlet Are Portraits In Melancholy, But Melan-

Choly Is Not The Beginning Or End Of Shakespeare’s

Pre-Occupation. In The Artist’s House Are Many Man-



Sincerity Of Emotion


As One Reads Asar’s Verses One Notices Naturally

Ihe Lines Where He Deals With The Favourite Topics Of

Wine And Sin. Here And There One Finds A Statement

Of What May Be Called His Poetic Creed. Then There

Are Thoughts On Life And Life’s Problems And The End Of

Life. The Final Impression Created By His Love-Poetry

Ss A Consistent And Healthy One I Shall Revert Pre-

Sently To His Philosophy.


Shu’er Hat To Is, Tarah Tainatluu Ho,


Fitrat Tere Andaz Ki Shaidayi Ho,


Ayat-O-Isharat Ka Markaz Ho Dil,


Liar That Men Nazar, Nazar Men Gpyayi Ho.











And There Is A Maqta ;


Lame E-Khali Ho Chhalahte Kabhi Dekha Hai, “Asur?


Hher Men Josh Kahan, Dil Men Agar Josh Nahin?


The Significant Point To Notice Here Is The Import-

Ance Which He Attaches To Sincerity, To Genumeness Of

Emotion. There Is No Pose, No Artificiality In His

Poetry. High-Sounding Words Alone Do Not Constitute

Poetry, The Swell Of Soul Must He There Too. Sincerity

Brings About Spontaniety. Whether The Prevailing

Mood Be One Of Joy Ana Exaltation Or One Of Pain And

Depression, The Underlying Sincerity Is Unmistakable.

It Is Not Merely His Brains That Beat Into Rhythm, But,

Like Christina Rosetti’s. His Heart Is Like A Singing Bird.


T Am Tjing Up All My Love In Tills,


“Ith All Its Hopes And Fears,


With All Its Anguish And All Its Bliss.


And Its Hours As Heavy As Years.


This Absorption In Art And Complete Identification Of

Himself With It Is One Of The Chief Characteristics Of

Asar’s Poetry.


The Preacher And The Poet


The Preacher Foretells That The Garlands Will

Wither On The Brow, And Promises A Country Far Be-

Yond The Stars Where Grows The Rose That Cannot Fade,

And Draws A Picture Of The Day Of Judgment, When Will

Be Heard The Shrill Cries Of The Guilty Wretches And The

Eye Will Behold The Lofty Judge Frowning. But Young

Love Heeds Him Not. A Pint Of Wine Clears All Regrets

And Fears, And Is Better Than The Dreams Of Paradise.

Sinners And Pious Men Are Alike God’s Creatures And








Poets And Poetry



Will Meet Together In Death. And Sin Also Can But

Exist Within The Four Corners God’s Own World.


1 . Jaie Kahan Khudai Ke Bakar Gunahgarf

Teri Zamin Na Thi Id Ter A Asmdn Na Tha?


2 . Zahid! Zdkidl Aishe Jannat Maalum!


Kya Mujhko Nahin Rangetabiyat Maalum?


Lutfe Mayo Shahid Se Jo Be Bahra Ho,


Munh Usko Lagayen Ho 0 Ren  Jmzra% Maalumi


Those Who Renounce The Pleasures Of The Earth Have

Set Their Eyes On The Pleasures To Come, Attracted As

They Are By The Brave Music Of A Distant Drum. When

There Is So Much Spread On All Sides Of Us, Mirth And

Sunshine And Song, How Ungrateful Must We Be To Shun

It All And Allow A Drab, Dull, Uninspiring Morality To

Expunge And Rase The Books Of Knowledge Fair And Let

Only Cloud And Ever-Enduring Dark Surround Us?


1 . Hamin Mahroom Kain Ik Jam Se , Allak! Allald

Daur Par Dour Teri Bazm Men Chalte Dekha,


2 . Meri Tauba Se Tauha Hai, Pita Saqi, Pila Saqi

Karoonga Khum Le Khum Ijialt. Dame Maylhana Uruyi.


3 . Shab Id Bedariyan  Are Tauba!


Cjikup Le Mayhhwariyan  Are Tauhat

Dam Us Nargise Lhumari La.


Apni Sarshariyauy Are Tauba.


4 ,. Tere Iionton Ha Tabassum, Teri Anhhon Ha Khumar


Unlo Hhi, Saqi! Shareel-Eqam Hona Chahhiye.


5 . Kuchh Nam Par Unke Bhi May Aj Luia Saqiy

Ik Jwn Hi Kasrat Men Jo Nth Gaye Duniya Se.


5 . Aisi Tauba Se To Maykhar Hi Rahna Tha, Asar


Du Par Ik Hath Hai, Ik Hath Men Saghar Toota.











  1. Us Pai Bhi Chha Rahi Hai Masti Hat,


Maykade Ko Jo Rah Jati Hal

  1. Amada Nakin Dil Mera Tauba Shikani Par,


Sagi Abhi Zikre Maye Gulf Am Kiye Ja,


Lakh Neeyat Ki, Magar Tvayaz He Kya Kijije/


Jab Khyale Tauba Aya, Samne Jam Agctya,


H). Hone Do, Agar Wa Dure Maykhana Him Hai


Saqi Ka Tasawwur Hi Maye Hoshruba Hai,


]]. Mujhe To Hash Nahln, Tu Hi Kuchh Ham, Saqi,

Kariskmaye Nigahemast Hai? Hi Paimam?


Na Larhharaye Qadam, Hukm Hai Yih Saqi Ka,


Skarab Shauq Se Labrez De Le Paimana.


Asar’s Lo% C Foetry


I Said That Aspiration And Endeavour Are No New

Notes In Literature. But In Urdu Poetry And In The

Hazal Especially There Is An Attitude Of Fatalism, A

Supine Attitude, An Attitude Of Helplessness And Hope-

Lessness And Resignation. Quiet Murmur Or Silent

Suffering; If There Is Any A Cry Of Despair; Even

On The Day Of Judgment No Hope Of Redress; At Best

The Fond Hope That The Beloved May Visit One’s Grave;

Fretting, Whining; Rarely A Note Of Rapture, Happiness

And Exaltation; What Is Writ Is Writ; At The Most, A

Look Of Pity, Faint Regret, Mild Wonder On The Part

Of Beloved M Whose Service Youth And Wealth And

Even Sanity Are Sacrificed —  This Is The Impression Pro-

Duced By The Ghazal Generally. There Are Minor Vari-

Ations Of Course; Light Raillery, And Threat Of Divine

Justice, And Attacks On The Favoured Rival; But On The

Whole The Effect Is Not One Of Health Or Manliness Or

Strength Of Thew And Sinew. It Is True Also That In








Poets And Poetry



Spite Of The Laboured Efforts Of Commentators Much Of

This Love Poetry Is On A Low Plane; It Is Sensual; The

Ethereal Love Celebrated By The Metaphysicals Rarely

Figures M It. Much Of This Poetry Cannot Escape The

Charge Of Insincerity And Superficiality. In ‘Asar’,

However, The Love Is Intellectual And Even Spiritual,

Without Ceasing To Be Human. It Longs, But There Is

Aspiration Rather Than Satisfaction. Fruition Spells

Ruin. A Veil Will For Ever Keep The Lover And The

Beloved Apart.


Haya Shewaye Husn, Adab Sharut-Ulfat,


Mile Bhi To Apas Men Parda Raliega.


‘Asar’ Approximates Closely To What Pater Calls

The Formula Of Plato’s Genius, The Essential Condition

Of The Specially Platonic Temper, Which He Describes In

These Words: ‘The Lover, Who Is Become A Lover Of The

Mvisible, But Still A Lover, And Therefore, Literally, A

Seer, Of It, Carrying An Elaborate Cultivation Of The

Bodily Senses, Of Eye And Ear, Their Natural Force And

Acquu’ed Fineness — Gifts Akin Properly To The Disciplme

Of Sensuous Love —  Mto The World Of Intellectual Abstrac-

Tions; Seeing And Hearing There Too, Associatmg For

Ever All The Imagery Of Things Seen With The Conditions

Of What Primarily Exists Only For The Mind, Filling That

‘Hollow Land’ With Delightful Colour And Form, As If

Now At Last The Mind Were Veritably Dealing With Liv-

Ing People There, Living People Who Play Upon Us

Through The Affinities, The Repulsion And Attraction, Of

Persons Towards One Another, All The Magnetism, As

We Call It, Of Actua’ Human Friendship Or Love.’


1 . Ishq Saqi, Ishq Mutrib, Iskq Masti, Ishq May,


Iskq Hi Paimanaye Maykhvcar Hona Chakiye.











  1. Mujhe Samhale Tha Dil Ko Mam Sambhale Iha

Nagahan Hawa Ayi Janib-E-Guhstan Se


Koi To Shafaq Samjka  Koi Gard Rang-Alood»


Dur   Asar T Bahar Uni Guzri Ahaue-Zmdan Se


  1. Agah Nahm Ishq Ke Aghaz Se Koif


Kya Mz Hai Waqif Nahin Is Raz Se Kol

Duzdeeda Nigah, Lab Pai Hansi  Anhhon Men Shokhl

Phir Dekh Le Mujhho Usi Andaz Se Koi


  1. Mmhko Jawab Saj Na De Iltamas Ka


A Bad. Rahne De Charnan Ummid-O-Yas La*


  1. Hua To Hashr Ke Dm Unka Samna Lekin


Ilujoom’e-Am Men Kya Arz-E’-Muddaa Harte?


  1. Puchhnewale! Iu Ne Puchha Lutf, Karam, Ehsan Kiya;

Lab Par Aye Harf-Euamanna  Ishq Ke Yih Adah Nahm,


  1. Na Ghabrao, Aseerof Phir Charnan Men Ashiyan Hoga

Gul Apna  Bagh Apna Ctur Apna Baghban Hoga,


  1. Taseer Dard-Enhl Mem Yarahl Kahan Ki Bhardi”


Us Ne Bhi Aj Akkir Chupke Se Ah Kardl


  1. Mazaq-E4shq Ho Kamil To Soorat-E-Shabnarn,


Kinar Gul Men Rahe Aur Pakbaz Rahe*


  1. Apni Wafa Na Unki Jafaon Ka Hosh Tha,


Kya Din The Jabki Dil Men Muhabbat Ka Josh Tha*


  1. Wohi Unse Kah Raha Hun Ki Jo Unka Mvddaa Half

Nahin Misle Dil Zaban Par Bhi Ab Akhtyar Apna.


  1. Baitha Hun Rahguzar Men Ivye Jins-E-Ashiqi*


Is Se Gharaz Nahm Id Kharidar Kaun Hal


  1. Hijr Men Rahat Hi Rahat Hai Naseeb


Dard-E-’Dil Men Lab Pai Tera Nam Hau


  1. Main Ag Men Apni Jalta Hun Main A Phi Apna Skaida




Parwane! Apne Imsk Men Rah  Kya Mujkko Ishq Sikhata













Poets And Poetey



15, Kdun Anar Ki Nazar Men Samara?


Delia Hmn Usne Tumhari Ankheru

3 6, Kuchh Bhi Na Nazar Aye  Fun Mahw-E4ammha Im*


Phir Iekk Asur  Tajhko Kja Kya Nazar Ata Hol


  1. Main Kra Sunami Darde Muhahbal: Ka

Had Ho Gayi Li Tumse Sinkarat Nahin Raid


  1. Kabhi Sun /E, Li Dilkask Dastan Hai


Zaban Meri Hai, Aur Tera Bay An Hat,


  1. Hal Puchha Tha To Is Turah Na Puchim Hota


Rah Gayi Arz-E4amunna Ki Tamanna Mujhko,


  1. Yahin Sab Ko Hir Phir Ke Ana Parega,


Muhahhat Ko Rnurkaz Banana Parega.


  1. Unko Samjhata Hai Ate Hain }O Samjhane Io*


Kaun Diwana Kakega Tere Diwana Ko?


  1. Main Tasalh Se Ten Baz Ayum

Sabr Kuchh Aur Chala Jata Hol


  1. Wasl Hasil Nahin, To Mumkm Hai,.


Jo Bhi Dm Hm Uph Id Ka Din Hal


Asar S Pliilosophy Of Life


Asar’ Has Many Passages In Which He Deals With

Other Fundamental Problems Of Life And Expresses

Views That Indicate His Sturdy Optimism. Life Accord-

Mg To Him Is Activity, Change, Progress. He Expresses

Himself Not M The Manner Of The Dogmatist, But *He

Cometh With Words Set In Delightful Proportion’. He

Phrases Have Power And Charm. And It Seems To Me

That Ms Philosophy Is In The Ultimate Analysis Akin To

That Of The Cyrenaic School, Founded By Aristippus,

Whose Opinion Was Thus Summed Up By Ferrier: “The

True Epic Of Humanity— The Epic Which Is In A Constant

Course Of Evolution From The Beginning Until The End











Of Time, The Epic Which Is Daily Poured Forth From

The Heart Of The Whole Human Race, Sometimes In Re-

Joicing Paeans, But Oftener Amid Woeful Lamentation,

Tears, And Disappointed Hopes, —  What Is It But Paradise

Sought For’? In This Mixed Web, On This Chequer Board,

Man’s Destiny Is Intertwined And Has A Part To Pla 3 \

Life Beyond Life, Life After Death, Endless Adventures,

Eternal Flow Of The Stream, Now In A Narrow Tickle,

Again In Torrential Flood, But Movement, Growth On-

Ward March All The Time. Every Particle, The Snialle  S

Atom Sparkles With The Wine Of Life.


Kaun Liihla Im Hi Incut Anjam Hona

Yind A Fa Paqxluim Hone


]. Khiid Lipli Mhi Duniya Us Se

Lisko Duniya Se Koi Ham Na Tha.


  1. Puchhiye Kis Se Ki Manzil Dur Y& Mzdik Hai?


Kanran Milta Hai  Meer-C-Karaivan Rojtu


  1. Rat Andherij Sakht Manzil, Rasta Dur-O-Dcraz,


Ai Mere Allah ! Than Rosham Mere Liye.


  1. Bahut Dair-Odiaram Ki Khah Urayl

Ab Apna Hi Parastish Khana Ban

Ear Ik Manzil Ko Thukrata Him Chal,

Fmam-E Mmmat-E-Mardana Ban Ia.


5 Sahar Hone Ko Ayi, Jag Ab Hhi Khwah-E-Ghaflat

Rahegu Muntazar Tern Amir-Edmrwan Hab Tah?


6 – Ilumhinur Hahar Ho Kar Mauj Toofan-Khez Hof

Past Kimmat He Liye Aghosh-E-Sahil Clmhiye.


7 Samajh Men Kuchh Nahin Ata Tiusm*E-Bood O Nabood,

Na Tha To Kya Tha, Asar  Aur Him To Kya Hm Main?


  1. Faryad Ka Shewa Koi Nahin, Belas Ka Sahara Loi Nakin.

Kuchh Dekk Bya Is Duniya Men, Kuchh Itashr Men Dekha










Poets And Poetry



  1. Dll Men Himmat Hai Agar Chkor De Sahil Ka Khyal


  1. Tamam Nasha A Tka Ab Sar Basar Khumar Hun Mam»

Khizan Na Mujhko Samajh  Hasiue-Bahar Hun Mam*


  1. Kuchh Na Kuchh Ho Hi Raheguy Himmat-E-Dil Barquraty

Mau] Hai, Girdab Hai  Kya Gham Agar Sahil Nahin?


  1. Zamane Ko Ik Rang Par Kis Ne Dekha?


Badalta Raha Had  Badalta Rahega*


Khun Ke Ansoo Jo Na Rulaye,


Ain Koi Ummid Na Hogl


  1. Shal Na Ho Paye Talabn Lute Na Himmat Ai Dil!


“Aur Do Gam L Sada Deti Hai Manzil Mujhko*


  1. Nakhuda Ne Jab Sunaya Muzdaje Sahil Mujhe.


Bark Ke Himmat Ne Kaha, ‘Aghosh-E-Tufan Chahiye*


  1. Tere Hone Ki Ik Daleel Hun Main.


  1. Jo Rah Chale Ham Wahi Taqdeer Chall


  1. Bekar Hai Fikr Umr-E-Fani Kya Hai,


Kya Shai Hai Gham, Aur Shadmani Kya Hal

Is Bazm Men Tishnakam Rah Kar Uth Ja,


Khul Jaega Raz, Zindagani Kya Hal


One More Quotation Will Sum Up Asar S Philosophy:


Hifabat Taayiun Darmiyan Se Uthte Jate Haiuf,


Adam Par Chhut Parti Hai Shuae Zindagani Ki.


Shikaste Range Hasti Se Numayan Range Hasti Hai,


Fana Taalim Hai Darse Hayat-E-Jawidani Ki.


There Is No Dividing Line Between Existence And

Non-Existence. Remove The Apparent Forms And The

Reality, The Essence Is Revealed. The Appearances Are

Many, But The One Is Constant. Fana, A Selfless, Dis-

Interested Life (By Suffering Or Overcoming Desires And

Passions Which Are Short-Lived), Is The Means Of At-

Taining The Life Eternal











In A Recent Poems W. H. Davies Asks Whether,

Voice Of Love, A Day That’s Hot, A Night That’s Cold, A

Brain That Starves For Lovelier Dreams, A Search For

Keys That No Man Can Find To Turn The Lock Of Life And

Death, So Amply Provided, Whether He Wastes His

Richly Endowed As He Is, With A Pipe To Smoke, The

Breath. He Has In Addition The Gift Of Song. Fresh-

Ness And Youth And Flowers And Smiles Come Like The

Wind At Morning. And For Asar Too If The Morning

Is Full Of Promise, Seraphic Songs Are Heard In The






*Bagh-E-Nishat’–The ‘Diwan’ Of Gulshak


For About Forty Years Literary Circles M Lahore Aod

Allahabad Have Been Familiar With The Figure Of Diwan

Radheynath Kaul. He Has Attended Literary Assem-

Blies; In His Own House He Has Frequently Organised

Poets’ Gatherings On A Lavish Scale; He Is An Honoured

Guest And A Hospitable Host, Held Imiversally In High

Regard. Hi-S Modesty Prevents Him From Thrusting

Himself Into Prominence. It Was Not Easy To Persuade

This Self-Effacing Gentleman To Publish His Dhvan. The

Urdu-Reading Public Had Long Been Familiar Vuth Th«

Service That He Had Rendered To The Cause Of Learning

By The Publication Of The Monumental Anthology (In

Two Large Volumes) Of The Works Of Kashmiri Pandits

And By His Devotion To The Activities Of The Roohe

Adah But Lovers Of Urdu Poetry Had Long Wished To

Have Gujshan’s Collected Works And At Last Welcome

The Publication Of His Bagh-E-Nishat.


The Present Writer Had Expressed The View Some

Years Ago That Urdu Poetry, As It Has Grown During The

Last Hundred And Fifty Years, Has Retained An Exotic

Atmosphere And Has Not Become Truly A Part Of The

Literature Of India. Urdu Is Of Course Spoken And

Written Only In This Country; But It Seems In Its Poetic

Literature To Have Imbibed Little Of The Traditions,

Sjrobols, Similes And Legends Of India. Scores Of

Hindus Have Used And Continue To Use This Language;











But They Have Not Succeeded In Being Any Belter Than

J-Jmdu Poet Like Chakbast To Say;


In Dinon Mujk Se Roskan Dtur-O-Haram, Ka Nam Hai,


Paye But Part Hai Jabeen, Tub Par Khuda La Nam Hai.


If Ttrdu Had Truly Represneted The Fusion Of Hindu

And Muslim Culture, Why Should A Hindu Poet Feel

Risnamed Of Using The Word Ishwar? Why Should He

Say: ‘Allah Ke Dva Koi Madadgar Nahm’? Oi ‘Pakar


I Ha Hai Jo Hath Yarab Na Chooi Me Daitgeer Ho Kar*.

Why Should Diwan Radheynath Kaul, In Inscribing The

Copy Of His Book For The Present Writer, Write ‘Dosh-

Amba, 10, December, 1945’? Is ‘Doshamba’ Really Used

Ny Him When He Speaks At Home? Is It Not The Fact

That When Ho Writes Urdu He Feels Compelled To Use

The Persian Name Of The Day Of The Week In- Preference

To The Sanskrit Name Which Is Used By Him M His Daily

Bfe? Why Should He Write A Tarikk Which Gives The

Year Of The Hyri Era (As On Page 265), Which Can Have

No Significance Whatever To Him? Why Should A Hindu

Poet Constantly Refer To The Gabr, Grave? No Hinru

Has A Tomb; The Thing Means Nothing To Him; And Yet

Because He Writes In Urdu, He Must Refer To His Tomb,

Imitators. What Business, For Instance, Has A Gifted

Yet He Says:


Kar Chuke Barson Tawaj-E-Ka’aba-O-Hutkhnna Ham

0,R Yahin Se Kdabe Kjy Salam Kiya.


His Temple, His Cherished Place Of Worship, Is

Buthhana And The Real Abode Of God Is The Ka’aba

Why Should He Always Refer To And Never To

Champa, Juhi Or Chameli. Why Should He Invariably

Speaks Of The Bulbul, And Not Of The Papeeha Or The








Poets And Pobtfy



Cliakor? The Fact Is That Urdu Has Not Been Allowed

To Take Its Roots In The Soil Of The Country, But Has

Remained A Faint Echo Of The Literature Of Perssa.


Admitting This Basic Handicap, One Must Pay The

Meed Of Praise To The Achievements Of Poets Like Chak-

Bast, Rawan, Nazar And Naseem, Who Have, M Spite

Of Obvious Limitations, Enriched The Literature Of Urdu,

Gulsban Has Contributed A New Note To Urdu Poetry,

And Considerably Widened The Range Of The Ghazal He

Is Not Content To Let It Remain The Vehicle For The Ex-

Pression Of The Sentiment Of Love. Not That He Eschews

It. Far From It. There Are Many Verses Characterised

By The Typical Ghazal Sentiments. For Instance :


1 . Turn The Gkafil Ham Se Aur Ham The Tumhare Janisar

Ham Ne Tumse Hya Kiya  Aur Turn Ne Ham Se Hya Kiya»


2 . Shiekh Ko Ka Aba, Barahman Ko Mubarak Mandir

Main Pujari Hoon Muhabbat Ke Sanam Khane Ka*


3 . Du Ka Dar Khatkhata Ke Dekh Liya.


Sher Sola Jaga Ke Dekh Liya.


Shauqd-Dil Ko Barha Ke Dekh Liya,


Zindgi Ko Ghata Ke Dekh Liya,


4 . Mujhko Ayeenaye Hairat Tere Jalwe Ne Kiya


Rah Gaya Main Teri Mahfil Men Tamasha Ho Kar,


5 . Rah Gayi Hai Ik Kahani Yadgar’e-Husn-Odshq


Ab Zamatte Men Kahan Shirin Kahan Farhad Hain?


6 . Khwahishen Sab Ho Chuhin Pun Muhabbat Men, Magar

Ek Hasrat Deed Ki Dil Men Liye Fata Hoon Main,


7 . Yih Dil Hi Gulistan Hai, Yih Dil Hi Hayaban Hai.


Is Ujre Hue Ghar Se Kya Kya Na Mila Mujh Ko,


8 . Zameen O-Asman Gardish Se Ruk Jayen, Yeh Mumkin Hai

Magar Kab Kis Ne Roha Hai Tabeeyat Ki Rawani Ko?











  1. Kya Bakshoge Kuchhj Jhoot Kaja Hat Jo Gulsltan


Sckh Bat He Kah Dene Sc Jab Itne Khafa Ho-

Ik). Rehayi Qaid-E-Ulfat Se Yahi Ham Kp Duayegi,


Muza Aye Jo Idfat Ki Kari Zanjeer Ho Jaye.


But The Main Trend Of Gulshan’s Poetry Is Didactic,

Philosophical And Religious. He Is Deeply Steeped In

Hindu Theology And His Outlook On Life Is Essentially

Hindu — Though Not Aggressively So. There Is Hardly

A Line In The Diwan That Will Cause Offence To The

Followers Of Other Faiths. But In Emphasising The

Virtues Of Duty, Candour, Negation Of Desire, And In

Stressing Again And Again The Doctrine Of Karma, He

Proclaims Himself A Hmdu. It Is No Part Of A Poet’s

Duty To Preach, Nor Is He Under Any Obligation To Pro-

Pound A Philosophy Of Life. But Gulshan Cannot Escape

From His Temperament; No One Can. He Speaks As An

Elder Brother Who Feels That The World Needs Certain

Standards Of Conduct, Some Moral Principles, An Anchor

To Hold Fast To. He Utters Words Of Wisdom Which

Arrest Attention. In A Mushaira One Is Attracted By

Flashes Of Wit, Elegant And Pretty Verses, Lines Sweet-

Ened With The Erotic Sentiment. But In The Quietness

Of Thought One Turns To Passages With More Substance,

Packed With Thought, Or Inspired With A Lofty Vision

Gulshan Succeeds In Giving Us Several Typos Of Verse,

That Which Is Caviare To The General As Well As That

Which Skims The Surface, Short Swallow-Flights Of Fancy.

Here Are Some Lines In Which He Is Severely Didactic :


1 . Johan Hi Jis Qadar Dilchaspiyan Hi. In, Unic Haz Nkcr,

Khuda Ki Rah Men Lazim Hai Tan Man Dhan Into, Dfoa,


2 . Lakh Ehaho, Lal.H Mango, Ba’iolam Ho. Lyn Majal,


Jo Hai Qismat Men Likha Us Se Siwa Milta Nahin.








Poets And Poetry



3 Zindgi Bat Hai Do Din Ki, Ise Hans Ke Guzar,


Bat, Gulskan, Yahi Sab Shahogada Kahate Hain,


  1. Jo Hain Begharaz Unko Takleef Kaisi?


Gharazmand Ko Koi Rahat Nahin Hai.


Zara Maqsad-E-Zindgi Ko Bhi Samfho,


Jahan Men Faqat Aish-O-Iskrat Nahin Hai.


  1. Khvdi Door Ho To Khuda Hath Aye,


Haqeeqat Ka Bas Ik Yahi Mudda’a Hai.


6 Kuchh Bhi Tadbeer Ki Nahin Ckalti,


Likkha Mitta Nahin Hai Qismat Ka.


  1. Qarz Jis Jis Ka Hai Dena, Jab Ada Ho Jaega,


Qaid Ki Zahmat Se Qaidi Bhi Riha Ho Jaega.


In Many Thoughtful Imes He Expresses His View

That Though Earthly Life Is No Better Than The Tinkling

Of A Camel-Bell, And One Is Here Merely As A Passer-By,

And One’s Ultimate Goal Is Far And Hereafter, Yet One

Has Certain Obligations, Certain Rules Of The Game To

Observe. One’s Actions Rather Than Professions Matter;

One Is In The Last Analysis Judged By Them. Fidelity

To Friends, Recognition Of The Essential Oneness Of The

Entire Human Race, Complete Identity Between Feeling

And Expression, Subordination Of Self To The Larger

Good, Adherence To One’s Duty In Spite Of Difficulties

And Handicaps —  These He Stresses Again And Again. He

Has Full Faith In Divine Goodness; He Trusts The Scheme

Of The Universe Is Based On Virtue. All His Work Is

Marked By Seriousness And Earnestness; There Is No

Trace Of The Supine Melancholy Or The Frivolity Which

Disfigures The Writings Of So Many Other Poets.


  1. Tujhpai Takiya Uye Baitha Hoon, Nahin Aur Se Kam.

Do Jahan Men Mujhe Kafi Hai Sahara Tera.











  1. Khwahishon Ka Sirf Ik Putla Hai Insane Lateef


Jab Hawas Bujh Jae I Woh Bhi Kawa Ho Jaega


H, Bahar-E-Aish Ka Anjam Akhir Gham Pe Hota Hat,


Yahi Murjka Ke Gul Kahta Hai Bulbul Se Gulistan La*


  1. Kkidmate Khalq O Ibadat Ke Siwa, Ake Yihan,


Jur Kya Kam Hai, Ai Dil, Tera Bahlane Ka?


  1. Faqeer Ka To Har Ik Ja Pai Hai Makan Hota,


Taaluq Uska Magar Dil Se Hai Kahan Hota?


  1. Dil Jab Hua Udas To Duniya Udas Hai,


Abro Bahar P Mutrib O Meena O Jam Kya,


  1. W’ohi Hm Ivaqt-E-Khush Jo Sarfe Auqate Ibadat Ho,

Guzar Jaegi Duniya Ek Din Shamo Sahar Ho Har*


  1. Maqsad Hi Na Maalum Hua Jab Tujke Apna,


Kra Fayda Hone Ka? Tu Duniya Men Hua Kar.


  1. Kal Ki Agar Khabar Ho To Mar Jayen Aj Hi,


Behtar Hain, Bekhabar Rahen Is Agahi Se Ham,


Id. Uf Re Zauqe Justjoo, Allah Re Joshe Talash,


Dhoondhta Hun Jab Use Apne Men Pa Jata Hun Mam*


  1. Duniya Men Alag Sab Se Rahe, Sab Se Mila Bhi,


Talab Men Pani Se Kanwal Jaise Juda Hp*


  1. Sunte Hain Har Ek Se, Sab Ki Yahi Faryad Hat,


Ek Main Qaidi Hun, Aur Sara Jahan Azad Hai.


  1. Justjoo Jis Ki Hai Woh To Dil Men Hai Phir Hyon Talmh

Khana Khana Koocka Koocha Sahra Sahra Ktjiye?

Kya Khabar Kis Bhes Men A Nikle Dur Par Kaun, Hah,

Apne Sayel Se Hahhi Munh Kp Na Mora Kipye?


  1. Kam Nigahi Ka Natija Hai Yih Sari Tafriqe,


Kaun Kahta Hai Ki Kaabe Se Juda Butkhana Hai?


  1. Kkudi Door Ho Tp Khuda Hath Aye,


Eaqeeqat Ka Has Ek Yahi Mwddala Hai*








Powhb Ahd Poktet



16, Lo Kuchh }Min Apne M Amai Ke Woh Karmme Haiaf


Jo Sack Poockho To Duniya Men M Bismil Km Na Qatil




17, Horn Ho Gulzare Jahan Se Yih Setbaq  Gulshan  Muoy

Aye The Duniya Men Apne Ko Mitme Ke Uye*


And Finally A Few Verses In The Traditional Style,

Characterised By Freshness And Charm :


1, Matlab Na Ko Saqi Ke Mujhe Jamo Suboo Se,


Paimamye Dil Ko Jo Woh Maikhana Bana De*


2, Lagayega Kyon Munh Use Nude Maykash?


Agar May Se Kkali Kabhi Jam Hoga,


Tk Tishna Lab Baithe Rahe Tere Hgaye Ummid,


Tujh Se Ik Jame Muhahhat Bhi Pilaya Na Gaym


4 Tere Dar Par Bhamlta Koi Tuhna Lab Jo A Mide,


Use Bht Eh Saghir Ai Mere Saqif Pila Dena,


5- Aseerane Qafas Ke Kab Tak Afsane Sune Jale,


Na Harta Gar Unhen Azad, To Saiyyad Lya Karta?


Those Who Know Diwan Radheynath Kaul Hold

Him In High Esteem For Ms Simplicity, His Capacity For

Friendship, And His Real Love Of Learning- Those Who

Do Not Know Mm Personally Will Also Begin To Respect

Him After Reading His Poems, For From Them Emerges

A Character Of Rare Sincerity, Who Means What He Says

And Has Something Worth Saying :


Har Eh Sker Hai, Gulskan  Tera Sabaq Amoz,


Jo Bat Hahta Kai Tu Lajawah Hoti Hal











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