Al Farooq Omar Bin Al Khattab
AMEER-UL-MU’MINEEN SAYYIDUNA OMAR AL-FAROOQ
His Name And Lineage
His name was Omar. His Kunniyyah was Abu Hafs and his title was Al-Farooq Al-A’dham. His father’s name was Al-Khattab and his mother’s name was Hantamah who was the daughter of Hishaam Ibn Al Mugheerah and the sister of Abu Jahl. His ancestry of him combines with the Messenger of Allah’s ancestry eight generations prior to their generation of him.
He was born 13 years after the year of the elephant (Feel) event and he accepted Islam at the age of 27, 6 years after the Messenger of Allah announced his prophethood. Prior to him, 40 men and 11 women had accepted Islam. Other scholars have differed with this and said that he accepted Islam after 39 men and 23 women had already become Muslims. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
It is narrated in At-Tirmidhi that the Messenger of Allah used to supplicate in the court of his Lord that between Omar Ibn Al-Khattab and Abu Jahl Ibn Hishaam, whoever was beloved to Allah should exalt Islam. It is narrated in Al-Haakim by Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas that the Messenger used to pray,
“O Allah, strengthen Islam through Omar Ibn Al-Khattaab especially.” This supplication of our Master was accepted and Sayyiduna Omar became a Muslim. “
How Sayyiduna Omar accepted Islam
As the Muslim’s popularity began to increase, the disbelievers plotted to assassinate the Messenger of Allah and organized a meeting to discuss the manner in which they would attempt to accomplish this.
When they reached an agreement in regard to the fact that they would attempt to assassinate the Messenger, the question hon arose as to who would assassinate him.
The entire gathering was silent apart from Omar who announced that he wished to carry out this act of atrocity. The crowd acknowledged the fact that the accomplishment of this mission was within the capability of Sayyiduna Omar.
Sayyiduna Omar departed with his sword swaying until he was hindered by a man. from the tribe of Zahrah who is said to have been Nu’aim Ibn Abdillah but there are different narrations in regards to who the man actually was. This man asked Omar, “Where are you going?” Omar replied that he was going to assassinate Muhammad.
The man asked Omar how he was going to save himself from the tribe of Banu Hashim and Banu Zahrah as these two tribes would surely avenge the assassination of the beloved of Allah. Sayyiduna Omar was enraged by these words and remarked that it seemed as though the man who was questioning him had forsaken the religion of his forefathers and reached for his sword saying that it was appropriate to finish the man challenging him before proceeding towards the Messenger of Allah.
The man, believed to have been Sayyiduna Nu’aim, drew his sword too and a bloody exchange was about to erupt between the two men when the man told Omar to assess the situation of his own family before attempting to reform others as Omar’s sister Fatimah Bint Al-Khattab and her husband Sa’eed Ibn Zaid e had also forsaken the religion of their forefathers and embraced Islam.
This news astonished and angered Sayyiduna Omar who rushed to the house of his sister where Sayyiduna Khabbaab was teaching Sayyidah Fatimah Bint Al-Khattab and her husband the Qur’an with the doors locked. When Sayyiduna Omar arrived and demanded that the doors be opened, Sayyiduna Khabbaab hid in a corner of the house. The door was then opened for Sayyiduna Omar who asked regarding the voice that he could hear coming from the room when he was outside.
His brother-in-law evaded the question and did not give a clear answer. Omar said to them that he had heard that they had turned away from the religion of their Sayyiduna Omar Al-Farooq ancestors and adopted a new religion. Sayyiduna Sa’eed Ibn Zaid replied that the reason for this was the fact that the religion of their predecessors was false and their new religion was true.
Sayyiduna Omar was infuriated by these words and charged upon his brother-in-law of him, throwing him to the ground, pulling his beard, and beating him mercilessly. His sister de ella attempted to intervene but Sayyiduna Omar punched her with such a fierce blow that she began to be flooded in a pool of blood. She was Omar’s sister and therefore she was also very outspoken. She said to Omar that he could beat her husband and herself extracting every drop of blood from their bodies from her but he would never be able to extract Imaan (faith) from their hearts from her.
She further stated that she testified that there was none worthy of worship except for Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger of him. She now said to Omar that she and her husband were Muslims and that he could now attempt according to the best of his ability to alter but would never manage to do so.
Witnessing his sister’s emotions de ella and the blood flowing from her body de ella, Omar became calm and he requested that he be allowed to assess the scripture that they were reading before her arrival. Sayyiduna Omar’s sister informed him that it was not possible for him to touch the holy scriptures without being pure. Although he was continually insisting, he had to bathe before being able to touch the scriptures. The chapter Taa-Haa from the Qur’an was before him that he began to recite. He reached the ayah
“Verily I am Allah there is none to be worshiped save me. So worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance. ‘ (Al-Qur’an Surah 20:14)
Sayyiduna Omara sked to be taken before the Messenger of Allah after completing the recitation of this ayah. Upon hearing Omar saying these words, Sayyiduna Khabbaab came out of hiding and gave glad-tidings to Sayyiduna Omar that in the previous night the master of all creation, Sayyiduna Muhammad had prayed in the court of Allah that the one whoever was beloved to Him between Omar and Abu Jahl should become the means of Islam’s strength. Thus it had become manifest that the supplication of the Messenger had been accepted and Omar was the one who would become a great assistant of Islam.
The Messenger of Allah was at this time residing in the house of Sayyiduna Arqam that was situated near the mount, As-Safa.
When Sayyiduna Khabbanh accompanied Sayyiduna Omar to the house, Sayyiduna Hamzah and Sayyidung Talhah who were guarding the house, noticed that Sayyiduna Omar Was arriving and Sayyiduna Hamzah decided that Omar would be saved if he came with a pure intention otherwise it was extremely easy to kill him. The Beloved of Allah had become aware of the situation through revelation and came out of the house and embraced Omar, holding Omar’s sword and asking Omar, “Shall you continue this dissension until you are subdued by disgrace?” Upon hearing this. Sayyiduna Omar immediately recited,
“I testify that there is none worthy of worship besides Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger of him.” (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
This was the manner in which the prayer of the Messenger of Allah for Sayyiduna Omar was accepted. Sayyiduna Omar departed with the intention of assassinating the Messenger but instead found himself following the Messenger and accepting his message from him. It also becomes apparent that Islam didn’t spread by the sword but moreover, one can see that there was no sword in the hands of the one spreading Islam but there was a sword in the hand of the one who was coming to attack the Prophet but his heart was enlightened on the way with the light of faith and he had forsaken the sword.
The Appellation ‘Al-Farooq
Sayyiduna Omar recalls the time when he accepted Islam and the Muslims began to chant slogans with such passion that the noise coming from Sayyiduna Arqam’s house could be heard by everyone in Makkah. Sayyiduna Omar asked the Messenger of Allah, “O Messenger of Allah, are we not on the truth?” The beloved of Allah replied that they were indeed on the truth. Sayyiduna Omar then asked why there was then so much secretiveness and hiding, The Muslin: s then departed from the house of Sayyiduna Arqam in two lines. In one line there was Hamzah whilst in the other line there was Sayyiduna Omar, When Muslims entered the sacred Masjid (Masjid Al Haraam), the disbelievers amongst the Quraysh were grieved to see Sayyiduna Omar and Sayyiduna Hamzah with the Muslims. On this day the beloved of Allah gave Sayyiduna Omar the name Al-Farooq ‘due to the fact that he had established separation between truth and falsehood. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 78)
The Expression of Faith
Sayyiduna Omar narrates that after his acceptance of Islam, he went to the house of his maternal uncle Abu Jahl Ibn Hishaam who was an influential leader of the Qurayshi tribe. Sayyiduna Omar knocked on his door and Abu Jahl asked who was there from the inside.
Sayyiduna Omar answered that it was Omar and that he had forsaken the religion of Abu Jahl and embraced Islam. Abu Jahl answered, “Never do anything like this” but he did not come out of the house due to his fear of Sayyiduna Omar and he locked the door from the interior. Sayyiduna Omar asked what kind of behavior this was but there was no reply nor was the door unlocked.
Sayyiduna Omar waited a while for an answer but eventually moved on to the house of another influential figure. When Sayyiduna Omar knocked on his door, he came out and was told the same thing as Abu Jahl had been told. The man answered that Sayyiduna Omar should not do this i.e. he should not accept Islam but he immediately re-entered his home and locked the doors.
Sayyiduna Omar was astonished by the reaction that he was receiving, as others who embraced Islam were tortured and oppressed but he was not facing any confrontation. A person heard Omar expressing these thoughts and asked him, “Do you want to announce your belief in Islam?” When Sayyiduna Omar replied in the affirmative, the man told him to approach one man who was sat near a few stones.
This man would spread the news everywhere of any secretive information that he received. If he was to find out about Sayyiduna Omar being a Muslim there would be no need for Sayyiduna Omar to go to every household in order to announce his beliefs of him.
Sayyiduna Omar approached the man and told him of his acceptance of Islam. After confirming that the news was true, the man announced,
“O people! Omar Ibn Al-Khattaab has forsaken our religion!” As soon as the people realized this, they attacked Sayyiduna Omar and for a while the commotion continued until Abu Jahl, the maternal uncle of Sayyiduna Omar became aware of the situation and he announced, “I have provided my nephew refuge.” As soon as he said these words, those who were quarreling with Omar immediately halted their attack. It was unbearable for Omar that his fellow Muslims were continuously tormented and he was being given refuge. Sayyiduna Omar approached Abu Jahl and told him, “A a, dl” – “Your protection has been returned to you ‘” i.e. he was not in need of Abu Jahl’s refuge. The fighting and quarreling continued for a while until Islam became dominant. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 77)
It is narrated by Sayyiduna Ibn Mas’ood who states that Sayyiduna Omar’s acceptance of Islam was a victory (Fath), his Hijrah (migration) was the nusrah (assistance) of Allah and his Khilafah was a mercy of the Lord. No Muslim had the courage to pray near the blessed house of Allah but when Sayyiduna Omar accepted Islam, he fought and disputed with the disbelievers to such an extent that they eventually refrained from their oppression of Muslims who could now pray before the Kaaba openly without fear. It is narrated by Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas that the first person to openly announce his acceptance of Islam was Sayyiduna Omar ă. n Sayyiduna Suhaib narrates that faith was openly announced after the time when Sayyiduna Omar accepted Islam. Before that time the Muslims didn’t express their beliefs openly. After Sayyiduna Omar embraced Islam, the propagation of Islam was carried out openly and the Muslims organized gatherings beside the blessed house of Allah (i.e. The Kaaba) and they began to circumambulate the Kaaba without fear. The Muslims were also able to reply to the challenges they faced from the disbelievers. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa, Page 79)
Sayyiduna Omar’s migration was unique as stated by Sayyiduna Ali who recalls the fact that the only person to migrate publicly from amongst the Muslims Savviduna Omar. When Sayyiduna Omar intended to migrate to Madinah, he waited for the house of Allah with his sword around his neck, his bow above his shoulders, his arrow out of its quiver and in his hands from him.
Many noblemen of the Quraysh were gathered in the house of Allah. Sayyiduna Omar calmly performed the Tawaaf and thereafter, I have performed two rak’ahs in front of the Maqam of Ibrahim. After completing these rituals, Sayyiduna Omar approached the nobility of Quraysh individually and said to each of them, “l -” May your faces be disfigured “and thereafter said to them,
” Whosoever desires that his mother be bereaved of a child, his child be orphaned and his wife be widowed then he should meet me behind this valley. “
In spite of Sayyiduna Omar’s challenge, not one of the disbelievers dared to follow Sayyiduna Omar to the valley. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa, Page 79)
Sayyiduna Baraa e states that the first migrant (Muhaajir) to arrive from Makkah to Madinah was Sayyiduna Mus’ab Ibn ‘Omair (May Allah be pleased with him) who was then followed by Sayyiduna Ibn Umm Maktoom. After these two companions, Sayyiduna Omar arrived in the blessed city of Madinah with twenty horsemen accompanying him. The residents of Madinah (Al-Ansaar) asked In regards to the arrival of mercy to all the universes and were informed that the beloved of Allah would depart for Madinah after a while. After some time, the Messenger arrived in Madinah with Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq in his blessed company. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
Imam An-Nawawi á states that Sayyiduna Omar participated in all the Ghazwaat – wars led by the Messenger of Allah. In the battle of Uhud, he remained steadfast even when the situation deteriorated somewhat. At that time. many other companions panicked but Sayyiduna Omar remained firm. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
His Physical Attributes
Sayyiduna Zir narrates that Sayyiduna Omar a possessed brownish skin color and due to wearing a helmet, he experienced hair loss. He was quite tall and due to this, his head would seem higher than others when seated in a gathering. From far, one would assume that he was sat on an animal.
Allamah Waagqidi states that those who narrate that the skin color of Sayyiduna Omar e was a brownish claim in this manner due to the fact that they saw him at the time of famine and drought. At that time, I used to apply olive oil on his skin and that made his complexion seem darker.
Sayyiduna Ibn Sa’d narrate that Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn Omar was once describing Sayyiduna Omar’s physical features. He mentioned how Sayyiduna Omar had a red and white complexion. In his final years, his hair had fallen and signs of old age were apparent.
It has been narrated from Ibn Rajaa by Ibn Asaakir that Sayyiduna Omar was a man tall in length and his body de él was bulky. He had lost a lot of hair and his skin color de él was extremely white and redness twinkled in it. His cheeks were tightened into his face. His mustache de él was surrounded by a lot of space and it was surrounded with redness. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 89)
Al-Farooq Al-A’dham and the Ahaadeeth
There are many Ahaadeeth reported in praise of Sayyiduna Omar Al-Farooq. The Messenger of Allah said, – “If there were to be a prophet after me then that prophet would be Omar Ibn Al-Khattaab.” (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 558)
is narrated by Sayyidah A’ishah As-Siddeeqah
“I am looking towards the human and Jinn devils who are flecing from Omar.” Alfshkaalt-tul-Mlasaabeeh Page 558)
Such is the exalted status of Sayyiduna Omar S that all types of devils flee from him, Itis stated in Madaarij-un-Nubuwwah (Volume 2 Page 426) that the Messenger of Allah stated,
“Omar is from me and I am from Omar. Wherever Omar proceeds, the truth accompanies him.
” It is narrated in Al-Bukhari and Muslim by Sayyiduna Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah recalled a dream in which he saw that some people were being presented before him. These people were all attired in shirts. Some shirts reached the people’s chests whilst others were even smaller than that.
Omar Ibn Al-Khattab was then presented before the Messenger of Allah with a long robe that reached the ground. When the beloved of Allah managed to relate this dream, the companions asked the Messenger of Allah in regards to the indications that could be construed from this dream. The Messenger of Allah replied, “Religion.” (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh)
This Hadeeth is indicating the greatness of Sayyiduna Omar in terms of religion and piety. It is narrated in At-Tirmidhi by Sayyiduna Ibn Omar that the Messenger of Allah said, d- “Indeed Allah has made prevalent the truth on the tongue of Omar and also upon his heart of him.” (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh, Page 557) In other words, Sayyiduna Omar always spoke the truth and falsehood could never be prevalent in his heart from him, and nor could it flow from his tongue from him. It is narrated in At-Tibraani Al-Awsat by Sayyiduna Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri that the Master of all creation said,
“Whosoever detested Omar, he has detested me and whosoever loved Omar has loved me.”
Furthermore, Allah’s Messenger stated, “Allah has expressed His pride of the people of Arafah and Omar specifically. Every prophet who has been sent, amongst his followers of him there was a Muhaddath. If there is a Muhaddath in my nation then that Muhaddath is Omar. ” The companions asked, “O Messenger! How does one be a Muhaddath?” The Messenger replied that the one from whose tongue the Angels converse is a Muhaddath. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa, Page 81)
A narration of Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah is mentioned in Al-Bukhari and Muslim, in which the Messenger of Allah said,
” There were amongst the nations preceding you Muhaddathoon. If there is any Muhaddath in my Ummah then that Muhaddath is Omar. (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 556)
Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah states that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq deprived of worldly wealth but had a desire and hope to gain this wealth. Sayyiduna Omar on the other hand was blessed with worldly wealth but he rejected it. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 82)
There is no doubt in this as worldly wealth was abundant during his Khilafah as many nations were conquered wherefrom many booties arrived but in spite of this, Sayyiduna Omar possessed a humble and simple lifestyle. It was during his Khilafah that the ancient Persian city of Madaa’in was conquered-a place wherefrom wealth was so abundantly gained that so much wealth had never been gained from any other city. It is possible to realize the great amount of wealth gained from thereby assessing the amount of booty distributed amongst the 60,000 soldiers who participated in the conquest. After a fifth of the booty was reserved for the Bait-ul-Maal (treasury), each soldier received a cash sum of twelve thousand Dirham. The amount assessed thus far excludes the value was Sayyiduna Omar Al-Farooq Sho furniture (carpet or mat) that was manufactured with gold, silver, and jewels con be comprehended when one looks at the amount received by Sayyiduna Ali Cor one square foot of this furniture. For only that small area of this carpet or mat, Sayyiduna Ali received the sum of 20,000 Dirham.
Despite having so much wealth in his possession, Sayyiduna Omar rejected wealth and furthered himself from it. Sayyiduna Hasan & states that Sayyiduna Omar wrote to Sayyiduna Hudhaifah and requested that the people be given money aside from their wages as a gift. Sayyiduna Hudhaifah replied that he had given bonuses to the people but there was still a lot of money remaining from the booties attained. Sayyiduna Omar ordered that the booties that had been gained belonged to the people and therefore, it was necessary that all the money be distributed amongst the people. Furthermore, he even said that the booties did not belong to him nor did they belong to his children. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 98)
The Qur’anic Rulings Being In Accordance With His Opinion
One of the excellences of Sayyiduna Omar was that the revelation was often in agreement with his opinion of him. Sayyiduna Ali states that the opinions of Sayyiduna Omar are present in the Qur’an. It is narrated by Sayyiduna Ibn Omar that whenever the view of Sayyiduna Omar differed from the views of everyone else, the revelation of the Qur’an would be in conformity to the view of Sayyiduna Omar. Sayyiduna Mujahid confirmed this in his narration in which he stated that whenever Sayyiduna Omar would advise taking a certain course of action, the Qur’an would be revealed in accordance with his advice. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 83)
Sayyiduna Omar states that his Lord of him confirmed twenty-one of his opinions of him to be correct and revealed the Qur’an accordingly. One such occasion was the time when Sayyiduna Omar requested in the court of the best of all creation that the purified wives of the Messenger should remain behind veils as many types of people visited the blessed household of the Messenger. Sayyiduna Omar states that the following Ayah was revealed in regards to the mothers of the believers and how they should remain in veils (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
‘And when you ask them anything of use, ask it of them from behind a curtain. ‘ (Al-Qur’an Surah 33:53)
The news of a caravan’s arrival from Ash-Shaam under the leadership of Abu Sufyan reached the beloved of Allah and therefore, the beloved departed in order to challenge this caravan and was accompanied by his companions of the.
The disbelievers of Makkah meanwhile, dispatched a powerful army under the guidance of Abu Jahl in order to assist the caravan. Abu Sufyan diverted towards the shores and therefore the associates of Abu Jahl advised that they should all return to Makkah as the caravan was now secure. Abu Jahl rejected this advice and proceeded towards Al-Badr with the intention of waging war against the Master of all creation. When the Messenger consulted the companions in regards to war, some of them bemoaned the fact that they had not left Madinah with the intention of fighting a battle and therefore they were ill-equipped. To make matters worse, they were outnumbered. Sayyiduna Omar advised that the Muslims should continue towards Al-Badr and confront the disbelievers. Thereafter this ayah was revealed,
“As (O beloved Prophet) your Lord brought you forth from your house with truth and undoubtedly a group of Muslims was unhappy over it. ‘ (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa)
Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Abu Ya’la states that a Jew met Sayyiduna Omar and said that the Angel Jibril (Gabriel) who the Prophet of Islam always mentioned was a staunch enemy of the Jews. Sayyiduna Omar replied, or Sayyiduna Omar Al-Farooq
“Whosoever is an enemy of Allah, His angels, Hlis Messengers, Jibril and Mikaa’il then Allah is an enemy of the disbelievers.” Exactly the same words that Sayyiduna Omar used in his reply to the Jew were later revealed in the Qur’an. (Surah Al-Bagarah) (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 84)
It is apparent from the verse that those who hold enmity with the angels and the prophets are disbelievers and enmity with them is in actuality enmity with the Lord Himself. In the religious rulings of previous nations, during the nights of the period in which fasting was compulsory, eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse were forbidden after Isha Salaah.
This ruling continued during the time of the final Messenger of Allah until Sayyiduna Omar one night had intercourse with his wife de él after Isha Salaah and due to remorse and shame, he presented himself before the Messenger. As he informed the Messenger of the events, the ayah was revealed in which Allah permitted the believers to have sexual intercourse with their wives during the nights of Ramadhan until dawn
‘It is lawful for you to go near your women in the nights of fasting.’ (Al-Qur’an Surah 2: 187)
A hypocrite whose name was Bishr had a dispute with a Jew and the Jew advised that they present the matter before Allah’s Messenger. The hypocrite was aware of the fact that the Messenger of Allah was extremely just and therefore he knew that the beloved of Allah would reach an unbiased conclusion. So in spite of claiming to be a believer, he advised that Ka’b Ibn Ashraf (a Jewish man) should be appointed as the arbitrator. The Jewish man with whom the dispute Occurred was not prepared to accept the judgment of Ka’b who was infamous 1or his corruption. The hypocrite was thus forced to present the matter before the Messenger of Allah. Coincidentally, the judgment of the Messenger was in Tavor of the Jew. The hypocrite continued to pressurize the Jew and took him Torcefully to Sayyiduna Omar. The Jew informed Sayyiduna Omar that arbitration had already occurred as the Messenger of Allah had passed a judgment but the hypocrite rejected the judgment of the Messenger and therefore brought the matter before Sayyiduna Omar. Sayyiduna Omar told them to wait as he would pass a judgment soon. Sayyiduna Omar entered his residence from him and after a few minutes came out with a sword and killed the hypocrite saying, “This is my judgment in regards to the one who rejects the judgment of Allah and His Messenger from him.” The following Ayah was revealed in regards to the events that occurred at that time,
‘Have turned your vision to those who declare that they believe in the revelations that have come to you and to those before you? Their wish is to resort together for judgment to the evil one though they were ordered to reject him. Satan’s wish is to lead them astray far away (from the truth). ‘ (Al-Qur’an Surah 4:60) (Tafseer Al-Jalaalayn wa Saawi)
It is stated in Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 84 that the Messenger of Allah informed that Sayyiduna Omar had killed the ‘Muslim’ who came to the Messenger for arbitration. The best of all creation answered that it was not possible for Sayyiduna Omar to kill any believer. Thereafter, Allah the Almighty revealed the ayah,
“But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith until they make you judge in all disputes between them and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions but accept them with the fullest conviction. ‘ (Al-Qur’an Surah 4:65)
(If the reader desires to learn more about the agreement of the Qur’an with Sayyiduna Omar’s opinion, it is advisable that he/she study the book, “Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa ‘)
Sayyiduna Omar’s Khilafah
Allamah Al-Waaqidi e narrates that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr invited Sayyiduna Nhhul Rahman Ibn Awf when his ailment became severe. Sayyiduna Abdul Dabman Ibn Awf was one of the ten companions who were given glad tidings Jannah in this world and therefore his opinion of him was respected. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr asked him about his opinion of Sayyiduna Omar. Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Awf replied that the actual greatness of Sayyiduna Omar even surpassed the nobility that had been seen by the companions.
Thereafter, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr invited Sayyiduna Othman Ibn Affan and asked him in regards to Sayyiduna Omar. Sayyiduna Othman answered that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was more aware of Sayyiduna Omar’s character than himself. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr insisted that nevertheless, he desired to hear something in regards to the views of Sayyiduna Othman in regards to Sayyiduna Omar. Sayyiduna Othman said that Sayyiduna Omar’s interior character was better than his exterior de él and no one amongst them was equal to him, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr then invited Sayyiduna Sa’eed Ibn Zaid, Sayyiduna O said Ibn Hudhair, and many other companions in order to assess their opinions of him. Sayyiduna O said to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, “The Lord knows that Sayyiduna Omar is the most virtuous companion after you as he is pleased with that which pleases the Lord and he detests that which the Lord detests. His inward state is even better than his outward state.
There is no one more capable than him in terms of being Khalifah. One of the companions said to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr that Abu Bakr was well aware of Sayyiduna Omar’s strictness and harshness. If he appointed him in spite of knowing these things, he would have to answer on the day of judgment.
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr said, “By Allah, you have made me fearful but I shall answer in the court. of the Lord that I appointed the best person amongst the Almighty’s people as the Khalifah. “He then told the questioner to inform everyone of his answer.
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, after completing all the deliberations, summoned Sayyiduna Othman and ordered him to write his testament. In the testament, he stated,” In the name of Allah, the Most merciful, the most compassionate. This is the testament written by Abu Bakr Ibn Quhafah during his final period when the time of departure
From this world was near and the afterlife in the lofty place was about to begin, The time in which this testament was written is a time when even the disbelievers begin to believe, a time when a disobedient servant receives the light of certainty and a liar begins to speak the truth.
O, people! I have appointed Omar Ibn Al-Khattab as the Khalifah, It is incumbent upon you to obey and follow his commands from him. To the best of my ability, I have attempted to avoid error in relation to Allah, His Messenger from him, the religion, and myself. I have attempted my level best to treat you with kindness. I am sure that he (i.e, Omar) shall act with justice and if he is just and fair he will have lived up to my expectations. however, if he neglects justice and fairness then every person shall be held accountable for his deeds. Or Muslims! I have pursued piety and virtue for you.
‘And now the unjust will soon know as to which side they will return.’ (Al- Qur’an Surah 26: 227)
The testament was then stamped and was taken by Sayyiduna Othman to everyone. The people were pleased with the announcement of the testament and therefore they pledged allegiance (bayy’ah) to Sayyiduna Omar, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr then invited Sayyiduna Omar and privately counseled and advised him. When Sayyiduna Omar left, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr prayed in the court of his Lord, “O Lord of the Worlds! Whatever I have done is for the prosperity and success of the Muslims. You are well aware that I attempted to avoid tribulation and strife through my action, I have utilized my discretion in order to reach this judgment. The one who was the most capable in my opinion was the one who I appointed. I found Omar to be the strongest amongst them and the most yearning for development in good deeds. O Lord of the Worlds! I am returning to you due to your decree. You are the owner and guardian of the people. Their control is under your Almighty power.
“O Allah, establish reformation and capability in these people. Allow Omar to be amongst the rightly guided caliphs (Khulafaa-ur-Raashidiin) and give his followers a good and successful life under his rule.”
An Objection and Its Rebuttal
An objection in regards to the appointment of Sayyiduna Omar as Khalifah is raised by the followers of the Raafidhi school of thought. The Rawaafidh claim that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr opposed the teachings and practices of the Messenger of Allah by appointing Sayyiduna Omar as his successor as the Messenger of Allah did not appoint anyone to be his Khalifah during his lifetime. This was in spite of the beloved of Allah being aware of who possessed the most capability in terms of leading the Muslims. Thus Sayyiduna Abu Bakr appointing Sayyiduna Omar as his successor during his own lifetime was against the way of the Prophet according to the Rawaafidh.
Three answers to this challenge were written by Shaykh Abdul Azeez Al- Muhaddith Ad-Dahlawi. The first answer is that the denial of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah appointing someone as his Khalifah during his lifetime is explicitly false as the Rawaafidh themselves believe that the best of all creation appointed Sayyiduna Ali as his Khalifah of him.
Thus when they believe that the Messenger of Allah appointed someone as his Khalifah of him during his lifetime of him then how can they condemn Sayyiduna Abu Bakr for appointing Omar and claim that this action was contrary to the way of the Prophet?
IF they have based their objection upon the belief of the Ahl-us-Sunnah wal- Sima ah then, in that case, they should be aware that the research scholars of Ahl-us- Sunnah believe that the beloved of Allah appointed Sayyiduna Abu Bakr as his successor in leading the Salaah and the Hajj, For the Companions, the appointment of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr as Khalifah in these matters was an obvious hint towards him being the successor of the Prophet as the Companions were ole to understand the signals and hints of the Messenger with relative case. onyyiduna Abu Bakr was aware that the Muslims of his time were not like the
Companions at the time of the Messenger. These Muslims, many of whom were new to Islam, were dependent upon clarification when dealing with such matters. This was the reason why Sayyiduna Abu Bakr felt the need to provide a written statement clarifying who was able to succeed him in the position of Khalifah.
The second answer to the objection of the Rawaafidh provided by Shaykh Abdul Azeez is that the Messenger of Allah possessed knowledge through the revelations that Abu Bakr would definitely be his successor to him and no one would dispute this fact. This is apparent in the authentic Ahaadeeth collections gathered by the traditional Muslims of Alhl-us-Sunnah Wal-Jama’ah. In one Hadeeth it is stated by Allah’s Messenger,
i.e. Allah and the Muslims would reject everyone except for Abu Bakr.
In another Hadeeth, he states,
“For indeed he is the Khalifah after me.”
It is narrated in Muslim that the Messenger of Allah desired to write a testament during his illness announcing that Abu Bakr was to be his successor of him and he invited Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and his son in order to fulfill this purpose. Then he stated that Allah and the people would not accept anyone apart from Abu Bakr therefore there was no need to write any statement in this regard. Thus he decided not to write anything. The situation was different for Sayyiduna Abu Bakr as he was not guided through revelation and he could not be sure with certainty that the people would accept Sayyiduna Omar as his successor to him. Yet it was his conviction that the most suitable person to succeed him was Sayyiduna Omar. Therefore, it was incumbent upon him to reveal this belief and also act according to it. His judgment of him was eventually proven correct as the manner in which Islam was dignified and empowered during the era of Sayyiduna Omar is one of the highlights of Islamic history.
The third answer provided by Shaykh Abdul Azeez is that although the Messenger of Allah didn’t himself appoint Khalifah, he never prevented anyone from doing so. The only way in which the appointment of Sayyiduna Omar by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr could be in violation of the teachings of Allah’s Messenger is if Allah’s Messenger had forbidden such an act. Also, if Sayyiduna Abu Bakr’s appointment of Sayyiduna Omar was an act that was against the teachings of the Messenger then Sayyiduna Ali’s appointment of Sayyiduna Hasan would also have to be condemned as being in opposition to the practices of the Messenger. (Tuhfah Ithnaa Ash’araiyyah)
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr realized that Islam would now spread around the world with many kingdoms coming under Islamic governance and many nations being conquered. Thus the Muslim population would become wealthier and as their wealth would increase, they would move further away from Islam. For this type of people, a strict leader like Sayyiduna Omar was needed who would not compromise with anyone when dealing with religious matters. Sayyiduna Sufyan Ath-Thauri states that whosoever considered Sayyiduna Ali e more worthy than Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Sayyiduna Omar of Khilafah then he has not only considered these two great companions as blameworthy but moreover he has criticized all the companions. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 83)
The Miracles of Sayyiduna Omar
Allamah Abu Na’eem mentions in his Dalaa’il a narration of Sayyiduna Omar Ibn Al Haarith in which it is stated that Sayyiduna Omar Ibn Al Khattab was delivering the Friday sermon when he suddenly stopped and said, –
“O Saariyah, the mountain! O Saariyah, the mountain! O Saariyah, the mountain! “
He commanded Saariyah to move towards the mountain in the interval that he had just established and then he continued with his lecture from her. Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Awf e inquired from Sayyiduna Omar after the Salaah as to why he had suddenly exclaimed words in which he was addressing Saariyah during the Khutbah. Sayyiduna Omar replied that he had been forced to do so as the situation had become potentially volatile.
“I witnessed the fact that the Muslims were fighting near the mountain and saw that they were being surrounded from all sides by the disbelievers. Thus I could not bear to allow this to continue and therefore I invoked Saariyah and advised him to move towards the mountain. “
A few days after this incident, Sayyiduna Saariyah sent a messenger with a letter in which it was written that the Muslims had been fighting on Friday and were extremely close to being defeated when they heard a voice at the exact time of Salaah-tul-Jumu ‘ah advising them to proceed towards the mountain. The Muslims immediately diverted towards the mountain and were eventually victorious as they killed the disbelievers. This was the way in which Allah bestowed victory upon the Muslims. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 86)
The battle that Sayyiduna Saariyah was fighting took place in Nahaawand a mountainous city in Azerbaijan. It was so far from Madinah that if one was to walk from Madinah to Nahaawand it would take more than a month as is mentioned in Haashiyah Ash’ah-tul-Lam’aat Vol.4 Page 601. Nahaawand was distant from Madinah but in spite of this, Sayyiduna Omar examined the course of events in Nahaawand as they unfolded and he saw that the disbelievers were surrounding the Muslims. Thereafter, I managed to warn the Muslims and enforce his strategy without using any technology. This was a great miracle of Sayyiduna Omar. This miracle has been extracted by Imam Al-Bayhaqi in a narration of Sayyiduna Ibn Omar and the narration can be found in Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 547.
Sayyiduna Ibn Omar narrates that Sayyiduna Omar once asked a man what his name was, the man answered ‘Jumrah’, a word which means sparkle in the Arabic language. Sayyiduna Omar then asked what his father’s name was and the man answered that his father’s name of him flame. Sayyiduna Omar then inquired as to which tribe he was part of and the man answered Hariqah ‘, a word that means fire. Sayyiduna Omar then questioned him in regards to the place in which he lived and was told that he lived in a place named ‘Hurray’ meaning heat. Sayyiduna Omar asked where Hurray was situated and was told wus told that Hurray was situated in an area named ‘Dlhaato Nataa’ (a place of flames.) Upon hearing all these answers, Sayyiduna Omar told the man,
inquire about his family as they had been burnt
Sayyiduna Omar advised him to inquire about his family as they had been burnt. When the man returned home he found his house by him burnt and it became apparent that his family by him had unfortunately died due to the fire. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 86)
Sayyiduna Abu-sh-Shaykh narrates from Sayyiduna Qais Ibn Hajjaaj that after Sayyiduna ‘Amr Ibn Al-Aas conquered Egypt, he was approached by the people on a specific day and they said to him,
O leader, there is a custom of our Nile without the practice of which it cannot flow.
They explained how the Nile was their source of income and their lives were dependent upon it but it became dry if they didn’t practice a custom in which they threw a virgin girl into the river Nile on the 11 days of every lunar month after beautifying her with the best types of clothes and jewelry. The parents of this Sn had no choice but to sacrifice their daughter as their livelihoods were at stake. Sayyiduna Amr Ibn Al-‘Aas was distressed upon hearing these words and said
“Indeed this practice can never be found in Islam.”
He described this practice as is and revealed that Islam’s aim was to rid the world of such superstitious acts.
The people returned to their dwellings and they refrained from this custom. After a few days, the river Nile became absolutely dry and the drought became so severe that the people began to consider migrating from Egypt. Upon assessing this situation, Sayyiduna ‘Amr Ibn Al-‘Aas wrote a letter to Sayyiduna Omar and informed him of the dire circumstances. Sayyiduna Omar replied with a letter in which he applauded the way Sayyiduna ‘Amr Ibn Al-‘Aas had halted the tradition and Sayyiduna Omar agreed that there was no room for such customs in the Islamic way of life.
Sayyiduna Omar informed Sayyiduna ‘Amr Ibn Al- “Aas that he had enclosed a..ote within the letter which he advised be placed in the river Nile. It was written upon the note,
In the note, Sayyiduna Omar addressed the Nile and said to it that if it used to flow on its own accord then it should no longer flow. If however, it used to flow by the command of Allah then Omar was now requesting his Lord who is the One (Al-Waahid) and is the Vanquisher (Al-Qahhaar) to make it flow. Sayyiduna Amr Ibn Al-‘Aas placed the note of Sayyiduna Omar in the river during the night and when the people of Egypt awoke in the morning they found that the water had now begun to flow from the Nile and the water was abundant as it had risen a substantial amount. After that time, the river Nile never became dry to such an extent again and the ignorant custom of the Egyptians finished. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 87)
During the Khilafah of Sayyiduna Omar, a foreign man came to Madinah and expressed his desire to meet Sayyiduna Omar. He was told that Sayyiduna Omar was sleeping in an uninhabited place. The man went out of the populated area in search of Sayyiduna Omar until he eventually found Sayyiduna Omar sleeping with his armor placed on the ground. The man thought to himself that Sayyiduna Omar was spreading strife around the world as his armies from him were causing panic in Iran and many other countries. The perfect opportunity had been found to kill Sayyiduna Omar and prevent further chaos as killing him in that uninhabited place was extremely easy. He drew out his sword from its sheath and as he was about to attack Sayyiduna Omar, two lions appeared and were coming towards that man.
The man screamed and his voice awoke Sayyiduna Omar. The man was remorseful and he told Sayyiduna Omar what had just occurred and thereafter, he accepted Islam. (Seerat-e-Khulafaa-e-Rashideen)
Imam Ar-Raazi writes a Hadeeth from Al-Bukhari when interpreting the ayah,
“Did you know that the members of the cave and of the forest’s side were of our wonderful sign? ‘ (Al-Qur’an Surah 18: 9).
In the Hadeeth, it is stated, –
“When I love a servant, I become his hearing with which he hears, his sight with which he sees, his hands with which he grasps and his feet with which he walks. “
(Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 197)
After narrating the aforementioned Hadeeth, Imam Ar-Raazi writes, He states that the one who is persistent in obeying the commands of Allah eventually reaches that lofty state about which Allah states that Allah becomes his hearing and his sight. When Allah’s sublime light becomes his hearing then he possesses the
ability to hear voices from far and near. As that light becomes the servant’s sight it allows the servant to view things from far as well as near. When the sublime light becomes his hands, the servant is able to deal conclusively with all matters regardless of whether they seem difficult or easy and regardless of whether they are dealt with from a distance or in proximity. (At-Tafseer Al-Kabeer Volume 5 Page
Sayyiduna Omar and King Jablah Ibn Al-Ayham
Some of the tribes from Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj had begun to dwell on a spring in Ash-Shaam named Ghassan and after invading a few nations, they established a kingdom there and were now addressed with the venerable title, ‘Kings of Ghassan. The first King of Ghassan was Jafnah whilst the last king was Jablah Ibn Al-Ayham. These people were previously idol worshipers but due to their alliance with the Roman Empire, they left their ancient beliefs and embraced Christianity. After the Quraysh of Makkah, it was these Ghasaani kings who were the most adamant to damage Islam and make it vanish from the face of the Earth. The Arab tribes were not able to challenge Islam as they were not well-equipped nor did they have an organized army. The Ghasaani kingdom was however very well organized and well-equipped and it was supported by the Emperor of Rome who was always prepared to defend it.
The King of Ghassan was considering the most effective way of wiping Islam off the map when the envoy of Allah’s Messenger Sayyiduna Shujaa ‘Ibn Wahb Al-As’adi arrived with a letter from Allah’s beloved At the time, the Emperor of Rome was present in Jerusalem in order to thank the Lord after completing his battle with the Persians. The Emperor was being hosted by the King and therefore Sayyiduna Shujaa ‘had to wait many days in order to be able to meet the King. Somehow, after a few days, Sayyiduna Shujaa ‘managed to enter the courtroom of the King to whom he gave the letter. In the letter it was written, I invite you towards the belief in Allah alone. Thus your kingdom shall continue, “The King was enraged upon reading these words and out of anger, exclaimed that it was not possible for anyone to deprive him of his kingdom. He announced that he would attack Madinah and told the envoy to inform the Messenger of this. Sayyiduna Shujaa states that when he informed the Messenger of these harsh words, the Messenger of Allah said, “ASl. Jy” – “His kingdom has been destroyed.”
It is stated in As-Seerah Al-Halbiyyah that the letter of the beloved of Allah was addressed to Harith Al-Ghasaani whilst other historians such as Ibn Hishaam have stated that the letter was intended for Jablah Ibn Al-Ayham. From the narration in At-Tibraani by Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas it is evident that this king was Jablah Ibn Al-Ayham.
This letter had caused a huge amount of anger as the kingdom of Ghasaan prepared for war with all its might. As a result of the enmity that the Ghasaanis held in their hearts, the intense battle of Mawtah occurred in which the Muslims suffered a huge loss as many elite commanders-in-chief were martyred.
When the news reached Madinah through the envoy that the King of Ghasaan had announced his intention of him to attack Madinah, the Muslims of Madinah were overwhelmed with anxiety. Although they were aware that the Messenger of Allah had proclaimed that the kingdom of Ghasaan would be destroyed, the Muslims were anxious about the amount of bloodshed that such an attack would cause and the number of lives that it would disrupt.
Although Jablah Ibn Al-Ayham had expressed explicit enmity with the Muslims, he was aware of the positive aspects of Islam within his heart. He had often heard about the wonders of this religion and many proofs and signs of our master Muhammad’s prophethood had been shown to him. Jablah was from the same tribe as the Ansaar of Madinah and thus they’re welcoming the Messenger of Allah to the blessed city of Madinah and their protection of the Messenger had created affection in his heart for Islam, The love for Islam that was concealed in the heart of Jablah continued to develop until Jablah wrote a letter to Sayyiduna Omar at the time of Sayyiduna Omar’s Khilafah in which he expressed his desire to visit Sayyiduna Omar and
enter into the folds of Islam. Sayyiduna Omar replied to him that he was most welcome and said, ”
” – “The rights that we possess you also possess and the factors that are obligatory upon us are also obligatory upon you,”
Jablah proceeded towards Madinah with 500 people from the tribes of ‘Ok and Ghasaan in his company. As they came closer to their destination, Jablah informed Sayyiduna Omar that he was about to arrive in Madinah and he ordered 200 of his soldiers to attire themselves in silk uniforms that were red in color. He also commanded that silk garments be placed on the horses along with golden collars around their necks. He placed his crown on his head and attached one of his family’s extraordinary assets to him, the Qurto Maariyah (an earring) to his crown. Maariyah was the grandmother of all the Ghasaani rulers and she had a pair of earrings in her possession that had two large pearls. Due to the beauty of these earrings and the substantial price of their pearls, they were viewed as being unique as it was said that no other kingdom in the world could boast of possessing such beautiful earrings. The kings of Ghassan saw these earrings as a sign of pride not only due to the rare qualities attributed to them but also due to sentimentality as they belonged to their beloved grandmother. These earrings were preserved with absolute care due to these factors. The reason why Jablah placed these earrings on his crown was in order to maintain that he was prepared to follow the Ameer-ul-Mu’mineen (the leader of the believers) and enter into the folds of Islam in spite of his huge status as a King and in spite of the freedom and independence that accompanied him due to his role as a king. Thus Jablah prepared to enter the city of Madinah with grandeur.
Sayyiduna Omar ordered the residents of Madinah to welcome Jablah with dignity and reverence. Happiness and excitement rapidly spread around Madinah and everyone waited in anticipation for the arrival of the royal procession. The Muslims were overjoyed by the fact that the religion that they had been ordered to propagate was thriving in such a manner that the great kings of the time were embracing it without any compulsion. The joy of the Muslims was greater when witnessing the king of Ghassan entering into Islam as he was the same man who they had previously been fearful of as it seemed at that time that an attack upon Madinah from Ghassan was imminent. Now they were seeing the same King enter the city of Madinah with his head of him bowed in submission. This was truly the decree of the Lord and a miracle of Islam.
king Jablah entered the city of Madinah with splendor in the midst of the huge crowd gathered to welcome him. Sayyiduna Omar 2 left no stone unturned in his hospitality towards the revered guests and Madinah was merry due to the arrival of these guests. Coincidentally, the Haji period was near and Sayyiduna Omar performed the Hajj every year. Sayyiduna Omar was accompanied by Jablah that year and they both departed towards Makkah for the commencement of the pilgrimage. An incident unfortunately occurred in Makkah that altered the situation. Jablah was performing the Tawaaf and due to his pride de él as a King, his loin-cloth (Izaar) was so loose that it was being dragged upon the ground. During the tawaaf, a man from the tribe of Fazaarah accidentally tripped over the Izaar and Jablah’s Izaar opened. Jablah was angered and he punched the man with such extreme force that the man’s nose became crooked.
The case arrived in the court of Khilafah and Sayyiduna Omar informed Jablah that there was no leniency in the Islamic court and therefore Jablah would have to somehow gain forgiveness from his victim otherwise he would have to face punishment. This unexpected judgment was unbearable for Jablah who was extremely arrogant due to his status. Sayyiduna Omar was aware that this judgment would upset Jablah but he remained firm upon justice and therefore he passed a fair ruling. Jablah exclaimed that he could not understand how a mere man could be given preference over a king like himself. Sayyiduna Omar replied that his leader and his subjects were equal in the eyes of Islamic legislation and the only basis for giving preference and virtue to one over another was piety.
“Undoubtedly, the most respected amongst you in the sight of Allah is he who is more pious. ‘ (Al-Qur’an Surah 49:13)
Jablah stated that he had thought that he would receive more respect and reverence once he entered into the folds of Islam but he was now feeling disgraced. Sayyiduna Omar replied that the legislation of Islam was to be adhered to by everyone regardless of their status. Sayyiduna Omar further informed him that there was no way in which this legislation could be opposed. Therefore, if he wanted to preserve his dignity, it was advisable for Jablah to reconcile with the man otherwise he 145
would have to face the consequences in a public courtroom. Jablah announced that he would rather return to Christianity than humble himself before normal human beings. Sayyiduna Omar informed him that he would then face the court for becoming an apostate – a crime that is punishable by death in Islamic legislature, Jablah sought permission to ponder over the issue for one night, and thus he was granted one night in which he could deliberate over the best course of action. Jablah fled from Makkah during that night along with his army and returned to Christianity when he reached Constantine.
This is an example of Sayyiduna Omar’s unequivocal justice as he remained firm on justice and fairness even though the judgment upset such an esteemed personality. When passing the judgment, Sayyiduna Omar was not affected by the possible reaction of the King but moreover, he was focused on his purpose him which was to be steadfast on the rules and regulations of Islam.
Some people claim that Sayyiduna Onar’s son, Abu Shahmah, consumed alcohol, and thereafter he had fornication whilst in the state of intoxication. These people claim that Sayyiduna Omar lashed him until he fell ill and died. It is stated in Majma’-ul-Bihaar that to claim that Abu Shahmah had consumed alcohol and committed fornication (zinaa) is incorrect as he actually drank nabeedh (a wine made of dates.) In regards to this type of wine, it is stated in ‘Umda-tur-Ri’aayah Haashiyah Sharh- ul-Wiqaayah Volume 1 Al-Majecdi Page 87,
-‘ It is that water from which wine is made using dates and from it, the sweetness of dates emerges. ‘ There are two types of this wine. The first type is the wine that is not intoxicating thus it is pure and it is Halaal (permissible.) As is mentioned on the same page of Sharh-ul-Wiqaayah as the previous reference, according to Imam Abu Hanifah, it is permissible to perform wudhu (ablution) with this water as long as its liquidity and flowage remain. The other type of this wine is intoxicating and this type is Haraam (forbidden) and it is impure. Sayyiduna Abu Shahmah RAV consumed the wine assuming that it was not intoxicating but it later became apparent that it was indeed intoxicating and therefore Sayyiduna Omar e held him accountable under the law due to this and punished him in accordance to justice.
Conditions for the Governors
It is narrated by Sayyiduna Ibn Thaabit that whenever Sayyiduna Omar would wish to appoint someone as his governor, he would place certain terms and conditions that the potential governor would have to agree to before commencing his duty. The first condition was that the governor would never ride Turkish horses. The second condition was that he would not eat luxurious foods usually eaten by those of high rank. Thirdly the governor would not wear thin and fancy clothes. Fourthly, the governor would never close his doors to those in need and he would not possess guards. Compliance with these conditions was absolutely necessary for the governors otherwise they would face harsh consequences. Sayyiduna Omar A became aware that the governor of Egypt, Ayaadh Ibn Ghanam wore silk clothes and also had guards.
Sayyiduna Omar ordered Sayyiduna Muhammad Ibn Maslamah to immediately summon Ayaadh regardless of the condition in which he was found (ie even if he was busy.) When Ayaadh arrived in the presence of Sayyiduna Omar, Sayyiduna Omar adorned him in a blanket and ordered him to take charge of a flock of goats as according to Sayyiduna Omar, Ayaadh didn’t possess the ability to be in charge of human beings. Due to Ayaadh disobeying Sayyiduna Omar’s strict code of conduct, he was demoted from being a governor to becoming a shephered Due to this rigidity, all the governors and ministers of the Islamic world were fearful of Sayyiduna Omar, Sayyiduna Omar used to say that there should not be excessive stríctness within a government leading it to become tyrannical and oppressive but on the other hand, there should not be excessive leniency deeming the government docile,
Imam Ash-Sha’bi states that whenever Sayyiduna Omar would appoint a ruler for a certain province, he would assess his wealth and his property and would thereafter create a list of the appointed leader’s savings. One day, Sayyiduna Omar A commanded that all his workers create a list of their belongings and deliver this list to him. Amongst these workers was a great companion from the ‘Ashrah Al-Mubasharah, Sayyiduna Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqaas. When Sayyiduna Omar assessed the list formed by Sayyiduna Sa’d, Sayyiduna Omar formed two parts of Sayyiduna Sa’d’s belongings. COne part remained in the possession of Sayyiduna Sa’d whilst the other was given to the Bait-ul-Maal (the treasury.) (Taareekh-ul- Khulafaa Page 96)
Strolls during the Night
During the night, the leader of the believers, Sayyiduna Omar &, would stroll around the suburbs of Madinah in order to remain informed in regard to the condition of his people. One night, Sayyiduna Omar was as usual roaming around the streets assessing the areas when he heard a woman reciting stanzas. A summary of the meaning of the verses can be portrayed thus; ‘It is the middle of the night and the stars are shining but I am awoken by the fact that I have no-one to play with me. I swear by my Lord that if I didn’t fear Allah’s torment, this bed would at this moment be shaking but I am fearful of that guardian (angel) who never tires of writing. ‘ Sayyiduna Omar approached the woman and asked her why she was reciting such verses. She replied that her husband was fighting in a war and she was reciting these verses due to her desire for her to once again be reunited with him. The next morning, Sayyiduna Omar sent a messenger to return the soldier from his duties. Sayyiduna Omar’s wife had passed away so therefore, he decided to discuss the matter with his beloved daughter, Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Hafsah. Sayyiduna Omar inquired from Sayyidah Hafsah, “How long can a woman manage to remain separated from her husband?” Sayyidah Hafsah bowed her head due to shame and did not provide an answer. Sayyiduna Omar informed her that the Lord does not shame in regards to the truth. With her hands, Sayyidah Hafsah informed him that approximately three to four months was the maximum period a woman could manage to remain separated from her spouse. Sayyiduna Omar announced, A soldier should not be held on duty for a period exceeding 4 months. “(Taareekh- ul-Khulafaa)
One night, Sayyiduna Omar was on his routine walk when he heard a woman saying,” Daughter, mix water with the milk. “The daughter replied,” Mother, did you not hear the command of the Khalifah who instructed that water not be mixed with milk? “The woman told her daughter that the Khalifah would not come to their house and check whether they obeyed his commands or not and therefore, she insisted that her daughter mixed water with milk. The daughter exclaimed, “I can not do such a thing whereby I promise in front of the Khalifah that I will obey him, whilst behind his back I disobey him. “Sayyiduna Omar, who was accompanied by Sayyiduna Saalim heard the entire conversation. Sayyiduna Omar ordered Sayyiduna Saalim to investigate the background of the residents of this house and inform him of it. Sayyiduna Saalim completed his investigation and informed Sayyiduna Omar that the young girl was an extremely pious widow and her mother de ella had no support. These two women had no male guardian. Sayyiduna Omar immediately summoned all his sons of him. He said to his sons, “Whomsoever amongst you desires to marry this young lady has my permission to do so.” Sayyiduna Aasim was prepared and therefore the marriage agreement (Nikah) of the young, pious woman took place with Sayyiduna Aasim. (‘Ashrah Mubasharah)
This event has been interpreted wrongly by certain scholars of misguided sects who do not follow any Madhhab (school of thought) as they criticize the Hanafi Madh’hab for stating that lineage and tribe should be taken into account when bringing two people together in matrimony. These ‘Ghair Muqallids’ say that this teaching of the Hanafi school of thought is negated by the fact that in spite of being from a tribe with great status, the son of Sayyiduna Omar married a woman whose tribe was not so respected.
This challenge was placed before a Mufti of the Hanafi Madh’hab by a Sunni scholar who had been convinced by a misguided individual that the issue of taking lineage
into consideration within the Hanafi Madh’hab is mistaken. The Mufti informed the scholar that the teachings of the Hanafi Madh’hab had been misunderstood, In the Hanafi school of thought, a man does not have to take his future wife’s lineage and tribe into consideration. Thus just like Sayyiduna Aasim, a man of noble lineage can marry a woman who is from a less noble tribe. The woman shall however take into consideration the tribe of her future husband from her. Within the Hanafi school of thought. a woman of noble lineage can not marry a man of less noble lineage without the blessing of her guardian de ella (wali.) This issue is manifest in the general Hanafi books.
The Sunni scholar accepted that he had been misguided due to the words of a certain misguided scholar of the ‘Ghair Muqallid’ group. The honorable Mufti advised the normal people of the Ummah as well as the scholars to be wary of misguided sects and refrain from their company as they can confuse those of less knowledge with relative ease as it is possible for them to mislead scholars who have studied the religion for many years. It is stated in the Hadeeth, – “Be wary from whom you take your religion ‘(Muslim, Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 37)
Therefore, one should not believe oneself to be immune from being misled by the misguided sects and one should take religion from the scholars of the traditional Islam that has continuously existed since the time of the companions – the Ahl-us- Sunnah Wal-Jama’ah.
It is Haraam (forbidden) to listen to the lectures of heretics. or go Salary from the treasury. Sayyiduna Omar carried out the duties of Khilafah throughout days and nights but he did not receive a significant salary. A few days after his appointment as Khalifah, Sayyiduna Omar gathered the people and discussed how it was no longer possible for him to continue in business due to the fact that he was occupied in the duties of the Caliphate. The amount of salary that would be given to Sayyiduna 150
Omar was discussed and many different opinions were expressed in this regard but Sayyiduna Ali’s opinion was preferred by Sayyiduna Omar as Sayyiduna Ali advised that an average salary be allocated that would allow the Khalifah and his Family to survive. Thus the wage that Sayyiduna Omar received was sufficient for the survival of himself and his family.
A few days had passed when a suggestion was made in a meeting in which Sayyiduna Ali was present that the salary of Sayyiduna Omar be increased as it would have been difficult for Sayyiduna Omar to manage with the amount that was being given to him at the time. Although the people were agreed that the wage should have been increased, not one of them dared to raise the issue in the presence of Sayyiduna Omar. They used Sayyidah Hafsah e as an intermediary and emphasized that she should not inform Sayyiduna Omar who the people were who she had suggested that his wage be increased.
When Sayyidah Hafsah raised the issue, Sayyiduna Omar was enraged and he immediately asked her for the names of the individuals who had made this suggestion. Sayyidah Hafsah said that it was more convenient to become aware of Sayyiduna Omar’s opinion first., Sayyiduna Omar told Sayyidah Hafsah that if he had become aware of the identities of the individuals he would have punished them. In spite of the people sensing the need for an increase in salary, Sayyiduna Omar was content with it and was angered with anyone who suggested a wage rise and he immediately rejected such suggestions.
During the reign of Sayyiduna Omar, there was a severe drought. Therefore, In order to supplicate for rainfall, Sayyiduna Omar performed Salaah-tul-Istisqaa with Sayyiduna Abbas who was the uncle of Allah’s beloved of him. Sayyiduna Ibn Aun states that Sayyiduna Omar held the hand of Sayyiduna Abbas and raised it saying
“O Allah, we ask you through the uncle of your prophet to rid us of the drought and to shower upon us the rain of mercy.” Sayyiduna Omar was returning after making this supplication when the rain began to pour and it continued to do so for many days. (Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 90)
From this, it is possible to realize that in order to seek from Allah through the sake of those who have a link to the Messenger of Allah is not shirk (polytheism) but moreover, it is the way of Sayyiduna Omar and thus a Sunnah because the Messenger of Allah stated, of ie The Muslims should follow Allah’s Messenger and the rightly guided Khulafaa (Caliphs) (Mishkaah-tul-Masaabeeh Page 30)
His Shahadah (martyrdom)
daily It is narrated in Al-Bukhari that Sayyiduna Omar prayed to his Lord,
” O Allah grant me martyrdom in your way and grant me death in the city of your Messenger. “
(Taareekh-ul-Khulafaa Page 90) Sayyiduna Mugheerah Ibn Shu’bah had a fire worshiping servant named Abu Loo ‘Lo’oh who came to Sayyiduna Omar M in order to complain that his master, Mugheerah, would gather four Dirham from him daily and it was the desire of this servant that Sayyiduna Omar order Sayyiduna Mugheerah to gather a lower amount. Sayyiduna Omar replied that Abu Lo0 Looh was a talented blacksmith and carpenter as well as an archer. Four dirhams daily was not an excessive amount for him. The servant was not satisfied with this answer and left with anger and frustration.
A few days later, Sayyiduna Omar called the servant and said to him, “You used to say that if you were told to, you would create such a grinding mill which would work from the air.” The servant altered his countenance and said, “I will prepare such a grinding mill for you that the people will always recollect it.” Sayyiduna Omar stated upon Abu Loo ‘Lo’oh’s departure, that this servant had just threatened to kill him. In spite of this, Sayyiduna Omar did not order any action to be carried out against the servant.
Abu Loo ‘Lo’oh had become determined to assassinate Sayyiduna Omar as he sharpened his dagger and wet it in poison. Sayyiduna Omar departed towards Masjid-un-Nabi for Fajr Salaah in the morning and it was usual for Sayyiduna Omar to order his followers from him to form the lines before commencing Salaah. Upon hearing this, Abu Loo ‘Lo’oh went to the closest line to Sayyiduna Omar and stabbed the shoulders and the side of Sayyiduna Omar which caused Sayyiduna Omar to collapse. Thereafter Abu Loo ‘Lo’oh attacked the other Musallis (those performing Salaah) wounding 13 of them. 6 of Sayyiduna Omar’s followers were killed by this slave. As Abu Loo ‘Lo’oh was injuring people, an Iraqi placed a cloth over him in which he became entangled. It was at this time that Abu Loo ‘Lo’oh killed himself.
The sun was about to rise and therefore, Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Awf é led a concise Salaah consisting of short chapters from the Holy Qur’an. Thereafter, he took Sayyiduna Omar to his home. Firstly, date wine to drink but it came out of his wounds from him, and then he was given milk but it also came out of his wounds.
Someone suggested that Sayyiduna Omar appoint his son Abdullah as the Khalifah. Sayyiduna Omar replied, “May Allah ruin you, you are giving me such mistaken advice? A person who does not know the manner in which he should divorce his wife from him, should I appoint him as the Khalifah?” Sayyiduna Omar selected a committee consisting of Sayyiduna Othman, Sayyiduna Ali, Sayyiduna Talhah, Sayyiduna Zubair, Sayyiduna Abdul Rahman Ibn Awf and Sayyiduna Sa’d. Sayyiduna Omar announced that one of these companions would be selected for Khilafah. Sayyiduna Omar, after having created the committee, summoned his son de él and told him to inform him of the amount of debt that Sayyiduna Omar owed to others.
After counting the amount, Sayyiduna Abdullah informed his father that the debt amounted to the sum of 86 thousand. Sayyiduna Omar advised his son de él to pay the debt from the savings of Sayyiduna Omar. If the savings didn’t suffice then he should ask the tribe Banu Adi and if their sum didn’t complete the total amount of debt then Abdullah should approach the Quraysh.
Sayyiduna Omar thereafter commanded Sayyiduna Abdullah e to go to Sayyidah A’ishah and inform her that Sayyiduna Omar desired to be buried beside her two friends of her and was seeking permission for this. Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn Omar approached Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Sayyidah A’ishah As-Siddeeqah and expressed his father’s desire for him. Sayyidah A’ishah stated that although she had reserved this place for herself, she was able to give preference to Sayyiduna Omar over herself. Upon hearing this, Sayyiduna Omar expressed gratitude in the court of the Almighty.
During the morning of the 26th of Dhul Hijjah 23 AH, Sayyiduna Omar was wounded and three days later at the age of 63, he passed away having fulfilled the duty as Khalifah for a period of 10 years, 6 months, and 4 days.
“Surely, we belong to Allah, and to Him is our return”
It is narrated by Sayyiduna Urwah Ibn Zubair that during the time of Khalifah Waleed Ibn Abdil Malik, a wall from the blessed Rawdhah collapsed. When people began the reconstruction (in 87 AH), a foot became apparent (during the digging of the foundation). Everyone began to panic as they thought this was the foot of the Prophet but Sayyiduna ‘Urwah Ibn Zubair stated,
i.e. this was not the foot of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) but moreover, it was the foot of Omar. (Al-Bukhari Volume 1 Page 186)
In spite of 64 years passing since his demise, the body of Sayyiduna Omar remained as it used to be and it did not in any way alter.