Beliefs Regarding Allah’s Divine Being & Divine Attributes


Belief: 1
Almighty Allah is ‘One’. He has no partners either in Being,
Attributes, Actions, Commands or in Names. Almighty Allah is
‘Waajib ul Wajood’. In other words, His existence is necessary and
His non-existence is Muhaal. Almighty Allah is Qadeem, in other
words, He has always existed. Another name for this is also Azali, in
other words He will continue to exist. This is also known as ‘Abadi’.
Allah Alone is worthy of being Worshipped.2
Belief: Almighty Allah is free from need (i.e. totally independent),
in other words Allah is neither dependant on anyone nor on
anything. Rather, the entire creation is dependent on Almighty

Belief: To comprehend Almighty Allah’s Zaat (Divine Self) by

1. The term Aqida means Belief, Faith or Creed.
2. It must be understood that Almighty Allah is One. In other words there is only one Allah. If
any person believes that his “god” has partners, then that god of his is not Allah. Allah is one
without any partners. Almighty Allah being Waajib ul Wajood means that Almighty Allah’s
existence is necessary. In other words, if someone claims for his (so-called) god to be nonexistent, then it is clear that is not Allah. Allah is “All Existing”. Muhaal means that which can
never occur, in other words another Allah is Muhaal, or the non existence of Allah is Muhaal.
When we say that Almighty Allah is Qadeem, we mean that Almighty Allah has not been
created. Allah always was and always will be. It is our Aqida (belief) that Allah alone is worthy
of worship.
3. When we say that Almighty Allah is free from need, it means that Almighty Allah is not in
need of anything from anyone. Almighty Allah does not depend on anything or anyone. In
other words, every single atom in the creation is dependent on the One Creator “ALLAH”.
There are those who think that Almighty Allah created Angels etc. to carry out certain duties,
so this means that Allah is dependent on them to do these chores (Allah forbid). This is totally
incorrect. Almighty Allah created the Angels as His servants and afforded them the
opportunity to serve Him as their Lord. It is the Angels and the entire creation that is
dependent on Allah and Allah is without doubt dependant on none.
Vol.1 pg.53
means of reason and intellect is absolutely impossible for that which
can be understood by means of reason, can be comprehended and
encompassed by the mind, and there is nothing that can enclose or
comprehend Allah’s Divine Self. However, through Almighty Allah’s
Doings (Af’aal) His Attributes can be recognised and, through His
Attributes, one is able to know about Almighty Allah’s Zaat.1
Belief: His Attributes are neither synonymous with His Divine
Being, nor are they separate from Him. His attributes can never be
separated in any way from His Divine Being, as they are essential for
His Divine Being and have no existence separate from Him.2

Belief: Just as His Being is Qadeem, Azali and Abadi, His Attributes
are also Qadeem, Azali and Abadi.3

1. The above mentioned Aqida explains that it is absolutely impossible for us to comprehend
Almighty Allah’s Being. The reason for this is that anything which can be understood can be
comprehended. For the purpose of understanding, an example without comparison is being
presented: If one thinks of a bird then one’s mind can comprehend a bird’s physique and one
will thus be able to imagine or picture a bird. The reason for this is because it is tangible and is
something which the mind can understand through reasoning and knowledge. Now, none can
imagine or picture Almighty Allah. Thus, the human mind can never comprehend or enclose
Almighty Allah’s Being as it is beyond the understanding of the creation. However, it has been
explained that through the Attributes of Allah, such as His Mercy and His Wrath etc. we are
able to know about Almighty Allah and His Divine commands.
2. This means that the Attributes of Allah are not synonymous to His Divine Being nor are they
separate from him. The reason that they are not regarded as being synonymous is because if
they were, then there would be no difference between the Divine Self and the Divine
Attributes. At the same time we should note that the Divine Attributes are also not separate
from His Divine Being, as in this case they would have to be regarded as separate entities, and
this is not the case.
3. It must be understood that Almighty Allah is Self Existent. Almighty Allah is All Existing” in
other words not created, always was and always will be. The terms Qadeem, Azali and Abadi
here mean uncreated, All Existing and Forever Existing.
Vol.1 pg.54
Belief: His Sifaat (Attributes) are neither a creation and nor are
they included as being under His Divine Control (Maqdoor).
Belief: With the exception of Almighty Allah’s Being (Zaat) and
Attributes (Sifaat), everything else is known as Haadith. ‘Haadith’
means that everything besides Allah’s Divine Being and Attributes
were inexistent, and only came into existence after being created by
Almighty Allah.1

Belief: One who says the Attributes of Allah to be a creation or
regards it as being ‘Haadith’ is a misguided and corrupt person.2
Belief: One who says anything in the universe to be Qadeem
(uncreated) or has a doubt regarding anything (in the universe)
being Haadith (created) is an unbeliever (kaafir).3

1. This means that with the exception of Allah’s Being and His Attributes, everything else is a
creation. In other words the Angels, Prophets, Jins, humans and everything else in the
universe only came into existence after being created by Allah. In other words, the entire
creation came into existence through Allah’s Divine command, and only Allah and His
Attributes are Qadeem, whereas everything else is Haadith (Created).
2. This is a very important Aqida. It clearly shows that any person who claims to believe in
Allah and then claims that any one of the Attributes of Almighty Allah has been created; then
such a person is misguided and corrupt. A corrupt person is known as Gumrah (misguided) and
Bud-Deen (irreligious). Sunni Muslims should never associate with misguided persons, as they
will also mislead us and plunge us into corruption.
3. Nothing in the entire universe can be regarded as being uncreated or self existent. It has
been clearly mentioned that with the exception of Allah’s Being and Attributes, everything
else is a creation. This belief clarifies that any person who claims that any creation is self
existent or even doubts that a creation is self existent, is a kaafir (unbeliever). If a person
accepts all the other beliefs regarding Almighty Allah but he doubts this one Aqida then such a
person is still regarded as an unbeliever.
Vol.1 pg.55
Belief: Neither is Allah, the father or son of anyone, and nor does
He have any wife. Anyone who claims that Allah is the father or son
of anyone, or says that Allah has a wife, is an unbeliever. Even, if one
considers this to be ‘Mumkin’ (a possibility), he is misguided and
Belief: Almighty Allah is ‘Hayy’. In other words, Allah is Self
Existing, and the lives of everyone and everything is in His Divine
Control. He gives life to whomsoever He wills and causes death
whenever He wills.
Belief: He is Qaadir (has Divine Power) over everything that is
possible (Mumkin). There is nothing possible that is out of his Power.

Belief: Allah is Free from anything which is ‘Muhaal’ (absolutely
impossible). It cannot be connected to His Qudrat because ‘Muhaal’
(absolutely impossible) refers to that which can never exist. If it
were to be regarded as ‘Maqdoor’, i.e. within His Divine Power, then
there would be a possibility of it existing and it would no longer be
regarded as something which is ‘Muhaal’. It can be better understood
through this, that another Allah is ‘Muhaal’, meaning that another
Allah can never exist. If this were within the Divine Power of Allah,
then it would be regarded as something that can come into
existence, and would thus no longer be regarded as ‘Muhaal’; not to
believe that it is ‘Muhaal’ (for another Allah to exist), is to reject the
4. The Christians refer to Esa  as the son of God. This is totally incorrect. Muslims too
believe in Esa  but we regard him as a Messenger of Allah. There are even some ignorant
Muslims (Allah Forbid) who in their discourses and in explaining the beauty and goodness of
children, refer to them as children of god. This is totally improper and words of kufr. Muslims
must abstain from making such detrimental statements.
Vol.1 pg.56
‘Wahdaniyat’ (Oneness) of Allah. Similarly, the destruction of Allah is
‘Muhaal’. it were to be within His Divine Power then it would have
been regarded as being a possibility, one who can come to an end
can never be Allah. It has thus been proven that to believe that a
‘Muhaal’ is within the Divine Power of Allah, is to reject the Divine
Oneness of Allah.
Belief: It is not necessary for every Maqdoor1
to be present or in
. However, it is necessary for it to be ‘Mumkin’, i.e. a
possibility, even though it may not be in existence.
Belief: Almighty Allah is All Splendid and Most Graceful. He is free
from all that which has deficiency or defect. In other words, it is
‘Muhaal’ for there to be any deficiency or defect in Allah. Moreover,
even that which neither has deficiency nor splendour is ‘Muhaal’ for
Allah. Allah is free from lies, deceit, distrust, tyranny, ignorance and
immodesty etc. These are all absolutely ‘Muhaal’ for Allah. To say
that He has Qudrat (Power) over lying, in the sense that he can tell a
lie, is to declare a Muhaal (absolutely impossible) to be Mumkin
(possible) and to imply that Almighty Allah has defect. This, in
reality is to reject Almighty Allah. To think that Almighty Allah’s
Qudrat (Divine Power) has a weakness if He does not have Power
over a Muhaal (absolutely impossible thing) is absolutely baseless. It
is not a shortage or weakness in the Qudrat of Allah. In reality, it is

1. Maqdoor refers to those things which are within Allah’s Power (Qudrat).

2. An example of this, is that if Allah Wills then He can create a Mountain of gold or make the
skies of rubies, but this is not so. It therefore does not mean that it has to be in existence. It is
His Will that He brings into existence whatever He Wills, so it does not mean that even though
these things are not present, they cannot exist. They are thus regarded as being ‘Mumkin’.
Vol.1 pg.57
the weakness and shortage of that Muhaal, that it is not worthy of
having connection with the Divine Qudrat of Allah.
Belief: Existence, Divine Power, Divine Hearing, Divine Seeing, Divine
Speech (Kalaam), Divine Knowledge and Divine Will are all His Self
Attributes. He does not depend on ears, eyes and tongue to hear, see
or speak, as these are all physical (i.e. belonging to a body) and Allah
is free from any physical form and body. He hears the faintest of
sounds and sees the smallest of things, even that which cannot be
seen under the lenses of a microscope. His seeing and hearing is not
only confined to this but He is all Seeing and All Hearing. We thus
say that Allah sees absolutely and hears absolutely.
Belief: Like all His other Attributes, His Kalaam (Words/ Speech) is
also Qadeem (uncreated). It is not ‘Haadith’ or a creation. Anyone
who says the Qur’an to be a creation has been termed a kaafir by our
Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ◌ and all the other Great Imams عنهم تعالى االله رضى .
The kufr (infidelity) of such a person is proven from the Sahaba-eKiraam عنهم تعالى االله رضى
Belief: His Kalaam (Divine Word) is free from sound. The Qur’an
Shareef that we recite with our tongues and which we read from
written scriptures is the uncreated Kalaam of Allah without any
sound. Our reading, writing and our voices are Haadith (creation). In
other words, our recitation is creation and that which we have
recited is Qadeem. Our writing is Haadith and that which we have
written is uncreated. Our hearing is a creation and that which we
have heard is uncreated. Our memorising is a creation and that
which we have memorised is uncreated.
Vol.1 pg.58
Belief: Almighty Allah’s Knowledge encircles (surrounds)
everything, whether it is complete or partial, or be it present,
possible or totally impossible. In other words He knew of everything
always (Azali), knows of everything currently and always knows
everything forever.
Things may change but His Knowledge does not change. He is aware
of the fears and feelings of the hearts. His knowledge is indeed
without limits.
Belief: He knows everything, be it manifest or hidden. Ilm-e-Zaati
(Divine Self-Knowledge) is His unique Attribute. Any person, who
tries to prove Ilm-e-Zaati, be it of manifest or hidden things, for any
but Allah, is an unbeliever.
Belief: He is the Creator of everything, be it beings or actions.
Everything that has been created has been created by Allah.
Belief: In reality, it is Allah who sends down sustenance. The
Angels etc. are only means and channels for delivering the
sustenance etc.

Belief: As per His Divine Knowledge, He has predestined all the
good and bad things. In other words, He ordained them as they were
to happen and as they were to be done. However, this does not mean
that we have to do it because He has written it but it means He has
written it, as we were to do. Thus, If Allah predestined bad for a
certain person, it is because that person was to do bad things.
If he was to do good things, Allah would have predestined good for
him, so His Knowledge and Writing (predestining) did not force or
Vol.1 pg.59
compel any person to do anything. The Holy Prophet has likened
those who reject Taqdeer to the fire worshippers in this nation.1
Belief: Fate is of 3 types:
(a) Mubram-e-Haqeeqi: refers to inevitable fate, which is not pending
in any regards to anything in the Knowledge of Allah, and it is not
(b) Mu’alaq Mahaz (pending) refers to that which is evidently pending
in the books of the Angels (and can be changed).
(c) Mu’alaq Shabi Ba Mubram refers to that which is not evidently
shown to be pending in the books of the Angels but it is in the
Knowledge of Allah, as a pending situation (i.e. it can be changed
through the Duas of Allah’s chosen servants etc).
Mubram-e-Haqeeqi (inevitable fate) cannot be changed. Occasionally,
even if the most favourite and blessed servants of Allah intend to
intercede in this regard; their thoughts are diverted away from such

1. Here the delicate issue of Taqdeer is being discussed. Many people commit sins and say that
it is because it is in their Taqdeer and because Allah has written it to be so. This is incorrect.
Allah with His Self Knowledge knew that they were going to sin, so He wrote that which they
were to do. It is not that His writing has forced them to sin. An Example without comparison is
being presented for the purpose of understanding. A five year old boy stands in front of a bus
and says to his brother, ‘I am going to pick up this bus.’ His brother says, ‘You will not pick it
up.’ The boy tries but he does not pick it up. The brother knew that the boy would not pick it
up. He said this based on that which he already knows, i.e. that his young brother does not
possess the required strength to lift the bus. Was the boy unable to pick up the bus because his
brother said that he would not be able to do so? Definitely not! Without comparison, it must be
said that Allah has knowledge of everything which we do and are to do. Allah recorded this
knowledge on the sacred Tablet and this is Taqdeer.
Vol.1 pg.60
issues. When the Angels descended over the nation of Hazrat
Sayyiduna Lut  with punishment, Hazrat Sayyiduna Ibrahim
his even as, merciful very was who على نبينا الكريم و عليه افضل الصلوٰة والتسليم Khaleelullah
name Ibrahim means ‘merciful father’, attempted to present the case
of these infidels in the Court of Allah and in doing so he even began
protesting in this regards (in a respectable manner) with Allah.
His Creator, Almighty Allah says

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“He began protesting with Us regarding the nation of Lut”
[Surah 11 Verse 74]
In this verse, the Qur’an has refuted those blasphemous persons who
claim that the Chosen servants of Allah have no authority in His
Exalted Court. In this verse, Almighty Allah refutes their false beliefs
by showing that verily they have been granted an exalted position to
be heard in His Court, for He says that Hazrat Ibrahim  began to
protest about the nation of Lut .
This has further been substantiated in a Hadith Shareef, wherein it
has been mentioned that on the night of Me’raj, Huzoor heard a
voice. It was the sound of someone conversing in a very loud and
high tone with Almighty Allah. Rasoolullah questioned Jibra’eel
 regarding who this was and he replied that it was Hazrat Musa .
Rasoolullah said, ‘Does he speak to his Creator in such a high
pitched voice?’ so Hazrat Jibra’eel  said, ‘His Creator knows well of
his intense nature.’
Vol.1 pg.61
When the verse
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“And undoubtedly, soon Your Creator will bless you so abundantly that you
will be pleased (fully satisfied)”
[Surah 93 Verse 5]
The Holy Prophet said
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‘If this be the case, then I will not be entirely pleased, if even one of my
Ummati remains in the fire of Hell.’
This is a very blessed and exalted excellence and is regarding those
before whom eminence, honour and dignity reaches its ultimate
.صلوات االله تعالٰى و سلامه عليهم
It has been mentioned in the Hadith Shareef regarding the
miscarried child of Muslim parents; that on the day of Qiyaamat such
a child will protest and demand the forgiveness of his parents from
Allah, just as a creditor demands what is due to him from the debtor.
He will demand until Almighty Allah will say
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7 ا السْق3ط المم

‘O child of miscarriage! O you who is demanding (quarrelling) with his Lord!
Take your parents by the hand and lead them into Jannat.’
Vol.1 pg.62
The above statements were simply presented in response to
objections but it is of great benefit to those with Imaan and is a
means of obliterating the wretchedness of the evil ones amongst the
The aim was to mention that the punishment that befell the people
of Lut  was Qaza-e-Mubram-e-Haqeeqi (i.e. inevitable fate). When
Ibrahim Khaleelullah والسلام وةٰالصل عليه protested in this regard, Allah
addressed him saying
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“O Ibrahim! Do not worry about this. Verily, The Divine Command of your
Creator has come.” [Surah 11 Verse 76]
Mu’alaq Mahaz (pending) is that which can be reached and alleviated
through the intercession and Duas of most Awliyah Allah. As for that
which is in a pending condition which is also known simply as
‘Mubram’ in the Register of the Angels, then this is only reached by
the chosen amongst the pious. It is with regards to this, that Huzoor
Ghaus-e-Azamؓ◌says, ‘I cause Qaza-e-Mubram to be alleviated.’
It has been mentioned in the Hadith Shareef as follows:
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‘Verily Dua wards off Qaza-e-Mubram’

Vol.1 pg.63
Law: The issues relating to fate (Taqdeer) cannot be understood by
ordinary minds, and delving and pondering too intensely in this
regard can lead to destruction. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique and Hazrat
Umar-e-Farouk عنهما تعالى االله رضى were even cautioned against discussing
this issue at length, so what about us? All that one needs to know is
that Almighty Allah did not create man like stones and other lifeless
object, but Allah has given man the independence to decide whether
he should do a certain thing or not. With this independence, man has
also been blessed with intelligence, so that he may differentiate
between what is right and wrong, and to judge what causes benefit
and what is harmful. He has also been blessed with all the necessary
supporting means so that he may fulfil whatever he needs to, and it
is for this reason that he is held accountable for his actions. For one
to think that he is totally powerless or completely powerful is to be
Law: To commit evil and sinful deeds and then attribute it to
Taqdeer (Fate) or to attribute it to the Will of Allah is extremely
wrongful. The law in this regard is that, if one performs any good, he
should attribute it as being from Allah, and if one commits any
wrongful or sinful act, it should be attributed to the evils and
mischief of ones desires (Nafs).
Belief: Almighty Allah is free from all confines of direction, place,
time, motion, idleness, form, shape and everything else which is
Haadith (created).
Belief: Divine Vision, i.e. to see Almighty Allah in ones worldly life
is only unique to the Holy Prophet Muhammad and in the
hereafter, it is not only possible but a reality for every Sunni Muslim.
As for the issue of seeing spiritually or in a dream then this was
Vol.1 pg.64
bestowed upon many of the Ambia-e-Kiraam السلام عليهم and also certain
Awliyah. Our Imam Azam Abu Hanifa ؓ◌ was blessed 100 times with
the Divine Vision of Allah in his dream.
Belief: How one will see Allah is something that cannot really be
explained or understood. In other words, one who sees will not be
able to describe how he saw. Whenever a person usually sees
anything or anyone, he usually either sees from distance or from
near, from above or below, from the left or from the right, or from
the front or from behind, but the Divine Vision of Allah is free from
all of this, as Allah is free from direction, form, shape and all such
things. The question then naturally arises as to how will the Divine
Vision be possible? The answer to this is that there is no room for
any ‘how’ and ‘why’ in regards to Allah. In Sha Allah, when we see
then we will give you an answer! The end result of all this is that the
intellect cannot reach Allah because the intellect can never reach
Allah. It is also Muhaal (absolutely impossible) for the vision (eyes)
to enclose (surround) Allah when seeing him.
Belief: Allah is absolutely and Divinely Supreme. He does as He
Wills, in which ever manner He Wills. None has any control or power
over Him, and there is none who can divert or stop Him from doing
what He Wills. He neither doses nor sleeps. He is the One who
watches over the entire creation. He neither becomes tired or fedup. He is the Sustainer of the entire universe. He is more
compassionate than one’s parents. He is the Most Compassionate.
His Mercy gives solace to broken hearts. All Excellence and
Greatness is for Him alone. He creates the appearance of a child in
the mother’s womb as He Wills. It is He, who is The Most Forgiving
and the Accepter of repentance. It is He who reveals His Divine
Wrath. His Divine Hold is the Most Powerful and none can be
Vol.1 pg.65
released without His Will, once He has seized them. If He wills, He
can cause something small to become vast and something vast to
become small. He exalts whom He Wills and lowers whom He Wills.
He may grant honour to one who is disgraced and shame to one who
is respected. He guides towards the righteous path whom He Wills
and diverts away from it whom He Wills. He grants His special
closeness to whomsoever He Wills, leaving whom He Wills to be
accursed. He grants as He Wills to whomsoever He wills and seizes as
He Wills from whomsoever He Wills. All which He does or will do is
‘Adl-o-Insaaf’ (Fair and Just). He is free from oppressing. He is the
Most Supreme, The Most Magnificent. He encircles everything and
there is nothing that can encircle him. To cause benefit and give loss
is in His Divine Control. He helps the oppressed and brings the
oppressors to justice. Nothing happens without His Divine Will. He is
pleased with the good and displeased with the bad. It is His Divine
Mercy that He does not command us to do things which are not
within our reach. It is not compulsory upon Allah to reward or
punish His servants, or to pity them or do what is best for them.
Allah is the Supreme Rub. He does as He Wills and commands
whatever He Wills. He has promised Paradise (Jannat) to the
believers and through His Justice, He has promised Hell (Jahanum) to
the unbelievers. His Promises never change. He has promised, that
with the exception of kufr (disbelief), He will forgive all major and
minor sins, whichever He Wills.
Belief: Whether we realise it or not, there are countless wisdoms in
His every doing. All His doings are free from any motive. A motive is
always inspired by a desire for some kind of benefit and Allah is free
from any such desire. His doings do not depend on any justification
or cause. Through His Wisdom, He has made one thing the means for
another. He has created eyes for seeing, ears to hear, fire to burn and
Vol.1 pg.66
water to quench thirst. If He Wills, eyes may hear, ears may see, fire
may quench thirst and water may burn. If He does not Will, then one
may have a thousand eyes and still not be able to see a mountain in
bright daylight. If He does not Will, there may be a million fires
raging but even a single blade of grass will not be tarnished. The fire
into which the unbelievers cast Hazrat Ibrahim  raged so intensely
that none could even go near it. He was placed into a catapult and
launched into the raging fire. When he was in the line of the fire,
Hazrat Jibra’eel Ameen والتسليم وةٰالصل عليه descended and said, ‘O Ibrahim! Do
you have any need?’ He replied, ‘I do, but not from you.’ (Hazrat)
Jibra’eel والتسليم وةٰالصل عليه said, ‘Then ask Him, from whom you have a need.’
He replied
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‘He knows my condition more than my clarification.’
Almighty Allah commanded
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“O Fire! Become cool and peaceful upon Ibrahim”
[Surah 21 Verse 69]
On hearing this command of Almighty Allah, all the fires burning on
earth became cool. Each thinking that possibly the command was for
it. The great scholars have mentioned that the fire became so cold,
that if the word ‘Salaama’ (with peace) had not been commanded,
then the fire would have become so cold, that it could have caused

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