How to Calculate the Sadaqa Al-Fitr | The rulings of Sadaqah al-Fitr
Sadaqa e Fitr
- Sadaqa e Fitr in the Light of Hadith 139
- Laws of Jurisprudence 140
IN THE LIGHT OF HADITH
Hadith 1: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abdullah ibn Umar ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�رthat Rasoolullah ﷺ instructed the payment of one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley as Zakaat-ul-Fitr on every Muslim slave or free man, male or female, young or old. In addition, He ﷺ commanded that it be paid before (the people) went out to offer (Eid) Namaaz.
Hadith 2: It is reported in Abu Dawud and Nasa’i that at the end of Ramadaan, Abdullah ibn Ab’bas ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر said, ‘Pay Sadaqa for your fasts, for this Sadaqa has been stipulated by Rasoolullah ﷺ, which is one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley or half Sa’ of wheat.’
Hadith 3: It is in Tirmizi Shareef from Amr bin Shu’aib who reported from his father, who in turn reported from his grandfather that Rasoolullah ﷺ sent a person into the neighbourhoods of Makkah and said, ‘Announce that the Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib (compulsory).’
Hadith 4: Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and Haakim have reported from Ibn Ab’bas ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر that Rasoolullah ﷺ stipulated the Zakaat-ul-Fitr, so that the fasts may be purified from shameless and vulgar utterances, and so that the needy (Miskeen) may be fed.
Hadith 5: Dailami, Khateeb and Ibn Asaakir report from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘The fasts of a servant remains suspended between the skies and the earth, until he does not discharge the Sadaqa e Fitr.’
LAWS OF JURISPRUDENCE
Law 1: Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib (compulsory). One has his entire life to discharge it. In other words, if he has not discharged it in the stipulated period, he should do so now (currently). If it is not discharged it will not fall away, and to pay it now (currently) does not mean it is Qaza, but it will still be regarded as Ada (on time), even though it is Masnun to do so before the Namaaz of Eid. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.98/99]
Law 2: Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib upon the person (i.e. upon an individual) and not upon his wealth, so if he dies, it will not be paid from his wealth. However, if his heirs wish to pay it as a favour of goodwill from their side, then they may do so. However, they are not obligated to do so. If the deceased made a Wasiyat that it should be paid, then it must be paid up from the one third of his wealth (from which he is permitted to make a Wasiyat), even if his heirs refuse to give permission for this. [Jauhira etc.]
Law 3: Sadaqa e Fitr becomes Waajib on the Day of Eid as soon as the Subho Saadiq (True Dawn) appears. Therefore, the person who died before morning (Subho Saadiq), or if a person was wealthy and became a Faqeer, or if an unbeliever became a Muslim after the first light appeared, or if a child was born, or if a person who was a Faqeer became wealthy, then it is not Waajib upon them. However, if he died after first light appeared, or if an unbeliever became a Muslim before first light appeared, or if a child was born, or if he was a Faqeer and became wealthy, then it is Waajib upon them. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.192]
Law 4: Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib upon every Free Muslim who is Saahib e Nisaab, whose Nisaab is over and above his Haajat-e-Asliyah. In this, there is no condition of Aaqil (Sanity), Baaligh (puberty) and Maal Al Naami (Productive Wealth). [Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.99]. Maal Al Naami and Haajat-e-Asliyah have already been discussed earlier. You may peruse its circumstances there.
Law 5: If a Na-Baaligh or Majnun (insane person) is Maalik-e-Nisaab (possessor of Nisaab) then Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib upon them. Their guardian should pay it from their wealth. If the guardian did not pay it and the Na-Baaligh became Baaligh, or if the insanity of the insane person has gone away, then they should pay it up personally. If he was not personally Maalik-e-Nisaab and the guardian did not pay it, then after becoming Baaligh and returning to his proper senses, he is not responsible for its payment. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.99]
Law 6: In order to pay Sadaqa e Fitr, it is also not a condition for the Maal (wealth/item) to remain intact. Even after the Maal is destroyed (lost), Sadaqa is still Waajib and it will not fall away (be waived); and this is opposite to the (ruling of) Zakaat and Ushr. Both these fall away after the Maal has been ruined (lost). [Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.100]
Law 7: Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib upon a male who is Maalik-e-Nisaab in his personal capacity, and on behalf of his minor children as well, if the minors are themselves not Maalik-e-Nisaab; and if they are Maalik-e-Nisaab, then the Sadaqa should be paid up from their wealth. In addition, the Sadaqa of a child who is not sane, even though he is Baaligh, if he is not Ghani, is the responsibility of his father, i.e. it is Waajib upon his father. However, if he is Ghani, then it must be paid from his wealth, be this if his insanity is Asli (i.e. he entered puberty in this state), or if it only occurred temporarily, in other words afterwards; then too the ruling for both is the same. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar, vol.1, pg.101]
Law 8: For Sadaqa e Fitr to become Waajib, fasting is not conditional. If one did not fast due to some valid reason, or due to travelling, or due to an illness, or old-age or (Allah Forbid) if he left out the fast without a valid reason, then in all the said cases, the Sadaqa e Fitr is still Waajib. [Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.101]
Law 9: If a female who has not as yet reached the age of puberty, but is capable to serve her husband, and has been given in Nikah, and she has been sent to the home of her husband as well; then in this case her Sadaqa e Fitr is not Waajib upon anyone. Neither is it Waajib upon her husband and nor is it Waajib upon her father; and if she is not capable of serving her husband, or if she has not been sent to the home of her husband as yet, then accordingly it is the responsibility of her father.
All this is only applicable if the female herself is not Maalik-e-Nisaab, otherwise in any case the Sadaqa e Fitr will be paid from her own wealth. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.101]
Law 10: If there is no father (i.e. if he is deceased), then the paternal grandfather is in place of the father. It is Waajib upon him to give the Sadaqa on behalf of his needy grandsons and grand-daughters. [Durr- e-Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.101]
Law 11: It is not Waajib upon the mother to pay Sadaqa on behalf of her minor children. [Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.101]
Law 12: Sadaqa e Fitr is Waajib upon the Maalik (Owner) on a servant (slave) which he has kept for his services, for the Mudab’bir1 and for the Umme Wulad2, even if the servant (slave) is debtor and is soaked in debt, and if the slave is pledged (i.e. a loan), and if the Maalik has over and above the Haajat-e-Asliyah by which he can pay off the debt, and he will still be Maalik-e-Nisaab, then the Sadaqa is also Waajib on the Master on his behalf as well. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.102; Alamgiri, vol.2, pg.192]
Law 13: The Sadaqa on a slave that is for business purpose is not Waajib upon the owner, even if his price (value) is not equal to the Nisaab. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.102]
1: Mudab’bir refers to slave released by his master, whereby he declares that he should only be free after his death.
2: Umme Walad: a female slave who gave birth to a child accepted by her master as his offspring
Law 14: If a slave was given on loan or the master entrusted him to someone (temporarily), then Fitrah is Waajib upon the Maalik. In addition, if he made a Man’nat saying that this slave will work for such and such person and after me his owner is such and such person, then the Fitrah is upon the Maalik and it is not the responsibility of the person in whose possession he is. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.102]
Law 15: The Maalik is not liable for the Fitrah of a slave who has fled and for a slave who has been captured by Harbis (hostile kufaar). Similarly, if someone has kidnapped (the slave) and the kidnapper refuses he has done so, and there are no witnesses to this, then Fitrah for him is also not Waajib. However, once he is found, then Fitrah for the past year should be paid on his behalf. If the Harbi became Maalik of the slave, then even after he is returned, there is no Fitrah for him. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.193; Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.103]
Law 16: There is neither Fitrah on a Mukatib1 and nor is the Maalik of the Mukatib liable for his Fitrah. Likewise, is the ruling regarding the Mukatib and slave of a Mazoon2. If the Mukatib is unable to fulfil the bond agreement then the Maalik is not liable for Fitrah for the past year. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.193]
Law 17: If a slave is owned jointly by two or more persons, then neither is liable for his Fitrah. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.193]
1: Mukatib is a slave who is under bond with his master to pay for his freedom in instalments 2: Mazoon is a licenced or privileged slave
Law 18: If a slave was sold and both the Baa’i (Seller) and Mushtari (buyer) have kept the choice of returning open, and the day of Eid ul Fitr arrived, and the time frame did not expire as yet, then his Fitrah is suspended. If the sale remained established, then the Fitrah is upon the Mushtari (buyer). [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.193]
Law 19: If the Mushtari rescinds due to Khiyar Al Ayb (Option of Defect) and/or Khiyar Al Ru’yah (Option of Physical Inspection), then if he had already taken ownership, the Fitrah is on the Mushtari, if not it is on the Baa’i. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.193]
Law 20: If a slave was sold, but the deal became void, and the Mushtari returned him after taking ownership, or if he took ownership and then freed him after Eid, then in this case it is on the Baa’i. In addition, if he took ownership before Eid and freed him after Eid, then the Mushtari is liable for the Fitrah. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.193]
Law 21: If the Maalik said to his slave, ‘You are free when the day of Eid comes,’ then the slave will be free on the day of Eid, and the Fitrah will be Waajib upon the Maalik. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.193]
Law 22: A person is not liable for the Fitrah of his wife and his children who are Aaqil and Baaligh, even if they are cripple, and even if he is responsible for their provisions. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.102, etc.]
Law 23: If a person paid the Fitrah of his wife and his Baaligh children without their permission, it will be counted as being discharged, on condition that the children are from his Ay’yal (i.e. his children whom he is providing for, i.e. his dependants). In other words, the provisions etc. of those children are his responsibility;
otherwise it will not be regarded as discharged if he does so, on behalf of his children without their permission. If the wife paid the Fitrah of her husband without his authority, it will not be discharged. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.193; Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.102/103, etc.]
Law 24: One is not liable for the Fitrah of his mother, father, paternal grandfather, paternal grandmother, and his Na-Baaligh brothers and for that of his other relatives; and he cannot pay it without their authority. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.193]
Law 25: The quantity of Sadaqa e Fitr is half Sa’ of wheat or its flour, or Sittu (parched drink). One Sa’ of dates, or raisins or barley, or its flour, or Sittu. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.103; Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.191]
Law 26: If wheat, barley, dates and raisins are given (as Fitrah), then this does not depend on the value (price). For example, if half a Sa’ of good quality barley, which is equal to the value of one Sa’ of barley, or quarter Sa’ pure wheat that in value is equivalent to half Sa’ of wheat, or half Sa’ dates that are equivalent in value to half Sa’ barley or half Sa’ wheat is given, then all of this is impermissible. Only that quantity will be counted, which has been given. He is still liable to pay the rest, and he should pay this. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.192]
Law 27: If a person gives half Sa’ of barley and quarter Sa’ wheat, or if he gave half Sa’ dates, it is regarded as permissible. [Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.192; Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.104]
Law 28: If wheat and barley are mixed together and the quantity of wheat is more, then half Sa’ should be given, otherwise one Sa’ must be given. [Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.104]
Law 29: Instead of giving wheat and barley, it is more virtuous to give its flour, and even more virtuous than this is to give its value (in cash). One may either give the value of the wheat or the value of the barley or the value of dates, and in a time of shortage, it is better to give the actual thing instead of giving its value. If one gave bad (i.e. inferior) quality barley or wheat, then he should pay the balance, which is the price difference of good quality wheat or barley. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.106]
Law 30: If one wishes to discharge his Fitrah with something other than the four stipulated items; such as rice, corn, millet or some other grain, or by way of something else, then he will have to consider the price. In other words, these items should be equivalent to the price of half Sa’ wheat or one Sa’ barley. If he gives bread, then even in this, the price will be considered, even if it is made from wheat or barley. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.104; Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.191/192]
Law 31: In-depth research and caution is in this that the weight of one Sa’ is equal to that of 351 rupees, and that of half Sa’ is equal to that of 175 rupees and 25 cents. [Fatawa Razviy’yah] (This refers to the amounts at that time. Today half and one Sa’ will be calculated as per present weights and prices as converted from the Sa’. A guide for this has been given in the beginning of this section).
Law 32: To pay the Fitrah in advance is absolutely permissible as long as that person is present, on whose behalf it is being paid. This is even if he pays it before Ramadaan, and if he was not a Maalik-e-Nisaab at the time when it was being paid (on his behalf), so in this case the Fitrah will be valid. However, it is more virtuous to pay it after Subho Saadiq on the day of Eid, and before going towards the Eid Gah. [Durr- e-Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.106; Alamgiri, vol.1, pg.192]
Law 33: It is best to give the Fitrah of one person to one Miskeen (needy person), and if it was split between a few people, then this is also permissible. Similarly, it is unanimously permissible to give one Miskeen the Fitrah of numerous people, even though they may all be mixed together. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.107]
Law 34: If a husband authorised (ordered) his wife to pay his Fitrah and she mixed the wheat which was the Fitrah of her husband with the wheat of her Fitrah and gave it to a Faqeer, and the husband had not commanded her to mix them together, then in this situation the wife’s Fitrah is discharged and the husband’s Fitrah is not discharged, unless the tradition of mixing them is common practice (i.e. the norm), then in this case the husband’s will also be discharged. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar, vol.2, pg.107]
Law 35: If the wife authorised the husband to give her Fitrah, and he mixed her wheat with his wheat, and gave it to the Faqeer, intending it for all, it is permissible. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol.3, pg.379]
Law 36: The recipients of Sadaqa e Fitr are the same as those who are the recipients of Zakaat. In other words, you may give Fitrah to those to whom you may give Zakaat, and you are not permitted to give Fitrah to those, to whom you are not permitted to give Zakaat, with the exception of an ‘Aamil’ (Zakaat Collector appointed by the Islamic Ruler), because he is permitted to accept Zakaat, but not Fitrah. [Durr- e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar, vol.1, pg.108]
Law 37: You may give Fitrah to the wife of your slave, even though you are liable for her provisions. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol.2, pg.108]
Begging & Asking For Financial Aid
- Who May Seek Financial Aid 150
- Hadith Pertaining to Beggars & Begging 151
WHO MAY SEEK FINANCIAL AID (I.E. BEG) AND WHO MAY NOT?
In this day and age, we are faced with this common problem where those who are fit enough to work and feed others have forsaken themselves, thinking that what need is there to work and make effort and face difficulties, when you are getting what you need without any effort! They go out begging in an impermissible manner and then fill their stomachs by way of begging.
There are some amongst them that, leave alone labouring, they even regard some small business effort as lowly and cheap, and they regard begging, which is in reality shameless and disgraceful for such people, to be deserving of respect.
There are many who have made begging their profession. Such people have thousands of rupees in their homes, and they deal in usury (interest) and even do farming, but they do not leave begging.
When they are told about this, they say, ‘It is our profession!’ Bravo Sir! Do you want us to leave our profession? Whereas for such people to beg is Haraam (forbidden), and it is impermissible for those who are aware of their situation, to give them anything.
Now take heed to few Ahadith (on the next page) and observe what our Beloved Rasool ﷺ says about such beggars.
HADITH PERTAINING TO BEGGARS & BEGGING
Hadith 1: It is reported in Bukhari and Muslim from Abdullah ibn Umar ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر that Rasoolullah ﷺ said that, man will continue begging until he comes forth on the day of Qiyaamat, without even a single piece of flesh on his face, in other words, he will come forth completely shameless.
Hadith 2-4: Abu Dawud, Tirmizi, Nasa’i and Ibn Hib’ban reported from Samurah bin Jundub ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Begging is a type of abrasion (injury), whereby a man begs and pulls at his face, so whosoever wishes to, he may leave this abrasion on his face and whosoever wishes to, should abstain from it. Unless, a man asks his right from the one in authority, or if he asks (begs) in a situation from which he has no other option (then it is permissible).’
Similar narrations have been narrated by Imam Ahmed from Abdullah ibn Umar ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ��ﻌﺎ�ياﷲ�ر and by Tabrani from Jaabir bin Abdullah ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ��ﻌﺎ�ياﷲ�ر.
Hadith 5: Baihaqi reported from Abdullah ibn Ab’bas ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘If a person begs from the people whereas he is not afflicted by starvation, or he does not have as many children whom he is not able to provide for, then on the day of Qiyaamat he will come forth with no flesh on his face. Additionally, Huzoor ﷺ said, ‘One who is not faced with starvation or he does not have as many children whom he is not able to provide for, yet he opens the door of begging, then Almighty Allah will open unto him the doors of starvation, from such a place which is not even in his heart.’
Hadith 6 & 7: Nasa’i reported from Aa’iz ibn Amr ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘If people only knew what is in begging, then none would go to anyone in order to beg.’
A similar narration is mentioned in Tabrani from Abdullah ibn Ab’bas
Hadith 8 & 9: Imam Ahmed reported with a Merit of it being Jayyid
i.e. a strong narration but not equal to Sahi), and Tabrani and Baz’zaz have reported from Imran bin Haseen ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘If a Ghani (well-to-do) person begs, on the day of Qiyaamat his face will be defective.’
The narration of Baz’zaz mentions that for a Ghani (well-to-do) person to beg is fire. If a little was given, then a little and if a lot was given, then a lot.
Similar narrations are narrated by Imam Ahmed and Baz’zaz from Thaubaan ؓ.
Hadith 10: Tabrani has reported in Kabeer and Ibn Khuzaimah has reported in his Sahih and Tirmizi and Baihaqi have reported from Habshi bin Junadah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘One who begs without reason, it is as if he is eating embers (of fire).’
Hadith 11: Muslim and Ibn Majah report from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘One who begs without reason is begging for embers, whether he asks for more or less.’
Hadith 12: Abu Dawud, Ibn Hib’ban and Ibn Khuzaimah report from Suhail bin Hanzaliya ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘A person who begs even though he has enough to suffice for him, such a person wants more fire.’ People asked, ‘What is the amount that a person should have, over and above which he is not permitted to beg?’ He ﷺ said, ‘A meal for the morning and night.’
Hadith 13: Ibn Hib’ban reported in his Sahih from Ameer ul Mo’mineen Farooq-e-Azam ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘One who asks from the people (i.e. begs) so that he may increase his wealth, then that is the intensely hot rock of Jahanum, so it is now up to him, whether he asks for less or whether he asks for more.’
Hadith 14 & 15: Imam Ahmed, Abu Ya’la and Baz’zaz have reported from Abdu Rahmaan ibn Auf ؓ and Tabrani reported in Sagheer from Ummul Mo’mineen Umme Salma ﻋﻨهﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Giving Sadaqa does not cause one’s wealth to diminish, and by forgiving your rights, Allah will increase the honour of a servant on the day of Qiyaamat, and a servant will not open the door of begging, but Allah will open upon him the door of dependency.’
Hadith 16: Muslim, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i report from Qubaysa bin Makhariq ؓ. He says, ‘Once I was liable for compensation. I went to Rasoolullah ﷺ and asked (for assistance), so He ﷺ said, ‘Wait here! When some amount of Sadaqa comes to me, I will give the command in your case.’ He ﷺ then said, ‘O Qubaysa! It is not Halaal to ask (i.e. beg) except in three things;
- If someone stands as a guarantor (i.e. if he stood as guarantor of Diyat, i.e. blood money on behalf of any nation, or if he stood as an arbitrator in an internal dispute and took guarantee for any wealth
involved in it), so in this case he is allowed to ask until such time that he receives that amount, and he should then abstain.
- If a person faced such a calamity which destroyed his wealth, then in this case he may ask help until he is able to have enough to survive comfortably.
- If someone is faced with starvation, and three intellects from his community bear testimony that such and such person is afflicted by starvation, so in this case it is Halaal for him to ask for help (i.e. to beg), until such time that he gets sufficient to survive
O Qubaysa! With the exception of these three things, it is Haraam to beg for anything else, for the one who begs (for other than this) is eating Haraam.’
Hadith 17 & 18: Imam Bukhari and Ibn Majah have reported from Zubair bin Aw’wam ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘If a person takes with him a rope and carries a bundle of wood on his back and then sells it, and Allah saves his face from the embarrassment of begging; then this is better than begging from the people, even if the people give him anything or not.’
A similar narration is reported by Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam Malik, Tirmizi and Nasa’i from Abu Hurairah ؓ.
Hadith 19: Imam Malik, Imam Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i reported from Abdullah ibn Umar ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�رthat Rasoolullah ﷺ was on the pulpit and was advising with regards to abstaining from (asking for) Sadaqa and financial Aid (begging). He ﷺ said, ‘The upper
hand is better than the lower hand. The upper hand is that of the giver and the lower hand is that of the beggar.’
Hadith 20: Imam Malik, Bukhari, Muslim Abu Dawud, Tirmizi and Nasa’i report from Abu Sa’eed Al Khudri ؓ that some people from the Ansaar asked financial aid from Rasoolullah ﷺ, so He ﷺ blessed them with it. They asked again, and Rasoolullah ﷺ blessed them with it again. Then again they asked and Rasoolullah ﷺ blessed them with it once more, until such time that the wealth which was with (in the care of) Rasoolullah ﷺ was finished. He ﷺ then said, ‘Whatever wealth I have with me, I will not hold it back from you, and those whom Allah will save, are those who wish to be saved from begging; and the one who wishes to become wealthy, Allah will make him wealthy, and for the one who wishes to be patient, Allah will grant him patience, and there is nothing greater than patience, and none has received a gift greater than patience.’
Hadith 21: Hazrat Ameer ul Mo’mineen Farooq-e-Azam ؓ states that greed is dependency, and despondency is richness. When a person becomes despondent over something, he does not bother about it (any longer).
Hadith 22: Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim report from Farooq-e- Azam ؓ that he says, ‘If Huzoor ﷺ would have given me (this financial aid), I would have said, give it to someone who is needier of it than me. He said, ‘Take it and make it yours, and spend it in goodness. In addition, take that wealth which comes to you without you having to ask for it, and which comes to you without greed, and do not chase behind that which does not come to you.’
Hadith 23: Abu Dawud reports from Anas ؓ that an Ansari presented himself before Nabi ﷺ and asked for some financial aid. He ﷺ said, ‘Do you have nothing in your home?’ He said, ‘There is. We have sackcloth, one portion of which we cover ourselves with and the other portion of which we lay. There is also a wooden cup which we use to drink water.’ He ﷺ said, ‘Bring both of them to me.’ He brought both of these. Rasoolullah ﷺ took it in His Blessed Hands and said, ‘Who will buy this?’ A person said, ‘I will buy it for one Dirham.’ He ﷺ said, ‘Who will give more than one dirham for it?’ He ﷺ mentioned this, two or three times, so another person said, ‘I will buy it for two Dirhams.’ He ﷺ handed over both these items to him and took the two dirhams. He ﷺ then handed the two dirhams over to the Ansari and said, ‘Purchase grain with one dirham and leave it at home, and with the other one dirham purchase a hatchet and bring it to me.’ He did so and brought it to Rasoolullah ﷺ. Rasoolullah ﷺ attached a handle to it with His Blessed Hands and then said, ‘Go and cut wood and sell it, and you should not be seen here for fifteen days (in other words, do not come here for 15 days). He went out and began cutting and selling the wood. Now, when he returned (after 15 days), he had with him ten Dirhams. With few dirhams he purchased fabric and with few he purchased grain (food). Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘This is better than that asking for financial aid, which will appear on your face as a blister on the day of Qiyaamat. To ask financial aid (beg) is not proper but for three people; one who becomes so dependent (in need) that it grounds him; or for a person who is liable for compensation which will cause him embarrassment (if not paid), or for a person who is guarantor for blood money, which will cause him harm (if not paid).’
Hadith 24 & 25: Abu Dawud and Tirmizi with the with the merit of a Sahih and Hasan narration, and Haakim with the benefit of merit of a sound narration, report from Abdullah bin Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘One who is afflicted by starvation and he mentioned it to the people, then his starvation will not be terminated. In addition, if he had asked from Allah, then Allah would soon allow him to become independent, by either giving him death swiftly, or allowing him to become wealthy swiftly.’
The narration of Tabrani is from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘One who is hungry and needy, but hid this from the people and asked from Allah, then it is the Divine Right of Allah that He will make abundant unto him the sustenance for one year.’
Some people who ask financial assistance (or beg) usually say, ‘Give for the sake of Allah! Give in Allah’s Name! Whereas to say this, has been strictly disallowed. One who does this has been mentioned to be accursed in one Hadith, and in one Hadith such people have been said to be the worst amongst the creation. If someone does ask in this manner, then if he is not asking for something bad, or the question itself is not offensive (in other words for such a person to seek financial aid, who is a solvent person, or a fit and healthy person who has the ability to earn), and one is able to fulfil the request of the person without any difficulty, then to fulfil it (i.e. give the assistance) is from good ethics, so that based on the apparent context of the Hadith, he too does not become deserving of the warning in the Hadith. If the one asking assistance is a professional beggar, then he should not be given anything. It should also be noted that one should not beg in the Masjid, especially by walking over the necks of the people on Friday, as to do this is Haraam. Some Ulama have mentioned that if you give one cent to a person begging in the Masjid,
you should give a further seventy cents Khayraat (for some goodness) as compensation for giving that one cent. Hazrat Maula Ali ﻳﻢ��ا وﺟہہ اﷲ م� saw a person begging on the day of Arafat on the plains of Arafat. He had him flogged and said, ‘On a day like this, and in such a place, you are begging from other than Allah!’
After examining these few Ahadith, one will realise that to seek financial aid (or beg without valid reason) is a very disgraceful act. One should never ask for financial assistance without real need, and even in the time of need one should take heed to those things which have been disallowed. If one is really in a situation where he is forced to seek financial assistance, then in such a case he should not exaggerate, wherein you do not leave the person without taking all that you want, as this too has been disallowed.
Nafil Sadaqaat (Optional Charity)
To spend in the way of Allah is a very blessed and virtuous action. What use is your wealth if it does not give you any real benefit? Only that is of benefit to you, which you ate, wore or spent for your hereafter, and not that which you hoarded and left for others. Take heed to few Ahadith concerning this, and try to act upon them. Allah is the One who gives Divine Guidance.
HADITH PERTAINING TO NAFIL CHARITY
Hadith 1: It is reported in Sahih Muslim Shareef from Abu Hurairah
ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘A servant says, my wealth! My wealth! Whereas he only benefits from three things in his wealth, that which he ate and finished; or that which he dressed in, and wore out, or that which you spent and stored for the hereafter, and with the exception of this (it is of no use to you), because you are to proceed (into the hereafter) and leave it to others.’
Hadith 2: Bukhari and Nasa’i report from Ibn Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Who is it from amongst you, who loves the wealth of his heirs more than his own wealth?’ The Sahaba said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ﷺ, there is none from amongst us whose wealth is not more beloved to him.’ He ﷺ said, ‘Your wealth is that, which you have already sent forth, and whatever you have left behind is the wealth of your heirs.’
Hadith 3: Imam Bukhari reports from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘If I had gold equivalent to (the mountain of) Uhad, it would not please me that it should remain with me for more than three nights, except an amount that I would keep for repaying any debts I may have.’
Hadith 4 & 5: It is reported in Sahih Muslim from him (i.e. Abu Hurairah ؓ) that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘There is not a day, wherein two Angels do not descend, and one from amongst them says, ‘O Allah! Recompense those who spend!,’ and the other (Angel) says, ‘O Allah! Ruin his wealth.’’
A similar narration has been narrated by Imam Ahmed, Ibn Hib’ban and Haakim from Abu Dardah ؓ.
Hadith 6: It is reported in Sahihain that Rasoolullah ﷺ said to Asma’ ﻋﻨهﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر ‘Spend and do not compute; otherwise, Allah will give you in limit, and do not stop (giving) or Allah will also with-hold (His Blessings) upon you. Spend (in the way of Allah) as much as you can afford.’
Hadith 7: It is reported in Sahihain from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Almighty Allah said, ‘O Ibn Adam! Spend (in My way) and I will spend (i.e. shower blessings) upon you.’’
Hadith 8: It is in Sahih Muslim and Sunan Tirmizi from Abu Umama ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘O Ibn Adam! To spend (in Allah’s way) from your surplus (funds) is best for you, and to with-hold it is harmful to you, and there is no censure on the one who with-holds out of necessity, and start with them, who are in your care.’
Hadith 9: It is reported in Sahihain from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘The example of a miser and of a person who gives Sadaqa are like those two people who are clad in metal armour and their hands are tied to their chest and neck. Therefore, when the person who gave Sadaqa, distributed the Sadaqa, his armour became lose (spacious), and when the miser intends to give Sadaqa then every
link (of the armour) holds tightly in its place, so that even if he wishes to spread, it will not allow him the space (to do so).’
Hadith 10: It is reported in Sahih Muslim from Jabir ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Abstain from oppression, because on the Day of Qiyaamat oppression will bring darkness and abstain from miserliness as miserliness destroyed the past nations. It is the same miserliness which drove them to shed blood (kill) and drove them to consider that which is Haraam to be Halaal.’
Hadith 11: It is reported in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurairah ؓ that a person asked, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ﷺ! Which Sadaqa is most rewarding (i.e. when is it best to give Sadaqa)?’ He ﷺ said, ’You should give Sadaqa (when you are) healthy and tight-fisted, and when you are troubled by the fear of poverty, and when you are hoping to become rich (meaning that to give Sadaqa when in this condition is best), and you must not delay (your Sadaqa to such length) that your soul has entered your throat (i.e. you are about to die), and then only do you say, Give this much to so and so, and this much to so and so, and this much is already in the possession of so and so (i.e. for the heirs).’
Hadith 12: It is in Sahihain from Abu Zarr ؓ. He says, ‘I presented myself before Rasoolullah ﷺ and Rasoolullah ﷺ was sitting in the shade of the Kaaba. On seeing me, He ﷺ said, ‘I swear an Oath by the Rub of the Kaaba! They are in loss!’ I said, ‘My parents be sacrificed upon you O Nabi ﷺ! Who are these people?’ Rasoolullah ﷺ said that, the very wealthy ones; except for those (amongst them) who do like this, and like this, and like this; to the front, to the back, to the right and to the left. In others words, those who spend in every instance and such people are very few.
Hadith 13: It is in Sunan Tirmizi from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘A generous man is close to Allah, close to Jannat, close to the people, and distant from hell-fire; and a miser is distant from Allah, distant from Jannat, distant from the people and close to hell-fire; and an ignorant generous man is more beloved to Allah, than a miserly worshipper.’
Hadith 14: It is in Sunan Abu Dawud from Abu Sa’eed Al Khudri ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘For a person to give one dirham Sadaqa in his life (i.e. in good health) is better than giving ten dirhams at the time of his death.’
Hadith 15: Imam Ahmed, Nasa’i, Daarimi and Tirmizi report from Abu Dardah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘A person who gives Sadaqa or frees (a slave) near the time of his death, is like that person, who only gives a gift when he has become well-to-do.’
Hadith 16: It is in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘A person was in the wilderness and a he heard a voice from the clouds saying to him, ‘Water the orchard of such and such person!’ The cloud moved to one corner and it rained over a rocky area, and all the water went into a trench. That person then followed the water. He then saw a person standing in his orchard, using a hoe to divert the water. He said, ‘O servant of Allah! What is your name?’ He said, Such and such name. It was the same name which he heard from the clouds. He said, ‘O servant of Allah! Why do you ask my name?’ He said, ‘I heard a voice from the cloud which rained down this water that it said to me using your name, Water the orchard of such and such person. I would like to know, what is it that you do (through which water is sent down by taking your name)?’ He answered, ‘From whatever is cultivated, I give on third of it away as
Khayraat (i.e. in goodness), and one third my family and I eat, and I keep one third for re-cultivation.’
Hadith 17: It is in Sahihain from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘There were three persons in Bani Isra’eel, one suffering from leprosy, the other bald-headed and the third one blind. Allah willed to test them. Therefore, He sent an Angel who came to the one who was suffering from leprosy and said, ‘What do you like most?’ He said, ‘Attractive colour and fine skin and the elimination of that which makes me detestable in the eyes of people.’ The Angel ran his hand over him and his illness was no more and he was given attractive colour and beautiful skin. The Angel again said, ‘Which materialistic item do you like most?’ He said, ‘Camels’, or he said, ‘The Cow (however, the narrator is doubtful about it, but from amongst the one suffering from leprosy and the one suffering from baldness one of them definitely said, The camel and the other said, The Cow).’ In addition, he was given a she-camel, in a progressive stage of pregnancy, and while giving it to him he said, ‘May Allah bless you in this.’ He then came to the bald-headed person and said, ‘What do you like most?’ He said, ‘Beautiful hair and removal of (this baldness) from me, due to which people dislike me.’ The Angel ran his hand over him, and his illness was gone, and he was given beautiful hair, and the Angel said (to him), ‘Which materialistic item do you like most?’ He said, ‘The Cow.’ Therefore, he was given a pregnant cow, and while giving it to him the Angel said, ‘May Allah bless you in this.’ He then came to the blind man and said, ‘What do you like most?’ He said, ‘(I prefer that) Allah should restore my eyesight so that I may be able to see the people.’ He ran his hand over him and Allah restored his eyesight, and the Angel then said, ‘Which materialistic item do you like most?’ He said, ‘a flock of goats.’ Therefore, he was given a pregnant goat and so the camel, the cow and the goat all gave birth to
young. It so happened, that for one, the entire valley flourished with camels and for the other one, the entire valley flourished with cows and for the third one, the entire valley flourished with goats. The Angel then approached the person who was (initially) suffering from leprosy. The Angel appeared to him in his (initial) form (i.e. in the form of a leper) and he said, ‘I am a poor man and I have run out of provisions on my journey, and there is no way that I can reach my destination except with the help of Allah and through your assistance. I beg of you in His Name Who blessed you with this attractive colour and fine skin, and granted you this wealth, that you may assist me with a camel which will take me to the end of my journey.’ He said, ‘I have too many responsibilities to fulfil.’ The Angel then said, ‘It seems as if I recognise you. Were you not suffering from leprosy and people hated you and were you not destitute and Allah blessed you with wealth?’ He said, ‘I have inherited this property from my forefathers one generation after the other.’ The Angel said, ‘If you are a liar, may Allah revert you to your previous condition!’ The Angel then approached the person who was initially bald-headed, in his initial form, and he said to him the same what he had said to him (i.e. to the leper) and he (the bald-headed man) gave him the same reply as he (the leper) had given him, so the Angel said, ‘If you are a liar, may Allah revert you to your previous condition.’ The Angel then approached the person who was previously blind, in his (initial) form and he said, ‘I am destitute and a wayfarer. I have run out of my provisions, and today I have no way to reach my destination but with the help of Allah and then with your assistance, and I beg of you in the Name of the One Who restored your eyesight that you may give me a goat, through which I may be able to reach my destination on this journey.’ He said, ‘I was blind and Allah returned to me my eyesight; take whatever you wish to and leave (for me) whatever you wish to. By Allah! I shall not stand in your way today for whatever you take in
the Name of Allah.’ The Angel said, ‘Keep with you whatever you have in your possession.’ The fact of the matter is that this was a test for the three of you. You have earned the pleasure of Allah, and they have earned the displeasure of Allah.’
Hadith 18: Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud and Tirmizi report from Umme Bajeed ﻋﻨهﺎ��ﻌﺎ�ياﷲ�ر wherein she says, ‘A Miskeen stands at my door and I feel ashamed that I have nothing in my home which I can give him.’ He ﷺ said, ‘Give him something, even if it is a burnt hoof.’
Hadith 19: Baihaqi reported in Dala’il un Nubuw’wat that a piece of meat was presented as a gift to Ummul Mo’mineen Umme Salma رﯽﺿاﷲ ﻋﻨهﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� and Rasoolullah ﷺ enjoyed meat. She asked the servant to keep it in the house, because Rasoolullah ﷺ will probably have it. She kept it in the cupboard. A beggar appeared at the door and said, ‘Give some Sadaqa and Allah will bless you with Barakah.’ The people (in the house) said, ‘Allah bless you with Barakah (i.e. this is said when there is nothing to give), so the beggar left.’ Rasoolullah ﷺ then arrived (at Umme Salma’s ﻋﻨهﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر) home and said, ‘Is there something to eat at your place?’ Ummul Mo’mineen ﻋﻨهﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر said, ‘Yes (there is)’, and she asked the servant to bring out the meat. She went to get it and found a piece of rock in the cupboard (instead of the meat). Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘As you had not given it to the beggar, the meat turned into (a piece of) rock.’
Hadith 20: Baihaqi reports in Sha’bul Imaan from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Generosity is a tree in Jannat, which is generous. If you held onto its branch, that branch will never leave you, until such time that you enter Jannat, and miserliness is a tree in Hell, which is miserly, and if you held on to its branch, that branch will not release him, until it enters him into Hell.’
Hadith 21: Razeen reported from Ali ؓ that Huzoor ﷺ said, ‘Be swift in (giving) Sadaqa. Misfortune (i.e. calamity) does not leap over Sadaqa.’
Hadith 22: It is in Sahihain from Abu Musa Ash’ari ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Sadaqa is upon every Muslim.’ People asked, ‘If we do not have anything?’ He ﷺ said, ‘Work with your hands, and benefit yourself and also give Sadaqa.’ They said, ‘If we do not have the means to do so, or do not?’ He ﷺ said, ‘He should then assist a person in need who is troubled.’ They said, ‘If he does not do this as well?’ He ﷺ said, ‘He should then command what is righteous.’ They said, ‘And if he is unable to do this as well?’ He ﷺ said, ‘Abstain from ‘Shar’ (creating disruption) as this (by itself) will be regarded as his Sadaqa.’’
Hadith 23: It is in Sahihain from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘To administer justice between two people is Sadaqa; to assist a man in mounting his beast (steed) or to assist him to load his luggage upon it is Sadaqa; and (to say) a good word is Sadaqa; and every step which on takes towards Namaaz is Sadaqa; and to remove some harmful thing from the road is Sadaqa.’
Hadith 24: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘If a person plants trees or grows an orchard, and if some person, bird or animal eats out of it, then this is Sadaqa for him.’
Hadith 25 & 26: Sunan Tirmizi reports from Abu Zarr ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘To smile in the presence of your brother is also Sadaqa, to command goodness is also Sadaqa, to forbid someone from wrong is also Sadaqa. To show the way to someone who has lost his
way is also Sadaqa, to assist one who has weak eyesight is also Sadaqa, to remove rocks, thorns and bones from the road is also Sadaqa. To pour water from your bucket into the bucket of your brother is also Sadaqa.’
A similar narration has been reported by Imam Ahmed and Tirmizi from Jaabir ؓ.
Hadith 27: It is in Sahihain from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘A branch of a tree was in the middle of the road, so a Muslim went forth and said, ‘I will remove this from the path of a Muslim, so that it may not harm him, so he (that person) was entered into Jannat.’’
Hadith 28: Abu Dawud and Tirmizi report from Abu Sa’eed Al Khudri ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Allah will dress that Muslim with the green robes of Jannat, who clothes an unclothed Muslim; and Allah will feed that Muslim with fruits, who feeds some food to a hungry Muslim; and Allah will quench a Muslim with Raheeq Al Makhtoom (the pure drink of Jannat, also known as the ‘Sealed Nectar’), who feeds water to another Muslim.’
Hadith 29: Imam Ahmed and Tirmizi report from Hazrat Ibn Ab’bas
ر�ي اﷲ �ﻌﺎ�� ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ
that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘If a Muslim clothes another
Muslim, then until such time that even one patch from that is still on that person, he (the giver) will be in the Divine Protection of Allah.’
Hadith 30 & 31: Tirmizi and Ibn Hib’ban reported from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Sadaqa extinguishes the Wrath of Allah, and it wards off a bad death.’
A similar narration is reported from Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique ؓ and other Sahaba e Kiraam يﻋﻨہﻢ�ﻌﺎ�ياﷲ�ر
Hadith 32: Tirmizi has reported with the merit of accuracy from Ummul Mo’mineen Siddiqa ﻋﻨهﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر that the people sacrificed a goat (so) Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘What is left of it?’ They said, ‘With the exception of the shoulder, nothing else is remaining.’ He ﷺ said, ‘All of it remains, except its shoulder.’
Hadith 33: Abu Dawud, Tirmizi, Nasa’i, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hib’ban report from Abu Zarr ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘There are three (types of) people whom Allah loves, and there are three (types of people) whom Allah dislikes. From those whom Allah loves is that person who comes to the people and asks (for some assistance) for the sake of Allah and not because of his relationship between him and them, but they do not give him (any assistance). Then one person from amongst them stayed behind and gave the person (what he needed) in secrecy, and none knew of this except Allah and the one whom he gave it to. (In addition) A nation who travel the entire night, until sleep becomes dearer to them than anything, so all of them lay down their heads (i.e. went to sleep). From amongst them, one person got up and started making Dua, and he recited the Ayats of Allah. (In addition) One person was on a (military) expedition, and he faced the enemy and they were overpowered. This person went forward, until he was killed or blessed with victory; and the three (persons) whom Almighty Allah dislikes, is an old man who commits adultery, a poor man who is arrogant, and a wealthy man who is unjust.’
Hadith 34: Tirmizi reported from Anas ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘When Almighty Allah created the earth, it began to tremble, so Allah created the mountains and placed them on it, so the earth became
stable. The Angels were astonished at the strength of the mountains. They said, ‘O Allah! Is there anything in your creation which is stronger than a mountain?’ Almighty Allah said, ‘Yes, Iron.’ They said, ‘Is there something stronger than iron?’ Almighty Allah said, ‘Yes, Fire.’ They said, ‘Is there something stronger (more powerful) than fire?’ Allah said, ‘Yes, water.’ They said, ‘Is there something more powerful than water?’ Allah said, ’Yes, the wind.’ They said, ‘Is there something more powerful than the wind?’ Almighty Allah said, ‘Yes, Ibn Adam (a man) who gives Sadaqa with his right hand and even hides this (deed) from his left hand.’
Hadith 35: Nasa’i reported from Abu Zarr ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘A Muslim who spends from all of his wealth on a pair of things, in the way of Allah, will be welcomed by the Gatekeepers of Jannat. Each of them will call him towards what he has (of reward).’ I said, ‘How will that be (i.e. how can he spend on a pair?’ He ﷺ said, ‘If he gives camels, he gives two camels, and if he gives cows, he gives two cows.’
Hadith 36: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah have reported from Muadh ibn Jabl ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Sadaqa removes errors (shortcomings) just as water extinguishes fire.’
Hadith 37: Imam Ahmed reports from few Sahaba ﻋﻨہﻢ ٰي �ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر that
Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘The shade of a Muslim on the Day of Qiyaamat is his Sadaqa.’
Hadith 38: It is reported in Sahih Bukhari from Abu Hurairah and Hakeem bin Hizaam ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘The best Sadaqa is that which is given by a wealthy person, (in other words,
after what is left from his expenses), and start with your dependants (i.e. give first to them and then to others).’
Hadith 39: It is reported in Sahihain from Abu Mas’ud ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Whatever a Muslim spends on his family with the intention of (attaining) reward, is also Sadaqa.’
Hadith 40: It is in Sahihain from Zainab the wife of Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر that she had someone ask Rasoolullah ﷺ, ‘Is it sufficient to give Sadaqa to your husband and to orphan children who are in your care?’ He ﷺ said, ‘There is a double reward in giving to them. One reward for kinship and one reward for the Sadaqa.’
Hadith 41: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, and Daarimi have reported from Sulayman bin Aamir ؓ that Rasool ﷺ said, ‘To give Sadaqa to a Miskeen (needy person) is only Sadaqa, and to give Sadaqa to your relative, is Sadqa and also kinship (i.e. kindness to relatives).’
Hadith 42: Imam Bukhari and Muslim have reported from Ummul Mo’mineen Siddiqa ﻋﻨهﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘If a woman gives away some of the food from her home, (with goodness) and not to spoil it, then there is reward in giving this, and the husband will attain the reward for earning, and even the fund manager will receive the same.’
It is fact that the women do give away (food), and the husband does not object to this, and this should be to the extent to which it is acceptable. For example, if she gives away one or two rotis, just as it is common in India (etc.). However, if the husband has forbidden her
from doing this, and it is not the practice (i.e. the norm) there, then in this case it is not permissible for her to give (the food) away.
It is (also) reported in Tirmizi from Abu Umama ؓ that Rasoolullah
ﷺ said in his ‘Farewell Sermon’ that this is very good wealth.
Hadith 43: It is in Sahihain from Abu Musa Ash’ari ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘A trustworthy Muslim store-man who fulfils the orders (of his employer) and pays in full what he has been asked to pay out, is regarded as one of two people who gave Sadaqa.’
Hadith 44: It is reported in Haakim and Tabrani Awsat from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘One morsel of bread and a handful of dates or anything which is similar to it by which a Miskeen is benefitted; then by virtue of this, Almighty Allah will enter three people into Jannat; one, is the head of the house who commanded this; second, is his wife who prepares it, and third is the servant who delivers it to the Miskeen.’ Rasoolullah ﷺ then said, ‘Praise be to Allah who did not even leave out our servants.’
Hadith 45: Ibn Majah reported from Ibn Abdullah ﻋﻨهﻤﺎ ��ﻌﺎ� اﷲ ي�ر. The narrator says that Rasoolullah ﷺ said in the Khutbah (Sermon), ‘O People! Turn towards Allah before you die, and before becoming occupied, strive towards performing good deeds, and increase the closeness between you and your Rub by giving Sadaqa openly and in secrecy, so you will be blessed with sustenance (abundantly), and you will be assisted, and your failures will be distanced.’
Hadith 46: It is in Sahihain from Adi bin Haatim ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Allah Almighty will converse with every one of you. There will be none between Him and Almighty Allah. When he looks towards
his right, he will see all that which he had done in the past, and then he will look towards his left, he will see that which he did in the past, then when he looks in front, he will see the fire in front of him. Therefore, save yourself from the fire, even if it is by giving a piece of date (in charity).’
Similar narrations are reported from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, Siddique e Akbar, Ummul Mo’mineen Siddiqa, Anas, Abu Hurairah, Abu Umama, Nu’man bin Bashir and other Sahaba e Kiraam يﻋﻨہﻢ�ﻌﺎ�ياﷲ�ر.
Hadith 47: Abu Ya’la reports from Jaabir ؓ and Tirmizi reports from Muadh ibn Jabl ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Sadaqa extinguishes errors (shortcomings), just as water extinguishes fire.’
Hadith 48: Imam Ahmed, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hib’ban and Haakim report from Uqba bin Aamir ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘On the Day of Qiyaamat, every person will be in the shade of his Sadaqa, until such time that the judgement is passed amongst the people.’
The narration of Tabrani also mentions that, Sadaqa expels the intense heat of the grave.
Hadith 49: Tabrani and Baihaqi report from Hasan Basri ؓ a Mursal narration, that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Almighty Allah says, ‘O Ibn Adam! Store some from your treasures with Me, and it will not burn, sink, or be stolen. I will give it to you in full, at a time when you will need it most.’’
Hadith 50 & 51: Imam Ahmed, Baz’zaz, Tabrani, Ibn Khuzaimah, Haakim and Baihaqi report from Buraidah ؓ and Baihaqi (also) reports from Abu Zarr ؓ that, ‘When a person takes out any Sadaqa, then it exits, tearing through the jaws of seventy shaitaans.’
Hadith 52: Tabrani reports from Amr bin Awf ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘The Sadaqa of a Muslim is a means for increase in his lifespan, and it wards off bad death, and due to it Almighty Allah distances (from that person) arrogance and pride.’
Hadith 53: Tabrani Kabeer reported from Rafi’ bin Khadij ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘Sadaqa closes off the doors of seventy evils.’
Hadith 54: Tirmizi, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hib’ban and Haakim report from Haarith Ash’ari ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said that, ‘Allah sent down Wahi (revelation) of five things upon Hazrat Yahya bin Hazrat Zakariyah م�وا ۃ�ا � that, he should personally practice good and command the Bani Isra’eel to do the same. It is mentioned that one of that was, he commanded you to give Sadaqa, and the parable of this is like a man who has been captured (imprisoned) by his enemies and they tied his hands to his neck, and brought him forth to be killed, (and he says) I can save myself (ransom myself) now with whatever little I have, and then he gives all of it to save his life.’
Hadith 55: Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hib’ban and Haakim report from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘One who amasses Haraam wealth and then gives from it in Sadaqa, then there is no reward in this for him, but rather there is sin.’
Hadith 56: Abu Dawud, Ibn Khuzaimah and Haakim report from Abu Hurairah ؓ that he said, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ﷺ! Which Sadaqa (charity) is most virtuous?’ Rasool’Allah ﷺ said, ‘(The Sadaqa of a) person who has minimal provisions, yet he makes effort to give Sadaqa.’’
Hadith 57: Nasa’i and Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hib’ban report from Abu Hurairah ؓ that Rasoolullah ﷺ said, ‘One dirham has superseded one hundred thousand dirhams.’ Someone asked, ‘Ya Rasool’Allah ﷺ! How did this happen?’ Rasool’Allah ﷺ said, ‘A person who has an abundance of wealth gave one hundred thousand dirhams in Sadaqa; and there is another person who has only two dirhams, and he gave from it one dirham in Sadaqa.’