Islam and Iman

1. Hadrat Umar ibn al-Khattab narrates One day we were sitting in the company of the Messenger of Allah when a man dressed in pure white clothes and his hair was extraordinarily black.

There were no signs of travel on him. None amongst us recognized him. At last, he sat with the Messenger of Allah.

He knelt before him, placed his palms on his thighs, and said:

“O Muhammad a! Inform me about Islam”.

The Messenger of Allah is said: Islam implies that you testify that there is no God but Allah and that (Hadrat) Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and you establish prayer, pay Zakat, observe the fast of Ramadan, and perform pilgrimage to the (House) if you are capable enough to bear the expense of the journey.

He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth. Umar ibn al-Khattab said: “It amazed us that he would put the question down and then he would himself verify the truth. He (the inquirer) said: Inform me about Iman (faith). He (the Holy Prophet) replied: That you affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Day of Judgment, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil.

He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth.


Commentary Hadrat Shaykh Muhaqqiq al-Shah ‘Abd al-Haq Muhaddith Al-Dehlwi al- Bukhari to states under the commentary of the excerpt of the above Hadith: Islâm is the name given to the outward ‘(apparent) actions (for example Prayer, Fasting, giving Zakah (alms) and so on), and Iman (Faith) is the name given to the ‘inward’ (more subtle) beliefs that one has affirmed with his heart.

Thus, it is more subtle than the ‘outward’ actions, as this is something that is related to the heart. (i.e. Believing in Allah and His Messenger with the depth of one’s heart, this is called Iman). The amalgamation of both Imam and Islam is given the name “Religion” (Din).

What has been mentioned in the books written on the subject of ‘Aqidah’ is that Islam and Imần are both one thing. This means that every Mu’min (true believer) is a Muslim, and every Muslim is a Mu’min, and one cannot eliminate any of these two elements from a Muslim. In reality, Islam is the result of Imam and is also its branch.

Scholars have written a lot on this topic. The conclusion of all this has already been mentioned. [Ashi’ah al-Lam’at- Vol. 1 Pg. 38] Then Hadrat Shaykh ‘Abd al-Haq Muhaddith-e-Dehlwi states under the commentary of the words: ly nl The reality of Imam is to believe in Allah and His Characteristics, and to affirm the faith that Allah is pure from any defects, imperfections and is free from occurrence (Huduth). [Ashi’ah al-Lam’at- Vol. 1 Pg. 40] Under the commentary of “His Messengers,” Shaykh ‘Abd al-Haq states: r Is incumbent upon each and every Muslim to affirm faith (have Iman) in all the Prophets, in such a manner that one does not differ between the Prophets in their core Prophethood.’ Furthermore, one should respect all the Prophets and believe that they are free from any sins, (major or minor) or imperfections, before their declaration of Prophethood or after.

This also is an essential element in belief. This is the sound position. What has been stated in the Holy Qur’an as regards to the ‘error’ of Prophet Adam and Allah’s reprimand shows the high status of Prophet Adam and his closeness to the Almighty Allah. Furthermore, it is Allah’s will, whoever He reprimands or punishes, even though the error committed by His slave may not have reached the level in which we may say that it was a ‘sin’. No one has the authority to utter anything.

There are criteria and a standard for respect which is necessary to behold, and this standard of respect is that when Allah has reprimanded some of His Prophets, who are the closest to Him, or when on some occasions the Prophets or the Messengers expressed humility, by which someone may assume a defect in these prophets, then it is not permissible for us that we ponder into this and say the words of reprimand or humility to these noble Prophets.

The synoptic belief in regards to the Holy Prophet is that everything, besides the status of Divinity (Uluhiyyat) and the characteristics (sifât) of Allah, is proven for the Holy Prophet 3, and the Holy Prophet is comprehensive of all human excellence and virtues and is the most perfect of the entire creation. [Ashi’ah al-Lam’at Vol. 1 Pg. 40]


2. Hadrat ‘Ubadah ibn al-Samit reported that: I heard the Messenger of Allah say, “Anyone who bears witness to the fact that there is no deity except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, then Allah shall make the Fire of Hell unlawful (Haram) upon that person. ”


Commentary It must be clearly understood that even after bearing witness to the oneness (tawhid) of Allah, The Almighty, and even after believing that the Holy Prophet a is the Messenger and Slave of Allah if any action or word is found, in such a person (who has borne witness to the tawhid and risalah), which are the words or actions of infidelity and blasphemy, then such a person, as accords to the rules of the Islamic Law (Shari’ah) shall come out of the folds of Islam (becomes a Kafir).

For example, if one prostrates in front of idols, or wears a cross-thread (zunnar) worn by Hindus, then these are the acts of infidelity (kufr), like the resemblance of the people of infidelity is also infidelity. people, then he is among them.

“The Messenger of Allah A has stated that,” Whoever imitates any group of


3. Hadrat Anas te reported that the Messenger of Allah has stated, “No one amongst you shall become a True Believer ( Mu’min) until I do not become more beloved to him than his parents, his children and all the rest of the people.”


Hadrat Shaykh Muhaqqiq ‘Abd al-Haq Muhaddith-e-Dehlwi states: ‘The sign of the faith of a true believer is that the Holy Prophet should be the most beloved and exalted to him more than anything or anyone else.

The meaning of the Holy Prophet being the most beloved is that one believes the fulfilling the rights of the Prophets to be more important and superior than fulfilling the rights of anything or anyone else. This is such that one accepts the religion brought by the Messenger of Allah, follows the sunnah (traditions) of the Holy Prophet 3, respects the Prophets, sacrifices everyone and everything, including one’s life, wealth, progeny, parents, relatives, and friends upon seeking the pleasure of the Beloved of Allah.

This means that one should be happy and content even if his life is lost, but one should never tolerate any right of the Prophet being neglected.

[Ashi’ah al-Lam’at Vol. 1 P. Imam Shaykh Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari states in his famous commentary on “Mishkat al-Masabih”, entitled “Mirqat al-Mafatih”: The meaning of having love of the Holy Prophet is not the ‘natural’ love as it is out of one’s control or choice (and man is not commanded of a thing which is not in his control) as Allah, The Almighty states: “and Allah does not burden any soul with more than what it can bear. ”

[Surah: 2 – ol. Baqarah, Verse: 286]

However, the meaning of love here is ‘reasonable’ or ʼrational ‘love, which obligates the precedence of that thing which the intellect gives priority and that which the intellect (‘ aql) demands, even though that thing may contradict the self-desire. For example, an ill person may desire medicine which tastes sour (this is ‘rational’ love).

Hence, this ill person shall ‘rationally’ incline towards this medicine without being forced to do so, as the intellect demands it (the medicine). Thus, one shall drink it as he believes or thinks that the treatment of his ailment is dependent on drinking such medicine, though it may not have a pleasant taste. So, when the Holy Prophet commands anyone to kill their non-Muslims parents or children or commands one to fight the infidels, (and he is certain that he will be martyred during the battle), then that person should without any hesitation obey the Prophet’s command; as rationally, through one’s intellect, he believes that success and triumph lies in obeying the commands of the Prophet of Allah.

The other meaning of love in this Hadith is the love that originates from belief. This means that this kind of love is generated in the hearts of the true believers, as a direct result of understanding the Prophet’s s excellence, virtues, his favors upon the whole of humanity, his affection on the entire creation, and so on.

The requirement of this love, which originates from belief, is that the devotee of the Messenger of Allah gives precedence and superiority of his beloved’s desires upon everything else even upon his own desires.

It is the Holy Prophet who is comprehensive of all the characteristics which make him the most beloved; such as good character, beauty, reverence, and his innumerable favors to all worlds.

He is comprehensive of these characteristics to such a degree that no one could or can reach this comprehensiveness. shows Hence, the Holy Prophet deserves to be the most beloved in the hearts of the believers, even more, beloved than their own souls. The Holy Prophet shall be an even more beloved Seliger reaching Allah. Furthermore, it is the Messenger of Allah who is most exalted the closest in the court of The Almighty Allah and this is why one should love him more than anything or anyone else.

[al-Mirqat sharh Mishkat Vol. 1 Pg. 641 if one comprehends the fact that he is sent by Allah, and he is the means for a Notes a) Almighty Allah is free from the dimensions of time and space. Therefore, to utter that Allah the Almighty is fixed within time and space is kufr (infidelity).

[It is also Haranı to refer to Allai: Most High as’ the One above. B) One should say The Almighty Allah, or Allah, The Most Exalted. To say Allah ‘Miya’ is forbidden. c) If one uses the word ‘old-aged’ for Allah, The Most Glorious, then that person comes out of the folds of Islam. d) If a person is not ill, or is quite old and has not yet passed away, then one should not utter that ‘Allah has forgotten him.’ e) One who commits acts of infidelity or utters words of infidelity, only to express amusement or hilarity, then that person too, shall come out of the folds of Islam, though he may say that I do not have these beliefs. This has been stated in al-Durr al-Mukhtar in the Chapter of the Apostate, and also in Radd al-Muhtar (Vol. 3 Pg. 293) with reference from al-Bahr al-Ra’iq. 9 lo disrespect any Prophet, to find any faults or defect in them or to be rude or insolent to these Prophets is kufr (infidelity).

To find a fault in ‘any verse of the Holy Qur’an or to disrespect any Verco to express amusement with any verse of the Holy Qur’an is also infidels h) If someone tells anyone to perform Salah (prayer), then the person replace “you’ve performed salaah … what benefit have you received ?!” or says; “performed a lot now I’m starting to feel hesitant” or says: “praying and mo praying is the same”, or says something similar in which there is disrespect to the salaah, then this is also kufr (infidelity). i) Someone was told to fast, he replied: “Such a person should fast who can’t find anything to eat” or says:

“When Allah has given us food to eat, then why should we die of hunger ?!” or something similar in which there is disrespect to fasting, and then all of this is infidelity. i) If someone was prevented from eating in the days of Ramadan (when fasting is obligatory), then on hearing this that person replied: “when there is no fear of Allah, then how can one fear people ?!” These are the words of infidelity. k) To disrespect or insult the Sacred Islamic knowledge and the scholars of Islam without any valid reason (according to the Sacred Islamic Law), such as having grudge against a scholar, solely for the fact that he is a scholar, then this is all kufr (infidelity). 1) To worship Diwali or other Hindu or non-Islamic festivals is infidelity, as this comes under the category of worshiping other than Allah. To promote non-Islamic religious festivals or ceremonies is also kufr (infidelity). Also, to buy things on the particular day in which such non-Islamic religious festivals are held, thinking that this is the day of the non-Islamic festivals, is also infidelity.

For example, in Diwali, to buy toys and sweets is infidelity, as buying on that day is merely nothing but to take part in the non-Islamic festival. Furthermore, to buy some gifts and to give these to the infidels on that day, (when the intention is to give respect to that day,) is also infidelity. Imam al-Shafi’i states: “Every type of knowledge except for knowledge which relates to the Holy Qur are the Ahadith (Prophetic Sayings) or the Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) is just a pastime hobby.” Jami ‘al-Ahadith -Vol.1, Pg. 168 with reference to al-Fatawa al-Ridawiyyah). Such as ram layla, janam ashtami, ram natvi (Hindu festivals) and so on.

(Bahar-e-Shari’at – Volume 9, Page 171 with the reference from al-Bahr al- [bi em)

To refuse or deny anything which is known imperatively and decisively to have been brought by the Messenger of Allah a is also infidelity according to the Islamic Law (Shari’ah).

For example, to wear a piece of cloth, in the same manner as worn by the dhimmi kuffar on their shoulders, or to tie a piece of cloth as worn by the Hindus (zunnar), is all kufr (infidelity), as this is falsifying the Messenger of Allah and the religion brought by him from Allah the Exalted.

A person who believes in the Messenger of Allah a and his message cannot in any circumstance commit such an act which goes against the teachings of the Messenger of Allah s. [al-Tafsir al-Baidawi Pg. n) To believe someone other than Allah as Wajib al-Wujud (existence to be necessary), like the belief of the fire worshipers, or to believe someone other than Allah to be worthy of worship, like the belief of the idol worshipers, then all of this is called shirk (associating partners to Allah, The One and Only) [Sharh al-‘Aqa’id al-Nasafiyyah pg. 61] Hadrat Shaykh ‘Abd al-Haq Muhaddith al-Dehlwi states: Shirk (polytheism) is of 3 types:

1. To believe someone other than Allah, to be Wajib-ul-Wujud (existence to be necessary, without the power of anyone else).

2. To believe someone other than Allah to be The Creator.

3. To worship someone other than Allah, or to believe someone other than Allah to be worthy of worship. [Ashi’ah al-Lam’at- Vol. 1-Pg. 72] * Non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic State (as people held in trust). – 99

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