The importance and virtues of Wudu in the light of Quran and Hadith

 

Allah  says

 

 

‘O Believers! When you intend to perform Namaaz (and you have no Wudu), then wash your faces, and your hands up to your elbows and make Masah of your heads and wash your feet up to your ankles.’ [Surah 5 Verse 6]

It seems appropriate to first present a few Ahadith pertaining to the excellence and virtues of Wudu before the laws pertaining to Wudu are discussed.

 

Hadith 1: Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim report from Hazrat Abu  Hurairah  ؓ   that  Rasoolullah     said  ‘My  Ummah  will  be summoned on the Day of Qiyaamat in a condition whereby their faces, hands and feet will be glowing from the vestiges of Wudu, thus whosoever of you has the ability to do so, should increase this glow.’

 

Hadith 2: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Hazrat Abu Hurairah ؓ    that Rasoolullah  said to his companions, ‘Should I not inform you of such a thing through which Almighty Allah will remove your sins and exalt your status?’ The companions said, ‘Yes, O Prophet of Allah ’, He  said, ‘to perform proper Wudu at the time when you feel awkward in making Wudu and to go swiftly towards the Musjid, whilst waiting (in anticipation) after one Namaaz for the next. The reward of this is like tying your horse on the frontier of the infidels, for the sake of supporting the Muslim Empire.’

 

Hadith 3: Imam Maalik and Nasa’i narrated from Abdullah Sanabahi  ؓ     that  Rasoolullah    said,  ‘When  a  Muslim  performs Wudu, then by rinsing his mouth, the sins of the mouth fall away and when he inserts water into the nostrils and cleans them out, then the sins of the nose are released and when he washes his face then the sins of his face are washed away, to the extent that the (sins) of the eye lashes are washed away and when he washes his hands, then the sins of his hands are removed, to the extent that the (sins) of the finger nails are washed away and when he performs masah of his head, then the sins of the head fall away, to the extent that even the (sins) of the ears are washed away and when he washes his feet, then the sins of the feet are washed away, to the extent that they are washed away from (beneath) the toe nails. Thereafter, his endeavour towards performing his Namaaz is an additional (blessing) to this.’

 

Hadith 4: Baz’zaar has reported a Hassan (close to sound) narration, that Hazrat Uthman ؓ   requested his servant Hamraan to bring him some water to perform Wudu and he then wished to go out, whereas it was a cold winters night. Hamraan says, ‘I brought the water to him and he performed his Wudu. He then washed his hands and feet (in other words he performed Wudu), so I said to him, (I pray) Allah rewards your intention but it is a very cold night (to be going out). On hearing this, he said, I heard Rasoolullah saying, ‘Allah forgives the past and future sins of a person who makes Kaamil (proper) Wudu.’’

 

Hadith 5: Tabrani reported in Awsat from Hazrat Ameer-ul- Momineen Maula Ali ﻭﺟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟٰﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺮﻡ that the Holy Prophet said, ‘There is two folds reward for that person who performs proper Wudu in intense cold weather.’

 

Hadith 6: Imam Ahmed bin Hambal narrates from Hazrat Anas ؓ that Huzoor Sayyid-e-Aalam said, ‘He who makes Wudu once (meaning he washed each part of the body that needs to be washed in Wudu, once), then this is (of that which is) essential and for the one who washes twice, there is twofold reward and for the one who washes each part thrice, then this is my manner of Wudu and the Wudu of the past Prophets.’

 

Hadith 7: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Uqba bin Aamir

ؓ   that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Jannat  becomes  Waajib (compulsory) upon a Muslim who performs Wudu thoroughly and thereafter stands with complete spiritual and physical devotion, and performs two Raka’ats of Salaah.’

 

Hadith 8: It is in Muslim on the authority of Ameer ul Momineen Farooq-e-Azam Hazrat Umar ibn-e-Khattab ؓ    that Rasoolullah ؓ   said, ‘When anyone from amongst you performs Wudu thoroughly and then recites:

 

 

Ash Hadu Al Laa ilaaha il lal laahu Wahdahu La Shareeka Lahu wa Ashhadu An’na Muhammadan Abduhu wa Rasooluhu

All 8 Doors of Paradise shall be opened unto him and he may enter it through whichever Door he wishes.’

 

Hadith 9: Tirmizi reported on the authority of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Umar ؓ    that Rasoolullah  said, ‘Ten virtuous deeds will be

 

recorded for a person who performs (fresh) Wudu over the Wudu which he already has.’

 

Hadith 10: Ibn Khuzaima narrates in his Sahih that Abdullah ibn Buraidah ؓ    reported from his father that one day Rasoolullah summoned  Hazrat  Bilal  ؓ     and  said  ‘O  Bilal  ؓ  !  Through  which action of yours did I find you walking ahead of me in Jannat? I visited Jannat last night and I could hear your footsteps ahead of me.’ Bilal

ؓ  said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ! After calling out the Azaan, I perform 2 Raka’ats of Salaah, and whenever my Wudu becomes void (i.e. breaks), I immediately perform Wudu again.’ Nabi said, ‘It is for this reason.’ (I heard your footsteps in Paradise).

 

Hadith 11: Tirmizi and Ibn Majah have reported from Sa’eed ibn Zaid ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻰ that Rasoolullah said, ‘The Wudu of one who did not pronounce the Bismillah is not complete.’ (In other words he has not performed thorough Wudu. The meaning of this is the same as mentioned in the other Ahadith)

 

Hadith 12: Darqutni and Baihaqi have reported in their Sunan from Hazrat Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ   that Rasoolullah  said, ‘The body of one who pronounces Bismillah before performing Wudu, has become purified from head to toe and as for the one who performed his Wudu without proclaiming Bismillah, then only those parts of his body have been purified, over which he poured water.’

 

Hadith 13: Imam Bukhari and Muslim report on the authority of Hazrat   Abu   Hurairah   ؓ   that   Rasoolullah      said,   ‘When   one awakens from a dream (sleep), he should perform Wudu and clean his nostrils thrice, for shaitaan spends the night in his nostrils.’

 

Hadith 14: Tabrani narrates a Hassan narration on the authority of Hazrat Ali ؓ, citing that Rasoolullah said, ‘If I did not feel that it would be difficult upon my Ummah, I would have commanded them to perform miswak with every Wudu. (In other words I would have made it Fard. In some narrations the term Fard has also appeared).’

 

Hadith 15: It is also mentioned in one narration of Tabrani that Rasoolullah never went for any Salaah without performing Miswak (cleaning the teeth).

 

Hadith 16: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Hazrat A’isha ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻰ that when Rasoolullah would return home from any (journey), he would first perform Miswak.

 

Hadith 17: Imam Ahmed narrates from Ibn Umar ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻰ that Rasoolullah said, ‘Make it a habit to perform Miswak, as it is a means of cleansing the mouth and a means of attaining the pleasure of Allah.’

 

Hadith 18: Abu Nu’aim narrates on the authority of Hazrat Jaabir

ؓ  that Rasoolullah said, ‘To perform 2 Raka’ats after performing Miswak is more exalted than 70 Raka’ats which is performed without performing Miswak.’

 

Hadith 19: It has been mentioned in one narration that the Namaaz which is performed after Miswak is 70 folds more exalted than the Namaaz which is performed without making Miswak.

 

Hadith 20: It is narrated in Mishkaat Shareef from Hazrat Sayyidah A’isha ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻰ that there are 10 actions which are of

 

Fitrat (inherent qualities) [In other words these actions were commanded in every Shariat]:

 

  1. To trim the moustache
  2. To lengthen the beard
  3. To perform Miswak
  4. To put water into the nostrils (cleansing the nostrils)
  5. To clip the nails
  6. To wash between the toes
  7. To remove the hair from under the arms
  8. To remove the pubic hair
  9. To perform Istinja (to clean oneself after answering the call of nature)
  10. To rinse the mouth

 

Hadith 21: It is on the authority of Hazrat Ali ؓ   that Rasoolullah

said, ‘When a servant (believer) performs Miswak and then stands for Salaah, an Angel stands behind him and listens to his Qir’at (recitation). The Angel then comes so close to him, that it places its mouth against the mouth of that person (the Namaazi).’

 

The Masha’ikh (Pious Grandmasters) have mentioned that a person (believer) who is habitual of making Miswak, will be blessed with the opportunity of being able to recite the Kalima at the time of his death and that person who uses opium, will not be blessed with the opportunity of reciting the Kalima at the time of his death.

 

LAWS OF JURISPRUDENCE

 

It is evident from the verse of the Holy Qur’an cited in the inception of this discussion, that there are 4 Fard (Obligatory) actions in Wudu;

 

  1. To wash the complete face
  2. To wash both the hands including the elbows
  3. To make Masah of the head (pass wet hands over the head)
  4. To wash both feet including the ankles

 

Important Note: The washing of a part or limb, means that at least a minimum of two drops of water should pass over every part of that limb. If that part (limb) merely becomes moist or water is merely rubbed over that portion of the body like one does with oil, or if simply one or two drops merely run over that portion, it will not suffice and it will not be regarded as having being washed (properly). Washing in this way, will neither validate Wudu or Ghusl.

 

One should take heed to this important fact. People do not give much consideration to this and this causes their Namaaz to be unfulfilled. There are certain parts of the body that unless one does not pay careful attention (when washing), water does not reach these parts (as it should) and in this case, the water will thus not pass over it properly.

 

This will be explained in detail when we explain the rules regarding washing of each part. When wetness reaches an area which needs to be washed in facilitating fresh Wudu, it is called masah.

 

1st Fard – Washing the Face: vertically, the area from the forehead (from the hairline where the growth ends) up to the chin and horizontally, from one ear to the other ear, is regarded as the face. To pass water once within that area over every part of the skin is Fard.

 

Law: For a person whose hair has fallen off from the foreword hairline area or if he has no hair growth there, then (when washing the face) he should wash from where the hair generally grows. If someone has hair growing lower than where the hair usually grows for most people, it is Fard for that person to wash that hair up to the roots.

 

Law: If the hair of the moustache, eyebrows or the tuft of hair under the lower lip of men (which is regarded as being part of the beard) is so thick that the skin is not visible at all, then to wash the skin (underneath it) is not Fard but to wash the hair is Fard and if the hair in those areas is not thick, then it is Fard to also wash the skin (under the hair).

 

Law: If the moustache is overgrown and causes the lips to be hidden then even though it may be thick it is Fard to spread the hair apart and wash the lips.

 

Law: It is also Fard to wash the skin under the beard, if the beard hair is not too thick. However, if the beard is very thick then it is Fard to wash the area which when the (hanging part of the) beard is pressed against the throat, falls within the area of the face. To wash up to the roots (in this case) is not Fard and it is not necessary to wash that part (of the beard) which is below that area. If there are some areas of the beard that are very thick and others that are

 

scarce, then in the areas where there is thick growth, just the washing of the hair (is Fard) and where there is a light grown, there the washing of the skin is also Fard.

 

Law: It is Fard to wash that outward portion of the lip that is normally visible when one closes the lips. If someone closes the lips tightly, causing that portion to be hidden to the extent that water does not reach it or if he did not rinse the mouth which would have allowed it to be washed, then the Wudu (in such a case) will be regarded as being invalid. However, it is not Fard to wash that portion (of the lip i.e. inner lip) which is normally hidden when one closes the lips.

 

Law: It is Fard to wash the temples of the head which is the area between the cheek and the ear. It is Fard to wash the hair of the beard in that area, if the hair is thick there. If there is no hair in that area or if it is not thick then to wash the skin is also Fard.

 

Law: It is Fard to pass water through the hole of a nose ring if the hole is not sealed. If it reduced in size, then the nose ring should be shaken slightly when washing the area; otherwise it is not necessary.

 

Law: It is not necessary to wash under the eyelids etc. Actually, one should not wash these areas as it is harmful to do so.

 

Law: If one tightly shuts the eyes when washing the face and this causes a very fine area which is parallel to the eyelashes to be hidden, whereas it is usually visible if one closes the eyes and in doing so, if water did not pass over that area, the Wudu will still be valid. This should still be avoided. However, if a larger area is left unwashed, it will render the Wudu invalid.

 

Law: To pass water over the eyelid is Fard, but if the residue of Surma is left on the eyelid and on the eye lashes and one has already made Wudu and did not realise this, and read Namaaz in this condition, then there is no harm. Both, the Namaaz and Wudu will be regarded as valid. However, if one realises it, then it is necessary to remove it and allow water to pass over it.

 

Law: In all circumstances, it is Fard to wash the entire eyelashes thoroughly. If any dirt or anything else that has become hard on it, it is Fard to remove it.

 

2nd Fard – Washing the hands: The Washing of the elbows is included in this ruling as well.

Law: If any part (of the limb) even equivalent to one speck is left unwashed from the elbows right up to the finger nails, the Wudu will be regarded as invalid.

 

Law: If any type of permissible or impermissible (jewellery) such as a thick ring, ordinary ring, bracelets, glass bangles (any jewellery etc.) or silk hanging ornaments etc. are so tightly worn that the water does not pass underneath it, then to remove such jewels etc. is Fard and if water passes under such these things by merely shaking them or moving them, then to move or shake them is sufficient and if they are so loose that the water passes underneath them comfortably, then to remove, move or shake them is not necessary.

 

Law: It is necessary to pass water over the eight spaces of the hands (between fingers), the sides of the fingers, the inner section of the finger nails that are visible and over every single hair of the wrist from the tip to the root. If any part has been left unwashed

 

thoroughly or if the water did not pass over the base of the hair, (in other words) even if the tip of one single strand has been left unwashed, the Wudu will be regarded as invalid (not done). However, the dirt that is in the nails is exempted.

 

Law: If a person has six fingers instead of five, then it is Fard to wash all of them. If a person has two hands on one shoulder, then for him to wash the hand that is completely formed is Fard and to wash the second hand is not Fard but Mustahab (desirable). However, it is Fard to wash that part of the second hand which is joined to the same portion, in line with the hand that is Fard to wash.

 

3rd Fard – Masah of the  Head  (Passing  Wet  Hands Over the Head): To perform Masah of quarter head is Fard.

 

Law: When making masah of the head, it is necessary for the hands to be wet, be it from wetness that has remained on the hands after washing the other parts during Wudu or wetness caused by using fresh water (to wet the hands). If there is wetness on the hands after making masah of one part of the body, it is not sufficient to use the same wet hands to make masah over another part.

 

Law: If a person does not have any hair then for him to make masah of quarter of the head (scalp) is Fard and if he does have hair, then to make masah of quarter of the head (meaning over the hair) is Fard. This is regarded as the masah of the head.

 

Law: To make masah over a turban, hat or scarf is not valid, unless the hat and the scarf is so thin that the wetness seeps through and moistens one quarter of the head. In this case the masah will be

 

valid. Making masah of hair which is merely hanging from the head is not sufficient.

 

4th Fard – Washing of Both Feet Including the Ankles Once

 

Law: The ruling regarding the foot bracelets and rings (etc.) is the same as mentioned above (in the section regarding washing of the hands.

 

Law: Due to certain illnesses, certain people tend to tie a string on thread on the toe. This thread is tied (knotted) so tightly that leave alone water passing freely underneath it, the water does not even wet the area under the string. It is necessary for them to abstain from this, as in this case the Wudu will not be done.

Law: It is Fard to wash between the toes, the sides of the toes, the soles of the feet, the heels, the ankles and the area behind the ankle and above the heel.

 

Law: It is a condition for the water to pass freely over the parts which are Fard to wash. It is not necessarily that the water should pass over with intent, as even if it passes over without intent, the Wudu will still be regarded as valid. In other words, if it rained and at least two drops of rain water passed over those each part of the limbs which need to be washed in Wudu, causing them to become wet, the Wudu will be regarded as being valid. Another example is that of a person who falls into a pond (even though without intent) and water passed over all the parts which needed to be washed in Wudu, the Wudu will be regarded as being valid in this case as well.

 

Law: If that which is a commonly or specifically a requirement for a person but he has no real control over it even if he takes care to avoid it, such as in the case where something is stuck under or on the finger nails or on any other part that needs to be washed and it stains that portion of the body, thereby not allowing water to pass underneath it, then even if it is something that has become hard, Wudu will still be regarded as being valid; such as in the case of the dough under the finger nails or on the hands of a chef or a baker, the stain of dye on the hands of a person who dyes clothing etc., the stain of Mehndi (henna) on the hands of a female, the stain of ink on the hands of writers, the stain of soil on the hands of labourers, and generally, the stain of ‘surmah’ (collyrium) on the eyelashes of people. Similarly, the same law applies to grime, sand, dust and the droppings of flies and mosquitoes etc. on the body.

Law: If one had a blister which dried up but the (dry) skin on the blister did not fall off, then in such a case it is not necessary to remove the skin and pass water over it. It is sufficient to merely pass water over the skin (covering) of the blister. If thereafter one removed the skin then in such a case it is still not necessary to pass water over it again.

 

Law: If the scales of a fish remain stuck to the part of the body which is necessary to wash in Wudu, the Wudu will not be regarded as being valid, as the water will not be able to pass underneath it.

 

Sunnat Actions of Wudu

 

Law: It is essential to perform Wudu with the intention of acquiring its reward and to fulfil the command of Allah, otherwise the Wudu will be valid but one will not attain the reward for it.

 

Law: To commence by proclaiming the ﺍﷲ ﺴﻢ ‘Bismillah’. If one needs to make ‘Istinja’, i.e. answer the call of nature, before performing Wudu, then one should also proclaim the Bismillah before this as well. This should however be done before entering the toilet and before exposing the body (i.e. before removing the clothing), because it is disallowed to make ‘Zikr-e-Ilahi’ in an impure place and after revealing the ‘Satr’, i.e. the private parts of the body.

 

Law: Commence by first washing each hand thrice up to (and including) the wrists.

 

Law: If only a large dish or vessel is available and there is no smaller vessel (jug etc.) in to which one can pour out the water, then in such a (dire) situation, one should join together the fingers of the left hand and only using those fingers, one should scoop out sufficient water to wash the right hand up to the wrist thrice. In doing so, no portion of the palm should enter the water. He may then put his right hand up to the area that has already been washed into the water without any hindrance. He may then use the right hand to scoop out water in order to wash the left hand.

 

Law: This ruling only applies in the case when the hand is not polluted by any Najaasat (impurity). Otherwise, it is not permissible at all to put the polluted hand into the water. If he dips the hand into the water, it will cause the entire water to become impure.

 

Law: If the water is in a small vessel (dish etc.), or if the water is in a large vessel, but there is also a small vessel available, but one put his hand into the water without washing it, or even if he only dipped in the entire finger nail of one finger, all the water in the vessel will be unsuitable for Wudu. It will be regarded as ‘Ma-e-Musta’mal’ (already used water).

 

Law: This ruling applies in the case where the part of the hand that was dipped into the water was not washed at all before one dipped it into the water. If he dipped that portion of the hand which had already been washed before and in the interim of it being washed and being dipped into the water, no ‘Hadath’ occurred (i.e. impurity was passed), then in such a case, if only the portion which has been washed is put into the water, it will not cause the water to be regarded as ‘Musta’mal’, even if he has to dip the hand up to the elbow into the water.

 

Actually if one who is not a ‘Junub’ (a Junub is one in an impure state, requiring the compulsory ritual bath to remove impurities) has washed his hand up to the elbow, then thereafter he is allowed to dip his hand up to the armpit into the water, because now there is no impurity remaining on his hand.

 

However, one who is a ‘Junub’ may only dip that part of the hand above the elbow into the water, which he has thoroughly washed, because his entire body is regarded as being impure.

 

Law: When a ‘Junub’ awakens from his sleep, he should wash his hands before and after making ‘Istinja’.

 

Law: One should perform ‘Miswak’1 of the upper, lower, right and left teeth at least thrice. When doing so, wash the miswak every time. The miswak should neither be too soft nor too hard. It is better for the miswak to be made from a ‘peelu’, olive, salvadora or margosa tree or from any other bitter wood. It should not be from fruit trees or from trees that bear sweet smelling flowers. It should be as thick as the little finger in thickness, and not more than one span in length. It should also not be so small that it becomes difficult to perform miswak with it. The shaitaan sits on a miswak which is more than one span in length. When the miswak becomes old and not fit for use any longer, it should either be buried or kept away in a safe place, avoiding it from falling into any impure place, because firstly, it is an instrument which is used to fulfil a Sunnat and must thus be treated with respect, and secondly because the water or saliva from the mouth of a Muslim should not fall in an impure place. It is for this very reason that the Ulama have declared it inappropriate behaviour to spit in the toilet.

 

Law: One should perform Miswak with the right hand. It should be held in a manner whereby the little finger is at the base of the Miswak and the remaining 3 fingers are above it, and the thumb should be below the head of the Miswak. One should not close the fist when performing Miswak.

Law: Miswak should be performed with horizontal strokes on the teeth, and not by performing vertical strokes. One should not perform Miswak whilst lying down flat.

  1. Miswak: To perform miswak is to cleanse the teeth with a stick according to the Sunnah method.

 

Law: First clean the upper teeth on the right side, followed by the upper teeth on the left side. Thereafter clean (brush) the lower teeth on the right side, followed by the lower teeth on the left side.

 

Law: Wash the miswak before and after using it. It should not be left lying down on the ground but place it standing up, with the bristles facing upwards.

Law: In one does not have a Miswak, he may use his fingers or a durable piece of fabric to clean the teeth. Similarly, if one does not have any teeth, he should run the fingers or a cloth over the gums.

 

Law: Miswak is not Sunnat for Namaaz but it is Sunnat for Wudu. Thus, he who performs many Namaaz with a single Wudu will not be requested to perform Miswak for each Namaaz, as long as there is no change in the smell of the mouth because if one has bad breath then Miswak is deemed Sunnat for every Namaaz. If one did not perform Miswak during Wudu he may perform Miswak at the time of Namaaz.

 

Law: He should then rinse the mouth with 3 handfuls of water making sure that the water passes through every nook and corner of the mouth each time. If he is not fasting, he should also gargle.

 

Law: Thereafter, using 3 separate handfuls of water, he should suck in water thrice into the nostrils, in a manner whereby the water reaches the area of soft flesh inside the nose every time. If one is not fasting then he should allow water to reach the root, i.e. end of the nostrils. Both these actions should be done with the right hand, thereafter using the left hand he should clean the nostrils.

 

Law: When washing the face, make ‘Khilaal’ of the beard, on condition that one is not in the state of ‘Ehraam’. The method of performing Khilaal is to thrust the fingers into the beard from the direction of the throat, bringing them out from the front.

 

Law: Make Khilaal of the fingers and the toes. When making Khilaal of the toes, do so using the little finger of the left hand by first commencing with the little toe of the right foot and ending with the big toe. Thereafter make Khilaal of the left foot, commencing with the big toe and ending with the little toe. If the water is not able to pass between the toes without performing Khilaal, then to perform Khilaal becomes Fard (obligatory). Water reaching between the toes even without Khilaal is in the sense when the toes are spread apart and water is poured in or in the case where one dips his foot into a pond.

 

Law: To wash each part which requires washing thrice. On every attempt it should be washed so thoroughly that no area is left unwashed. Otherwise, the Sunnat will not be fulfilled.

 

Law: If one washed a part in the sense where in the first instance only part of it was washed then in the second instance a bit more was washed and then finally after the third instance the entire part (limb) was washed, then this will be regarded as only having been washed once. The Wudu will be regarded as being valid but it is ‘Khilaaf-e-Sunnat’ ‘contrary to the Sunnah’ to do this. The handfuls (amount) of water used (in washing) are not given credence in this case, but credence is given to the washing of the entire part. It should be washed thrice, no matter how many handfuls of water are used to fulfil this.

 

Law: To make ‘Masah’ of the entire head and to make Masah of the ears and ‘Tarteeb’, i.e. to follow sequence; in other words to wash the face then the hands (up-to the elbows) followed by the Masah of the head and then to finally wash the feet. If one performs Wudu contrary to the prescribed sequence or omits any other Sunnat then the Wudu will still be regarded as being valid. To do this one or two times (i.e. occasionally) is not a good habit and if one makes it a habit to omit that which is ‘Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah’, then he is held in contempt and is regarded sinful for this. To make Masah of the strands of beard which fall under the area of the face is Sunnat and to wash it is Mustahab (desirable). To wash each limb; one after the other whereby the limbs that have already been washed do not completely dry up is also Sunnat. The above laws thus confirm that the Sunnats of Wudu are:

 

  1. Niyyat (intention)
  2. Reciting Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim
  3. Washing of the hands thrice up to the wrists
  4. Performing Miswak
  5. Rinsing the mouth 3 times
  6. Sucking water into the nostrils thrice
  7. Using the right hand to put water into nostrils
  8. Using the left hand to clean the nostrils
  9. Khilaal of the beard, e. to pass wet fingers into the beard
  10. Khilaal of the fingers and toes
  11. Washing of each part (limb) thrice
  12. Masah of the entire head once
  13. Masah of both ears once
  14. Tarteeb (Wudu performed in order of sequence)
  15. Making Masah of the beard strands under the area of the face (i.e. the hanging part of the beard)

 

  1. Washing of each limb, one after the other without delaying, so that no limb dries up before the next limb is washed

 

Mustahab (Desirable) actions of Wudu

 

Many of the Mustahabs of Wudu have already been mentioned above in passing, whilst some of them have not as yet been mentioned. They are as follows:

 

Law: To commence from the right, except for both the cheeks, which should be washed simultaneously, similarly the Masah of both ears should be done simultaneously. However, if a person has only one hand then when washing the face and in making Masah, he should wash the right side first; to use the back of the fingers to make Masah of the nape; to sit facing the direction of the Kaaba; to sit on a raised platform; to make sure that the Wudu water falls in a clean place and to run the hands over the limbs when pouring water, especially during winter; to first apply water to the limbs, like one applies oil, especially in winter; to fill up Wudu water with your own hands; to have water filled and kept for the next time of Namaaz; to avoid taking assistance from another person in Wudu without need; If one is wearing a ring, to shake it if it is loose, so that water may pass under it. Otherwise it will be regarded as Fard. If one is not a Saahib-e-Uzr1, he should perform Wudu in advance. It is also Mustahab to make Wudu in a relaxed manner. It is a well-known saying amongst the laymen that ‘One should perform Wudu like a young man and Namaaz like an old man’, in other words, Wudu should be performed swiftly. One should not be so hasty that it causes one to

 

  1. Saahib-e-Uzr refers to one who is exempted due to a valid reason recognised by the Shariah.

 

omit a Sunnat or Mustahab. It is also Mustahab to protect the clothing from falling droplets of water and to insert wet small fingers into the cavity of the ears when making Masah of the ears.

It is Mustahab for one who takes heed when performing proper and correct Wudu, to pay special attention not to leave out any part, especially parts like the eyelids, ankles, heels, soles of the feet, the area above the heel, the spaces between the fingers and toes and the elbows. As for those who do not really pay attention or are simply careless then for them it is Fard (obligatory) to pay special attention to all these parts. It has often been observed that these parts remain dry. This is the result of negligence. This type of negligence is Haraam. To take special care in such a situation is Fard. The vessel used for Wudu should be made from sand (i.e. clay). There is no objection if it is made from copper etc. but it should be plated. If the vessel being used for Wudu is a type of spouted jug, it should be kept to your left and if it is a type of dish etc. it should be kept to the right. If a spouted jug has a handle attached, the handle should be washed thrice. When holding it, the hand should be kept on the handle and not on the spout. It is also Mustahab to use the right hand when rinsing the mouth and putting water into the nostrils; to clean the nostrils with the left hand; to put the little finger of the left hand into the nostrils; to wash the feet with the left hand; when washing the face, to use sufficient water on the upper forehead that allows a larger area to be washed.

 

Note of Caution: Many people have the tendency of putting a handful of water either over the nose, eyes or eyebrows and then rubbing their hands over the entire face thinking that the face has been washed, whereas merely applying water on the face does not signify anything. Washing in this manner does not validate the

 

washing of the face and the Wudu is thus not regarded as being valid. It is also Mustahab to wash the face with both hands; to commence from the fingers when washing both hands and from the toes when washing both feet; to increase the radiance of both hands and feet, in other words, to pass water over a greater area than that which is Fard to wash. In other words, when washing the hands, wash up-to halfway the arm and when washing the feet, wash upto halfway the shin. The Mustahab manner of performing Masah of the head is to bring together the 3 finger tips of each hand, leaving out only the Kalima (index) fingers and thumbs, thereafter placing them on the hair or skin of the forehead and then running them over towards the nape, whereby the palms remain away from the head. On reaching the nape bring the hands back over the head using the palms to perform the masah. Then, using the stomach of the Kalima finger, make masah of the inside of the ear whilst using the stomach of the thumbs to make masah of the outer ear and making masah of the neck with the rear of the fingers; After washing each part, it is advisable to run the hands over it so that the droplets of water do not drip onto other parts of the body or clothing, especially if you intend to enter the Musjid, as it is Makruh-e-Tahreemi to allow the droplets to fall in the Musjid; A very heavy vessel should not be used when performing Wudu, especially if one is a weak person, as this will cause water to wastefully spill; To audibly say, I am performing Wudu; To have the constant intention of Wudu in mind whilst washing every part; To recite the Bismillah; To recite Durood Shareef; To recite:

 

 

 

 

And when rinsing the mouth to recite:

 

 

 

 

When putting water into the nose, to recite:

 

 

 

 

When washing the face, to recite:

 

 

 

When washing the right hand, to recite:

 

 

 

 

When washing the left hand to recite:

 

 

 

When making masah of the head, to recite:

 

 

When making masah of the ears, to recite:

 

 

When making masah of the neck, to recite:

 

 

When washing the right foot, to recite:

 

 

 

When washing the left foot, to recite:

 

 

 

On completing the Wudu, to recite:

 

 

 

 

To stand up and drink some of the remaining water of Wudu, as it is cure for illnesses and to thereafter recite:

 

 

Also recite Kalima Shahaadat and Surah ﻨﺎ ْﻟ ﺍﻧْﺰ ن ﺍ ‘Inna Anzalna’. The limbs washed in Wudu should not be wiped without reason and if

 

wiped then they should not be wiped to the extent whereby they become completely dry. A slight moistness should remain, as this will be kept on the scale with all our other virtuous deeds; one should also abstain from dusting the hands by shaking it, as this is regarded as the fan of shaitaan. After Wudu, sprinkle some water on the gusset.

 

If it is not a Makruh time then one should also perform 2 Raka’at of Nafil Namaaz. This 2 Raka’at Namaaz is known as ‘Tahiyatul Wudu’.

 

Makruh Actions in Wudu

 

  1. To use the remaining Wudu or Ghusl water of a female to perform Wudu
  2. To sit in an impure place for Wudu
  3. To allow Wudu water to drop in an impure place
  4. To perform Wudu inside the actual Musjid
  5. To allow water from the limbs which have been washed to drip into the vessel used for Wudu
  6. To allow mucus from the nostril or spittle to fall into Wudu water
  7. To spit, gargle or cough out phlegm in the direction of Qibla
  8. To discuss worldly issues without reason

* Qadi Sadrush Shariah has presented at least 65 Mustahabs in the above mentioned discussion on Mustahabs of Wudu.

  1. To use excessive amounts of water
  2. To use such an insufficient amount of water, that the Wudu is not properly fulfilled
  3. To splash water on the face
  4. To blow when putting water on the face
  5. To wash the face with one This is the practice of the Rufaad and the Hindus.

 

  1. To make Masah of the throat
  2. To use the left hand to put water into the mouth when gargling and when cleaning the nostrils
  3. To clean the nostrils with the right hand
  4. To set aside a specific vessel or jug for yourself
  5. To make masah of the head thrice with 3 fresh amounts of water
  6. To wipe the limbs washed in Wudu with the same cloth that was used to dry one’s self after Istinja
  7. To perform Wudu with water heated by the sun
  8. To shut the eyes or lips If however one closes it so tightly that the necessary areas are not washed, then the Wudu is not valid. The omission of every Sunnat is Makruh and similarly to abstain from every Makruh is Sunnat.

 

Miscellaneous Laws Regarding Wudu

 

Law: If one does not have Wudu, it is Fard (obligatory) to perform Wudu for Namaaz, Sajdah-e-Tilaawat and Janaazah Namaaz and to touch the Qur’an.

 

Law: Wudu is Waajib (compulsory) when performing Tawaaf of the Kaaba.

 

Law: It is also Sunnat to perform Wudu before Ghusl of Janaabat; before a Junub has anything to eat or drink; before sleeping; before calling out the Azaan and Iqaamat; before the Khutbah or Jummah and both Eids; before presence at the Rauda-e-Mubaarak of Rasoolullah  ;  for  the  Waquf  of  Arafat  and  for  performing  Sa’ee between Saffa Marwah.

 

Law: It is also Mustahab to perform Wudu before going to bed; after waking up from sleep; after bathing a deceased and after carrying a deceased; before sexual intimacy with ones wife; when one is overwhelmed by anger; when reciting the Holy Qur’an audibly (from memory); before reading or teaching any Hadith; before reading or teaching any other Deeni knowledge; and with exception of Jummah and Both Eids, to make Wudu for any other Khutbah; before touching any Deeni Books; after touching the private parts of the body; after telling lies; after being vulgar; after swearing; after touching the body of an unbeliever; after touching a cross or an idol; after brushing against a person who has leprosy or leucoderma; after scratching the armpit, if a foul smell emanates; after backbiting; after bursting into laughter; after reciting absurd poetic stanzas; after eating camel meat; if your body rubs against the body of a female without any cloth in-between and for a person who is about to read Namaaz, even though he may be in Wudu.1

 

Law: It is Mustahab to perform Wudu if ones Wudu has been nullified (i.e. it is Mustahab to remain in Wudu at all times).

 

Law: Wudu is not Fard upon a Na-Baaligh2 but it is better to have him or her make Wudu, so that they may get into the habit of making Wudu, thereby learning how to make Wudu and also becoming conscious in regards to the laws related to Wudu.

 

  1. It is Mustahab (desirable) to perform Wudu in all the above mentioned It must however be noted that even though the law is that one should make Wudu if one swears or says something vulgar or touches a cross or an idol etc., it does not mean that to do these things is permissible. Such actions are definitely impermissible but to perform Wudu thereafter symbolises how important it is to cleanse oneself from all of these actions.

 

  1. Na-Baaligh: refers to a child who has not reached the age of puberty

 

Law: The spout of the jug used to make Wudu should not be so narrow that it becomes difficult to pour out the water and it should also not be so broad that it causes water to spill out unnecessarily, thereby leading to wastage. The spout should be of medium thickness.

 

Law: When taking water in the hand, be sure not to allow water to spill (without reason) as this will be regarded as ‘Israaf’ (being wasteful). Similarly, when taking water in the hand for anything, be sure to estimate the correct amount that is required and do not take more than what is required. For example, in order to wash the nostrils, only half a handful of water is sufficient, so one should not take a complete handful of water, as this will be regarded as ‘Israaf’.

 

Law: If one has excessive hair on the hands, legs, chest or back, it should be shaved off or trimmed, so that that excess water is not used when washing.

 

Important Note: ‘Walhaan’ is the name of a shaitaan who causes ‘waswasa’ ‘distraction’ to a person in Wudu. A very effective method of protection from his distraction is to seek protection in Allah by reciting the complete ﺎﷲ ﺑ ْﻮذ ﻋ ﺍ A’oozu Bil’laah, followed

recitation of ﺎﷲ ﺑ ﻻ ﺍ ة ﻮ ﻻﻗ و ل ْﻮ ﺣ ﻻ La Hawla Wa La Quw’wata il’la Bil’laah;

then Surah Naas; followed by the recitation of  ِ  ْﻮﻟ ﺳ  ر  و   ﷲ ﺎ ﺑ ﺖ   ْﻨ ﻣ  ‘ Aamantu Bil’laahi Wa Rasoolihi; and:

 

 

 

 

And Subhaanal Maalikil Khal’laqi; followed by:

 

 

 

 

This will allow the distractions to be cut off from the origin. Another way to remove any such thoughts is not to allow the mind to be occupied by any distractive thoughts and not to pay any attention to such thoughts and to act contrary to the evil distractions which occur in the mind.

 

Factors which Nullify (break) the Wudu

 

Law: If stool (faeces), urine, Wadi1, Mazee2, Manee3, a worm or a stone is passed from either the front or rear passage of the private organ of a male or female, it will cause the Wudu to be nullified (i.e. broken). If a male has not been circumcised and any one of the following things came out of the opening of the male organ but still remained in the foreskin, the Wudu is still regarded as being nullified.

 

Law: If a similar thing happens in the case of a female and it is still within the outer layer of skin, the Wudu will still be regarded as being nullified.

 

 

 

  1. Wadi: refers to Urinary fluid: Urinary fluid is a grimy thick white fluid that has no It is emitted after urinating but can sometimes precede it.

 

  1. Mazee: refers to Pre-ejaculation fluid: Pre-ejaculation The fluid is thin and white and is emitted at the time of desire and not due to desire.

 

  1. Manee: refers to semen/sperm

 

Law: That clear fluid (discharge) which is released from the vagina of a female without any blood mixed in it does not cause the Wudu to be nullified. If this comes onto the clothing, the clothing will still be regarded as being ‘Paak’ (pure).

 

Law: If a male or female passes air from the rear, it will cause Wudu to be nullified.

 

Law: If the tissue between both the private parts of a female tears apart, causing it to become one and if she passes air it is advisable to repeat the Wudu, even if she is confident that it came out through the front.

Law: If a male inserted something into the opening of the penis (urethra) and it came back out, the Wudu will not be nullified.

 

Law: If one had an enema administered and some of the medication came back out or if something was put into the rear and it came out, the Wudu will be nullified. Similarly, if a female had a cloth or something else placed in the vagina and there was no sign of anything on it from the outer vagina but when it was removed, it was soiled with blood or some other impurity then now the Wudu will be regarded as nullified.

 

Law: If blood, pus or a yellowish fluid flows from anywhere and if it had the ability of flowing (spreading) up to an area that is Fard to wash in Wudu or Ghusl then in such a case, the Wudu will be nullified. However, if it only is very little blood on the skin and does not flow, such as in the case when one is pricked by the tip of a needle or side of a knife, causing the blood to just come up onto the skin (without flowing); or in the case when one makes Khilaal or

 

miswak or brushes the teeth with the finger or bites something with the teeth and finds traces of blood on it; or if one places the finger into the nostril and the redness of blood becomes evident on it but (in all these cases) if the blood did not have the ability of flowing, the Wudu will not be nullified.

 

Law: However, if one of the above mentioned oozed (flowed) out but did not spread to the area which is Fard to wash in Wudu, then the Wudu will not be nullified. For example, if there was a pimple (or boil) inside the eye which burst in the eye and whatever was discharged from it flowed into the eye and did not spread and flow out of the eye or if a boil etc. burst inside the ear and the fluid from it did not flow out of the ear, then in such cases, the Wudu will not be nullified.

Law: If a fissure or hole is formed in a wound and some kind of discharge appeared in it but did not flow out, the Wudu will not be nullified.

 

Law: If a wound etc. began to bleed and one continuously wiped out the blood, not giving it the chance to flow then one should observe whether it would have flowed out or not if he had not wiped it. If it would have flowed out then the Wudu will be nullified, otherwise not. The same ruling applies if he continuously used ash and earth to dry it up.

 

Law: If one squeezed an abscess or pimple thereby causing blood to flow out of it then even though it would not have flowed out if he did not squeezed it, the Wudu will still be nullified.

 

Law: Liquid (or tears) which flow from the eye, nose, navel or breast etc. due to a pimple, ulcer or some other infection will cause the Wudu to break.

 

Law: If a worm falls out of a wound or from the nose, ears or mouth it will not break the Wudu. Similarly, if a piece of flesh separates from a wound and falls off, the Wudu will not be nullified. This is on condition that there is no impurity such as blood or pus or any other impure fluid which has the ability to flow, evident on it.

 

Law: If one put oil into the ear and it flowed out from the ear or nose a day later, the Wudu will not be nullified. Even if it comes out of the mouth, the Wudu will not be nullified. However, if one is able to determine that it flowed from the brain into the stomach and it has now actually come from the stomach then in such a case the Wudu is nullified.

 

Law: If a blister was squeezed and the fluid from it flowed out, the Wudu is nullified, otherwise not.

 

Law: If blood came out of the mouth and is predominant over the saliva then the Wudu will be nullified, otherwise not.

 

Important Note: The distinguishing factor in regards to predominance is as follows: If the spit turns reddish, it will indicate the predominance of blood and if it turns yellowish it will indicate the predominance of saliva.

 

Law: If a big leech draws blood and drinks an amount that if it had been a normal bleed, it would have had the ability to flow then the Wudu will be nullified, otherwise not.

 

Law: If a small leach, lice, bed bug, mosquito, fly or flea, draws blood, the Wudu will not be nullified.

 

Law: If whilst cleaning the nostrils, dry blood comes out, it will not cause the Wudu to be nullified.

 

Law: If any fluid flows out of the navel, the Wudu will be nullified and if a thread (cotton etc.) comes out of it, the Wudu is still valid.

 

Law: The fluid that flows from the eye of a blind person due pain (an infection etc.), will nullify the Wudu.

 

Law: Vomiting a mouthful of food, water or bile nullifies the Wudu.

 

Important Note: Vomiting a mouthful is in the sense when one vomits without intent, i.e. it is something that he could not control or stop from happening.

Law: Vomiting phlegm does not nullify the Wudu, no matter how much it may be.

 

Law: Vomiting blood that has the ability to flow, will nullify the Wudu if it is not predominated by saliva. However, if one vomits cloths of blood then it will not nullify the Wudu unless it is a mouthful, i.e. vomiting a mouthful of blood clot will nullify the Wudu.

 

Law: If one drank water and it entered the stomach, thereafter the same water comes up in a clear and transparent form of vomit then if this is equal to a mouthful, the Wudu is nullified and that water is regarded as being ‘Najis’ (impure). However, if this water had only

 

reached the chest when one choked and brought this water up then neither is such water regarded as being impure and nor will this nullify the Wudu.

 

Law: Vomiting a few times, a little at a time, an amount of vomit which equals a mouthful, which is from just one bout of nausea then it will nullify the Wudu. However, if the nausea subsided and there was no effect of it remaining, then the nausea started all over again which brought about the vomiting and the vomit of both bouts are not separate mouthfuls each but if combined it would make up a mouthful, then this will not nullify the Wudu. However, if this happens in one session, it is advisable to perform fresh Wudu.

 

Law: If one only vomits worms (maggots) or snakes, the Wudu will not be nullified. However, if there is some fluidity (something liquid) with this then it will be seen whether it equals a mouthful or not. If it is a mouthful it will nullify the Wudu otherwise not.

 

Law: If a person falls asleep, it will cause the Wudu to be nullified on condition that both the buttocks are not firmly planted on the ground or if he fell asleep in any such position which does not hinder him from heedlessly falling asleep. For example, If a person falls asleep whilst squatting; or whilst lying on the back or stomach; or whilst lying on his side; or by sitting whilst leaning on one elbow falling to one side whereby one or both buttocks are not on the ground; or if he is riding without a saddle and the animal is descending a slope; or if he is sitting on the hams and resting his stomach (whilst bending over) on his lap, in a manner whereby the both buttocks are not planted on the ground; or if he is sitting cross- legged and his head is on his lap or shins, or if he is sitting in the position in which females perform Sajdah (prostration) the Wudu

 

will be nullified. In other words to fall asleep in any one of the above mention positions or postures will nullify the Wudu. If one intentionally falls asleep in Namaaz, in any one of the said positions then both the Wudu and the Namaaz will be nullified. One must perform fresh Wudu and repeat the Niyyah (intention). If one did not fall asleep intentionally, the Wudu will be nullified but the Namaaz will not be nullified. He should perform Wudu afresh and then continue with the ‘Rukn’, i.e. (essential position) of Namaaz in which he fell asleep. It is however better to start the Namaaz afresh.

Law: If both the buttocks are planted on the ground or on a chair or on a bench and if both legs are spread out to one side; or if one is sitting on both buttocks and the knees are upright and the hands are encircling the shins, even if on the ground; if one is sitting upright on his hams or sitting crossed legged; or sitting on a saddled animal; or if one is sitting on a bare back animal which is ascending a slope or if the road is level; or if one fell asleep whilst standing; or like when in the posture of Ruku (bowing); or in the posture of Sajdah that is the recommended posture for males; then in all the above situations the Wudu will not be nullified. If any of these situations occur in Namaaz then neither will the Wudu nor the Namaaz be nullified. However, if one completed the entire Rukn (Position) whilst asleep then it is necessary to repeat it. If one was awake in that particular Rukn and then fell asleep then in this case if one fulfilled that which suffices for this Rukn, it is sufficient, otherwise it should be completed.

Law: If one fell asleep in a position that does not nullify the Wudu and whilst asleep his posture changed to that which nullifies the Wudu, then if he awoke immediately without any pause, then the Wudu has not been nullified otherwise it is nullified.

 

Law: If one fell asleep whilst sitting, hanging his legs alongside a hot ‘Tanoor’ (oven etc.), it is advisable to make fresh Wudu.

Law: If a sick person was performing Namaaz whilst lying down and he fell asleep, his Wudu will be nullified.

 

Law: Yawning or dozing whilst sitting does not nullify the Wudu.

 

Law: If one felt light-headed and fell but opened his eyes immediately, the Wudu is not nullified.

 

Law: Sometimes whilst seated waiting for Namaaz to commence, one is overwhelmed by sleep and one wishes to get rid of this but sometimes it happens such that he is not even aware of what is said to him at this time. Actually after being called two or three times, he awakens and he thinks that he had not slept. There is no credibility with regards to this thought of his, if a credible person informs him that he was totally unaware of what was happening around him (i.e. he was definitely asleep). If he did not answer when called or if he is questioned in regards to something that happened at that time and he cannot tell you anything about it then it is necessary for him to make fresh Wudu.

 

Important Note: When Ambia ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ sleep, it does not interfere with their Wudu in any way. Their eyes sleep but their hearts are awake and alert.

 

There is a difference of opinion in regards to whether with the exception of sleep, the other things which nullify Wudu of ordinary people, undoes the Wudu of the Ambia ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ or not.

 

The correct ruling is that it does undo their Wudu but this is because of their excellence and status and not because of the Najaasat (impurities), because that which emanates from their bodies is pure and unpolluted and to consume it is Halaal and means of Barkat.

 

Law: Unconsciousness, insanity, fainting and intoxication to the extent that causes ones legs to wobble when walking, nullifies the Wudu.

 

Law: ‘Qahqaha’ (laughing out loud by a conscious adult when one is standing in close proximity can hear the laughter), in a Namaaz consisting of Ruku and Sajdah will nullify the Wudu and will also render the Namaaz invalidated.

 

Law: If one in an unconscious state (i.e. who has fallen asleep) in Namaaz, or one in Janaazah Namaaz, or one performing Sajdah-e- Tilaawat makes Qahqaha, the Wudu will not be nullified but the Namaaz and Sajdah will be rendered invalid.

 

Law: If one smiles to the extent that the teeth are noticeable but no sound at all is emitted then this will neither nullify the Wudu nor the Namaaz.

 

Law: ‘Mubashirat-e-Faahisha’ will nullify the Wudu. This refers to a male touching his erect penis against the private parts of a female or the private parts of another male; or if a female rubs her private part against the private part of another female and there is nothing (clothes etc.) between them, the Wudu will be nullified.1

 

Law: If a male rubbed his penis against the private part of a female and the penis was not erect, the Wudu of the female will still be

 

nullified in this situation; even though the Wudu of the male will not be nullified.

 

Law: If after passing stool one used a clod (of clay) to clean himself and then performed Wudu; later remembering that he had not used water after passing stool then if he performs the cleaning ritual in the recommended manner, i.e. by sitting with the legs apart and pushing down with the force of the breath then the Wudu will be nullified and if he just cleans without doing this, it will be regarded as being valid. However, it is advisable for him to repeat the Wudu.

Law: If a sore (blister etc) has healed completely but it still has a dead outer skin which has an opening on the top and empty inside; then if water goes into it and one squeezes out the water, neither will the Wudu be nullified nor will that water be regarded as being Najis (impure). However, if there is some wetness (or fluidity) of blood etc. still present in it,] then the Wudu will be nullified and that water will be regarded as impure.

 

Law: It is commonly mentioned amongst the laymen and ordinary people that if ones knees or private parts are disclosed or if one sees his own private parts or that of others the Wudu is nullified. This is simply baseless and incorrect. However, it is definitely from amongst the ethics of Wudu to make sure the ‘Satr’, i.e. the area between the

  1. It must be noted that for a male to have any sexual intimacy with a male and for a female to have any such intimacy with a female is a cursed, forbidden and sinful act. One who does this invites the Wrath of Allah and will be severely punished for this huge sin in the hereafter. These situations are only being explained here to clarify the Shariah rulings in this regard. This point should be kept in mind when reading any other law in this relation throughout the Bahaar e Shariat or in any other authentic book of Islamic law. Giving examples of such cases in no way implies or makes such sinful acts permissible.

 

navel and below the thigh is properly covered. Actually this area should be covered immediately after Istinja because it is disallowed to leave the ‘Satr’ uncovered unnecessarily and to open the ‘Satr’ in the presence of others is Haraam.

 

Other Miscellaneous Laws

 

That wetness or fluid which comes out of the body of a person and does not nullify the Wudu is not regarded as being impure, such as blood which did not flow out from its actual spot and very little vomit which is not equal to a mouthful. These are regarded as being Paak (pure).

 

Law: If rash (eczema etc.) has a moistness or fluid that does not flow out of its place but only has a greasy nature then if a cloth is used to dab it over and over again, no matter how moist the cloth becomes, the cloth will still be regarded as being pure (i.e. can still be used in Namaaz etc).

 

Law: The drool which comes from the mouth, even if it emanates from the stomach and has a bad odour, it is still regarded as being Paak (pure).

Law: The water that flows out from the mouth of a deceased is regarded as being impure.

 

Law: Tears which come from an infected eye is regarded as being impure and nullifies the Wudu. To be cautious with regards to this is necessary.

 

Law: If a newborn baby (suckling baby) vomits milk then it is regarded as being impure if it is a mouthful. If it soils an area that is more than the size of a dirham, it will make that area impure. However, if this milk did not reach the stomach but only reached the chest and then came up again, it will be regarded as being Paak.

 

Law: If one passes air (i.e. flatulence) whilst performing Wudu or if any other thing which nullifies the Wudu occurs, then the Wudu must be started all over again and all the parts that have been washed before must be re-washed; as those parts will be regarded as being unwashed once the Wudu has been nullified.

 

Law: If one took water in the palm of the hand and some impurity was passed then that water is not usable anymore and must thus be discarded. The said water cannot be used to wash any other parts.

 

Law: If an amount of blood which causes the saliva to become reddish is discharged from the mouth and in such a case if one put his mouth to a jug etc. to take water for rinsing the mouth, then the jug and all the water in it will be regarded as being impure. One should take water in the palm of the hand and use that to rinse the mouth. In this case, one should wash the hand each time after rinsing the mouth.

 

Law: If whilst making Wudu, one has a doubt as to whether a particular part was washed or not then if one finds himself in such a predicament for the first time in his life, he should wash that part. However, if this kind of suspicious thought always occurs, one should not pay any attention to it. Similarly if one has a similar suspicion in one’s mind after completing Wudu, he should not repeat it.

 

 

Law: If a person was in the state of Wudu then later he doubts whether he has Wudu or not then in such a condition it is not necessary for him to make Wudu. However, it is better to repeat Wudu, as long as this suspicion is not emanating from any ‘waswasa’ ‘shaitaani distraction’.

 

Law: A person sat down to make Wudu but now cannot remember whether he made Wudu or not. In this case, it is not necessary for him to make Wudu again.

 

Law: One sat down to pass urine or stool but thereafter cannot remember if he passed urine or stool or not. In this case it is Fard for him to make Wudu.

 

Law: If one knows that he has forgotten to wash a certain part but cannot remember which part he has not washed then in such a case he should wash the left foot.

 

Law: One notices some moistness on the gusset but he is not able to determine whether it is water or urine. If this is the first time in his life that he has faced such a predicament, he should make Wudu and wash that area. However, if he always has this kind of suspicions, he should not pay attention to it, as it is shaitaani distraction ‘waswasa’.

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