Salat Al-Ishraq is one of the Nafl prayers with two rak’ahs that is performed about 15 minutes after sunrise. It is called Ishraq because it is done immediately after sunrise (shurooq) when the sun has risen to a certain height.
فَاصْبِرْ إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ بِالْعَشِيِّ وَالْإِبْكَارِ
So be patient, [O Muhammad]. Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth. And ask forgiveness for your sin and exalt [Allah] with praise of your Lord in the evening and the morning. (Ghafir 40:55)
وَاذْكُر رَّبَّكَ فِي نَفْسِكَ تَضَرُّعًا وَخِيفَةً وَدُونَ الْجَهْرِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالْآصَالِ وَلَا تَكُن مِّنَ الْغَافِلِينَ
And remember your Lord within yourself in humility and in fear without being apparent in speech – in the mornings and the evenings. And do not be among the heedless. (Al-A’raf 7:205)
فَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ غُرُوبِهَا ۖ وَمِنْ آنَاءِ اللَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْ وَأَطْرَافَ النَّهَارِ لَعَلَّكَ تَرْضَىٰ
So be patient over what they say and exalt [Allah] with praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting; and during periods of the night [exalt Him] and at the ends of the day, that you may be satisfied. (Taha 20:130)
2.1 Anas bin Malik (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said:
مَنْ صَلَّى الْغَدَاةَ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ ثُمَّ قَعَدَ يَذْكُرُ اللَّهَ حَتَّى تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْسُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ كَانَتْ لَهُ كَأَجْرِ حَجَّةٍ وَعُمْرَةٍ . قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم - تَامَّةٍ تَامَّةٍ تَامَّةٍ
“Whoever prays Fajr in congregation, then sits remembering Allah until the sun has risen, then he prays two Rak’ah, then for him is the reward like that of a Hajj and Umrah.” He said: “The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Complete, complete, complete’.”
2.2 Narrated Mu’adh ibn Anas al-Juhani (رضي الله عنه) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said:
مَنْ قَعَدَ فِي مُصَلاَّهُ حِينَ يَنْصَرِفُ مِنْ صَلاَةِ الصُّبْحِ حَتَّى يُسَبِّحَ رَكْعَتَىِ الضُّحَى لاَ يَقُولُ إِلاَّ خَيْرًا غُفِرَ لَهُ خَطَايَاهُ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ زَبَدِ الْبَحْرِ
“If anyone sits in his place of prayer when he finishes the dawn prayer till he prays the two rak’ahs of the forenoon, saying nothing but what is good, his sins will be forgiven even if they are more than the foam of the sea.”
2.3 Jubair reported from Abu Ad-Darda, or Abu Dharr (رضی الله عنهم) that Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) narrated that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Said:
ابْنَ آدَمَ ارْكَعْ لِي مِنْ أَوَّلِ النَّهَارِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ أَكْفِكَ آخِرَهُ
“Son of Adam: Perform four Rak’ah for Me in the beginning of the day, it will suffice you for the latter part of it.”
2.4 Sakhr bin Wada’ah Al-Ghamidi (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said,
اللهم بارك لأمتي في بكورها
“O Allah! Bless my people in the early part of the day (morning).”
Whenever the Prophet dispatched a detachment or an army unit, he would dispatch it at the beginning of the day (soon after dawn).
The narrator, Sakhr (رضي الله عنه) was a merchant, and he used to send off his merchandise at the beginning of the day. So his trade flourished and he made a good fortune.
2.5 It was narrated from Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said:
اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ لأُمَّتِي فِي بُكُورِهَا يَوْمَ الْخَمِيسِ
“O Allah, bless my nation early in the morning of Thursday.”
3.1 According to some scholars, a woman also gets the stated reward if she performed dawn prayer in congregation in her house and sat in her Musalla till the rising of the sun and offered two Rak‘ahs. Ibn Baaz (رحمه الله) said:
“The same thing applies to the woman if she sits in her Musalla after offering dawn prayer, remembering Allah The Almighty or reciting Quran till the rising of the sun and then offers two Rak‘ahs, then she will get that reward stated in the Ahadith, i.e. Allah The Almighty will grant the one who does that the reward of perfect Hajj and ‘Umrah.”
(Islamweb Fatwa #199027)
3.2 Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (رحمه الله) was asked about Ishraq and Duha prayer and replied:
“The Sunnah of Ishraq is (the same as) the Sunnah of Duha, but if it is done early, from the time when the sun has risen to the height of a spear, then it is Ishraq prayer; if it is done at the end of its time or in the middle of its time, then it is Duha prayer. But it is (all) Duha prayer, because the scholars (رحمهم الله) said that the time of Duha prayer lasts from when the sun has risen to the height of a spear until just before the zenith (Zuhr time).”
That is, Ishraq prayer is the Duha (Chast) prayer offered at the beginning of its time.
(Liqa’ al-Baab al-Maftooh, 141/24)